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WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.
[Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.
Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
Lancet. 2001 Jan 6; 357(9249):1.The year 2000 marked a turning point in public perception of globalization and its effects on poorer nations. A key force behind this awareness-raising process was Jubilee 2000, an international movement advocating a debt-free start to the millennium for a billion people. In response, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund announced during the closing days of 2000 that debt relief for 22 countries had been approved. However, there is clearly still a long way to go, especially where the links between indebtedness and poor health are concerned. Although these efforts at debt relief that could improve public health for the most highly indebted developing countries are a step in the right direction, the countries concerned will still be paying on average 0.5 times more on remaining debt service than on health. Critics argue that access to such relief demands continued adherence to the structural adjustment model, which, since its inception in the early 1980s, has been undermining HIV/AIDS control. It is noted that the shift to export-oriented economics was leading to social changes such as increased mobility, migration, urbanization, and dislocation of family units, favoring HIV spread in the developing world. The solution, critics contend, is ending loans and channeling international assistance into grants for the poorest nations.
In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 375-89.This book chapter reports on the current state of international funding for AIDS programs in developing countries. The chapter opens by discussing the development assistance provided by the developed countries which are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and notes that development assistance is declining and that no published summaries on development assistance provide detailed information on the allocation of funds to HIV/AIDS programs. The data for this chapter, therefore, were drawn from an international financing survey conducted for this publication. The nature of the survey and complications involved in this type of data collection are then reviewed. Adequate survey responses were received from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and the US. The data are tabulated to display bilateral, multilateral, combined multi- and bilateral, and total funding. To reveal the trends exhibited by the major donors and to track funds donated to developing countries, tables present 1) total contributions to the Global AIDS Strategy for 1986-93 according to these funding channels, 2) multilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, 3) multi- and bilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, and 4) bilateral contributions for 1986-93. Pie charts show donor contributions by country and recipient countries. The increase in World Bank loans for HIV/AIDS prevention and care is covered as is the reduced supply of donors, increasing demand for development assistance, and evidence of donor fatigue. It is concluded that it will be critical for the UN AIDS Program to improve the financial accountability of both donor and recipient countries so that HIV/AIDS resources can be evaluated. Unless this occurs, such resources will likely continue to decline in proportion to needs.
Development. 1989; (4):77-82.Contemporary multilateral loan agreements to developing nations, unlike previous project and program aid, have often been contingent upon the effective implementation of structural adjustment programs of market liberalization and macroeconomic policy redirection. These programs herald such reform as necessary steps on the road to economic growth and development. Price decontrol and policy change may also, however, generate the more immediate and undesirable effects of exacerbated urban sector bias and plummeting income and quality of life in the general population. This paper considers the resultant changes expected in the political arena, product and input pricing, small business promotion and formation, export crop production, interest rate policy reform and financial market deregulation, exchange rate and public sector expenditure, and the labor market, and their effect upon women's economic position. The author notes, however, that women are not affected uniformly by these changes and sectoral disruptions, but that some women will suffer more than others. To develop policy to effectively meet the needs of these target groups, more subpopulation specificity is required. Approaches useful in identifying vulnerable women in particular societies are explored. Once identified, these women, especially those who head poor households, should be afforded protection against the turbulence and short- to medium-term economic decline associated with adjustment.
New York, New York, FPIA, 1985. 206 p.Summarizing the work of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) for the past 14 months, with emphasis on 1985, this document contains both regional and country reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. FPIA's strategy in Africa during 1985 was to focus on small, high-risk projects which call for extensive technical assistance. Project Assistance accounted for 48.8% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 47.5% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region. Special Grants accounted for slightly over 2.1% of the total assistance to Africa. In the Asia and Pacific Region, components of the FPIA strategy include: consolidate support and provide technical assistance to those agencies whose family planning services can be institutionalized and serve to complement and influence the goals, objectives, and program procedures of their governments' national family planning programs; problem solve with grantee agencies approaches to innovative delivery of temporary method services; provide training opportunities and technical assistance to project management and staff as well as to influential nonproject persons; and establish how FPIA commodities can complement supplies available to nongovernmental organizations through their government warehouses and bilateral supported community retail sales program. Project Assistance accounted for 47.1% of the total value of FPIA assistance in the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 50.8% and Special Grants slightly over 1% of total assistance to the region. In Latin America, FPIA's program goals respond to agency goals of promoting family planning services in areas of unmet need, upgrading existing family planning service models, and encouraging service continuation following the phase-out of FPIA support. Project Assistance accounted for 46.8%, Commodity Assistance 52.2%, and Special Grants less than 1% of total FPIA assistance to the region. The combined value of all types of assistance provided worldwide during 1985 totaled over $18 million: $7.2 million in direct support to 128 funded projects in 39 countries; and $10.1 million in commodities shipped to 218 institutions in 66 countries. Oral contraceptive and condom shipments alone were sufficient to supply 2.4 million contraceptors for 1 year.
INTERNATIONAL HEALTH NEWS. 1988 Feb; 9(2):7.At a panel on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the 3rd world in January 1988, experts focused on the profound problems generated by the AIDS pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3-5 million people in at least 127 countries now suffer from AIDS and that this figure will reach 10-30 million by 2000. The disease represents a highly debilitating force, both socially and economically, even in nations able to afford the approximately $6000/patient cost per year of treating AIDS patients. Panelists suggested that this could prove devastating for the poorer nations. WHO's AIDS program, launched in February 1987, focuses on the development and support of national AIDS control programs. It now operates in 93 countries, and 34 more countries are scheduled to join in 1988. WHO has assisted another 58 countries with shortterm AIDS action plans. The US Agency for International Development has developed a 2-pronged strategy for curbing the pandemic with prevention-emphasis programs operating under WHO.
[Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71,  p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
International Family Planning Perspectives. 1987 Mar; 13(1):25-6.<2% of development aid for developing countries is designated for population assistance. The best information source regarding population funding is the UN Fund for Population Activities. 1981 estimates place the total figure at US $400 million annually, distributed by a combination of multilateral agencies (49%) bilateral aid from developed country donors to developing country governments (29%) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs, 22%). 84% of the NGO funds also originated from developed country governments. Preliminary estimates for 1985 place the developed country government contribution at US $466 million. The US provided 62% of this Japan 10% and Norway 5%. 8 countries accounted for 95% of the aid. Tabulated data showing individual countries' contributions relative to their gross domestic products (GDPs) indicate a different order of contributors: Norway and Sweden far outdistance the rest (Norway's contribution relative to its GDP is 5 times greater than that of the US). The US contribution relative to its GDP has declined since 1972, with a slight upturn in 1985. According to the World Bank, funding would have to be double what it is now to meet demand; achieving a total fertility rate of 3.3 children/woman by the year 2,000 would mean an outlay of US $5.6 billion. For fertility to fall rapidly, spending would have to be US $7.6 billion.
Washington, D.C., Worldwatch Institute, 1986. 66 p. (Worldwatch Paper 70)This monograph focuses on developing electric power, the efficient use of electricity, new approaches in rural electrification, and decentralizing generators and institutions. Electric power systems, for a long time considered showpieces of development, now are central to some of the most serious problems 3rd world countries face. Many 3rd world utilities are so deeply in debt that international bailouts may be required to stave off bankruptcy. Financial probles, together with various technical difficulties, have resulted in a serious decline in the reliability of many 3rd world power systems, which may impede industrial growth. At this time the common presumption that developing countries will soon attain the reliable, economical electricity service taken for granted in industrial nations is in doubt. World Bank support of electricity systems grew from $85 million annually in the mid-1950s to $271 million in the mid-1960s, $1400 million in the early 1970s, and $1800 million in the early 1980s. The Bank's support of electrtic power projects has leveled off in recent years and shrunk in proportional terms as lending expanded in other areas. The general trend is toward greater centralization and governmental control of electric power systems. Commercial banks and government supported lending institutions prefer to deal with a strong central authority that has government financial backing yet is outside the day-to-day political process. The World Bank files reveal a consistent push for greater centralization and consolidation of authority whenever questions of the structure of a power system arise. Over the years, the World Bank has gradually becomes stricter in the institutional preconditions it sets for power loans. By the early 1980s, 3rd world countries were using 6 times as much electric power as they had 20 years earlier but compared with industrial nations electricity plays a relatively small role in 3rd world economies. In most developing nations electricity consumption is so low and the potential future uses so great that electricity use continues to expand even when the economy does not. Meeting projected growth in the demand for electricity services will be virtually impossible without substantial efficiency improvements. The cornerstone of any new program is improve efficiency is a pricing system that reflects the true cost of providing power. Rather than a blanket cure for the problems of village life, rural electrification is simply a tool that is appropriate in some cases. Electric cooperatives offer an approach to rural electrification that has worked well in some countries.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
[Unpublished] 1985. 47 p. (MCH/85.4)Despite improvements during the last decade in the health of women and children in developing countries, a great deal remains to be done. Barriers to continued progress take a number of forms, including financial and institutional. A study of existing data on international funding for maternal/child health and family planning (MCH/FP) shows the following: in 1983 the total official development assistance funding from developed countries totalled US$39.6 billion; 72% of these funds were dispersed through bilateral agencies, the rest through multilateral agencies (in 1983); nearly 6% of bilateral funds were allocated to the health sector (which includes population); analysis of 77 UNDP country reports indicates that about 1/10th of development funding is devoted to health and population; this proportion varies considerably by geographical region, being highest in Latin America and lowest in Africa; funding for MCH/FP programs constitutes about 1/15th of health and population funds reported by the UNDP; again, this proportion is lower in Africa than in Asia or Latin America, although this may be changing; in terms of women and children to be served, it appears that, on average, international funding for MCH/FP programs provides less than US$1 each; a survey of donor agencies indicates that most donors are willing to increase their funding of MCH/FP programs; when the donors were asked to name factors that would induce them to increase MCH/FP funds, the 2 most common answers were: more requests for funding, and , better evidence of unmet needs. Institutional barriers to optimal utilization of MCH/FP resources are discussed, including those often encountered in nongovernmental, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as in host countries and industry. Finally, a number of models for effective utilization of development funds are drawn from experience and developed. They include models of global, national, institutional and health services efforts. (author's)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1984. 153 p. (World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 688; Population and Development Series No. 13)The 5 chapters of this document, which traces the sources of assiastance for family planning and other population programs from developed countries and the flow of assistance through principal channel organizations to developing countries, focus on the following: population assistance flows; rationales for population assistance; the shape of population programs; the major channels; and the future of population assistance. Official development assistance for population comes primarily from the US, the Nordic countries, and more recently from the Federal Republic of Germany and Japan. Population assistance is channeled primarily through the UN Fund for Population Assistance (UNFPA), nongovernmental organizations, bilateral programs, and the World Bank. In discussing why developing countries seek and why developed countries provide population assistance, this paper concentrates on official views of how population growth and high fertility affect economic development, environment, maternal and child health, and women's welfare. It explains why some countries are reluctant to seek or provide more population assistance. The paper also analyzes what population assistance does to extend reliable and affordable family planning services and information and to improve understanding of population growth, its causes, and consequences. It summarizes current population policies and family planning programs in major regions of the 3rd world and considers the role of assistance. This paper identifies the comparative advantages of principal organizations providing population assistance, focusing on UNFPA, the major nongovernment organizarions, and the major bilateral programs. Finally, it discusses the evolution of "policy issues" affecting population assistance, particularly donors' concern for "demand" for family planning, cost effectiveness of family planning services, safety, and voluntarism.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984.  p.One form of international authority proposed by David Mitrany was that of an advisory and coordinating one where both the performance of a task and the means for its accomplishment remain mainly under national control. Mitrany's theoretical framework and its organizational analogue within the UN and national political arenas account for the emergence of a new UN population policy to cope with the rapid global population growth between 1960 and 1974. The most prestigious outcome of this policy was the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), whose centralized contributions came primarily from the US, Japanese, Swedish, and some other west European governments. Its aim is to assist governments in the development of national family planning programs and in related demographic and family planning training and research programs. UNFPA grants went to UN-system agencies, governments, and private organizations. Recipients include India, Pakistan, Egypt, Malaysia, Kenya, Nigeria and Mexico. A mew ideology emerged to support the concept of an interventionist policy to lower the birth rate. That ideology include the responsibility of each government for its own population; an emphasis on social framework for parental choices about family size; and a legitimate role for international assistance. How the UNFPA came into existence is a political process involving government delegations and officials, UN Secretarist staff, and representatives of selected religious and population transnational organizations. It is also a Laswellian social process model of 7 decision-outcomes marking the significant population events and interactions underlying the creation of UNFPA. 6 UN resolutions and 2 decisions by the Secretary-General denominate these decision outcomes. 2 analytic approaches account for these decision outcomes--the Parsonian concept of organized levels (institutional, managerial, and technical) in conjunction with the Laswellian concepts of centralization/decentralization and concentration/decontration, and the concept of coalitions, (legislative and programming). This expanded UN population policy process reveals the interconnectedness of elites and groups in a global network centered at UFPA. (author's modified)
Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.
New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
Responsiveness and innovation: the role of the UNFPA in a restructured United Nations economic and social programme, statement made at the Ad Hoc Committee on the Restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the United Nations System, New York, 20 February, 1976.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 15 p.Efforts to restructure the UN apparatus concerned with economic development are intended to make the international community more responsive to human problems. In the early 50's, the UN system responded to the need for aid for such population activities as census taking, data analysis, and training and research on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. However, for many years, most international assistance for population was supplied by voluntary humanitarian organizations. In 1971, the General Assembly (GA) recognized that the UNFPA had become a viable entity in the UN system and called upon the Fund to play a leading role in promoting population programs. In 1972, UNFPA was made a Fund of the GA and the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Program was designated as the Governing Council of UNFPA. The aims and purposes of the UNFPA are: 1) to build up, on an international basis, the knowledge and capacity to respond to national, regional, interregional, and global needs in the population and family planning fields, to promote coordination in planning and programming; and to cooperate with all concerned; 2) to promote awareness, in developed and developing countries, of the social, economic and environmental implications of national and international programs, and of the human rights aspects of family planning; 3) to extend aid to developing countries in dealing with population problems at their request; and 4) to play a leading role in the UN system by promoting Fund projects. The Fund is now supporting such projects as data collection, family health, population policy, and research and training. In determining future structure several factors should be considered: the subject matter, the allocations of resources, the delivery of project services and the time frame of the activity.
Assessments: the operational scene, statement made at the Second Committee of the 30th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 24 October 1975.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 4 p.This statement on the UNFPA details the operational activities for development. As of October, 1975, a total of US$239 million were pledged to UNFPA by 78 countries, 18.5% above that of 1974. Resources were allocated by UNFPA to 1350 projects in 106 countries. In addition to the 128 governments participating in these projects, all organizations concerned in the UN system are involved. A few of the major advances of the past year are outlined in this report, as well as several problems encountered by the UNFPA. 4 significant advances include: 1) the 1st conference on Population Activities in the Arab States--it unanimously adopted a series of resolutions marking the advent of a systematic approach to population matters throughout the Arab world; 2) a pronounced improvement in the rate of implementation of UNFPA projects throughout the world; 3) a 70% increase in UNFPA-supported projects which governments are executing; 4) compilation and publication by UNFPA of an inventory listing all population projects receiving international support in 1973 and 1974. The major problem facing the UNFPA is that of finance. Despite the increase in contributions, the requests of governments outstrip the Fund's resources. The resources gap produces a 2nd basic problem: when funds can no longer meet all requests, it becomes necessary to choose between requests. This forced establishment of priorities is very difficult.
El Demografico. 1975 Jan-Feb-Mar; (18):1.This article appeals to developed countries to aid third world countries in a state of emergency caused by inflation and by natural disasters. To help developing countries is seen both as a necessary action for the developed countries to defend their interests, and as a humanitarian act. Development in 3rd world countries is considered as a potentially powerful weapon in the hands of developed countries. It is stressed that every country should be free to develop its demographic politics but governments must recognize that population growth should not be left to chance. These are the principles of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, funded in 1969. The Fund forms part of the UN but it is politically independent. So far, the Fund has underestimated the demands of underdeveloped countries. It was calculated that for the period of 1974 to 1977, US$316 million would be needed for aid. Nevertheless, the year of World Population and other activities organized by the Fund have increased the demands to US$500 million for that period. This estimate it regarded as reasonable especially when compared to estimates made by the General Assembly in its last meeting for the New Economic Order.
Paris, Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1981. 106 p. (Development Centre Studies)This study examines various institutional aspects of the manner in which developing countries supported by aid agencies are identified, financed, and appraised, arguing that adequate domestic capacity for policy analysis, resource allocation, project selection and management is indispensable, yet donors, lenders, and recipients have not always succeeded in building the required institutions and systems. In part this is because the issue has been regarded as too sensitive. It is also partly because its long run importance has not been recognized. In addition it is argued that this is a major reason for the mutual disenchantment with aid. As the 1980 decade begins the situation is serious, for aid weariness has passed into a state of quiet crisis. Aid is not the issue it used to be when it was believed that a level of 1% of gross national product (GNP) would make a significant difference, and in particular when there was hope for a 2% level once the original commitment was fulfilled. World Bank estimates suggest that the average level of aid will at best reach 0.35% in the mid 1980s. In the developed nations disbelief in development assistance is spreading as a consequence of their own reduced growth and a lack of evidence of the effectiveness of aid except as humanitarian relief. The developing countries increasingly regard aid as a substitute, however important, for changes in the international system which could provide a sufficient condition for development. During the course of the study, 6 major questions are addressed: to what extent have project appraisal techniques been adopted by administrative units in developing countries, given the pressure to use them as a way to ensure a more efficient use of aid; to what extent do factors other than decision making techniques predetermine the outcome of investment appraisals; in which ways do project selection methods influence the development of the institutions where they are applied; does the present emphasis on poverty require development of new types of institutions and how far should project selection criteria be adapted to meet the multiple goals of rural development; how can external manpower, in the form of consultants, best be used to develop domestic institutions, and can external assistance be used to strengthen these institutions and hence project selection and what form might this take. The study is based on experience gained with the Swedish International Development Authority and during secondment in 1973-76 to the Development Centre of OECD for work on project analaysis in developing countries. 1 chapter describes the project selection process in the developing countries of Brazil, Nigeria, Peru, Tanzania, and Thailand. Subsequent chapters dealt with the role of bilateral and selected multilateral agencies and rural development planning.
Sources of population and family planning assistance. Fontes de assistencia populacional e de planejamento familiar.
Population Reports. Series J: Family Planning Programs. 1983 Jan-Feb; (26):J621-655.This document assesses the current status of population and family planning assistance throughout the world and provides brief sketches of the available sources including national governments, intergovernmental agencies such as the UNFPA and other UN entities, and nongovernmental funding, technical assistance, or funding and technical assistance organizations. The descriptions of aid-granting organizations describe their purposes, sources of funding, and activities, and give addresses where further information may be sought. At present about $100 million of the US $1 billion spent for family planning in developing countries each year comes from individuals paying for their own supplies and services, over $400 million is spent by national governments on their own programs, and about $450 million comes from developed country governments and private agencies. Over half of external assistance appears to be channeled through international agencies, and only a few countries provide a substantial proportion of aid bilaterally. In the past decade several governments, particularly in Asia, significantly increased the share of program costs they assumed themselves, and the most populous developing countries, China, India, and Indonesia, now contribute most of the funding for their own programs. Although at least 130 countries have provided population aid at some time, most is given by 12 industrialized countries. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is the largest single donor, but the US share of population assistance has declined to 50% of all assistance in 1981 from 60% in the early 1970s. Governments of Communist bloc countries have made only small contributions to international population assistance. Most governmental asistance is in cash grant form, but loans, grants in kind, and technical assistance are also provided. Private organizations give assistance primarily to other private organizations in developing countries, and have been major innovators in research, training and service delivery. Loan assistance is provided by the World Bank for combined health, nutrition, and population projects as well as poupulation education. Although international population assistance from donor governments and private organizations increased from about $165 million in 1971 to about $445 million in 1980, the increase in constant value was only about 10% after inflation. About 2/3 of international assistance goes to family planning services and contraceptives; other activities receiving support are basic data collection, research, and IEC. Greatly increased expenditures will be needed if population stability is to be achieved.
In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 373-4.The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), founded at an international conference in Bombay in 1952 by the family planning associations of 8 countries, is an independent world body that united national family planning associates in 100 countries. It has provided the voluntary leadership of the family planning movement for the past 30 years. It offers financial and technical assistance to family planning associates in developing countries, promotes the transfer of knowledge and experience among associations, and articulates the interests of the family planning movement at the global level. IPPF fosters the establishment of new associations and assists many small local groups to develop into national organizations. For the past few years the IPPF has operated with an annual international budget of about $50 million, most of which is distributed in grants to national family planning associations in developing countries. Associations in developed nations participate as members but depend on local support for funding. At this time IPPF is the 2nd largest nongovernmental organization in the world in terms of the global spread of its activities and the volume and scope of its operations. It is the leading nongovernmental organization involved in population and family planning efforts. IPPF is a professional organization and an international authority on the provision of family planning education and service.
In: Ross JA, ed. International encyclopedia of population. Vol. 1. New York, Free Press, 1982. 374-82.In the field of population, international assistance has a brief but spectacular history. Population activities covered by international assistance have been broadly classified by the UN organizations concerned into the following major subject areas: basic population data; population dynamics; population policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation; family planning; biomedical research; and communication and education. All of these areas involve a wide spectrum of data collection, training, research, communication, and operational activities. The UN began in the early 1950s to assist developing countries with census taking, training in demography, and studies on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. It also supported some action-oriented research activities. In 1958 Sweden became the 1st government to provide assistance to a developing country for family planning. The barriers that had handicapped the UN system in responding directly to the needs of developing nations for assistance in the population field, and particularly family planning, began to be lifted after the mid-1960s. Total international assistance for population activities amounted to only about $2 million in 1960 and $18 million in 1965. It increased to $125 million in 1970 and to an estimated net amount, excluding double counting, of around $450 million in 1979. The marked increase in population assistance is an indication of a growing commitment on the part of governments and international organizations to deal with the urgent population problems of the developing countries. More than 80 governments have at 1 time or another contributed to international population assistance, but the major shares come from fewer than 12 countries. The U.S., the largest contributor, spent around $182 million on population assistance in 1979, or 3.9% of its total development assistance. Sweden and Norway are the 2 largest donor governments after the U.S. By 1890, 121 developing countries, or nearly all, had received population assistance. Most of this number had received assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities. About 47 developing countries also received assistance from bilateral donors. Almost all donors make their contributions to population assistance in grants, but a few governments also make loans available. From the limited data available, it appears that more and more developing countries are carrying increasing shares of the costs of their population programs. Most donors of population assistance continue to give high priority to support for family planning activities designed to achieve fertility reduction, health, social welfare, or other socioeconomic development objectives.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented to the Atlantik-Brucke and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Auswartige Politik, Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of, April 18, 1983. 13 p.The author discusses how and why the international community must act to restore the momentum of economic development in the developing countries. The global recession has brought development to a stop and developing countries have suffered. A strategy is needed based on faith in the development process itself. Prior development efforts have proven that: 1) the developing countries' own efforts are the decisive factor in achieving success, 2) international development assistance is essential to the attainment of that success, and 3) the development process has been working. 14 of today's industrialized countries achieved during the period 1860-1960 an average annual per capita income growth rate of barely 2% and at the time of their entry into modern economic growth (1830-70) they were economically ahead of the rest of the world. Between 1955-80 many developing countries grew faster than the industrial ones with income rising faster than population in virtually all of them. In addition, industry, agriculture, educational systems, and health and nutrition programs flourished. However there were great fluctuations and not all nations grew as quickly as others; today development has slowed in all nations. Global recession has caused stagnation in international assistance, but funding cannot be halted until the economic situation improves. The key to poverty reduction lies in raising the productivity of the poor themselves; governments have to take measures to ensure that employment opportunities and earning power of the poor are not limited by sickness, insufficient food, and lack of education. The World Bank's practice has been to help increase the productivity of the poor, concentrating on rural and urban development, primary education, population, health and nutrition, small-scale industries and water supply. International private capital is essential to the development process as is the commercial banking system and protectionism must be resisted. The industrial world has everything to gain from economic growth in the developing world.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for Conference on Vasectomy, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Oct. 4-7, 1982. 21 p.Discusses the factors responsible for the decline of male acceptance of vasectomy over the past decade. The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) is a nonprofit organization working in the United States which helps funding of similar programs in other developed and developing countries. Reasons for the decline of vasectomy acceptance include the lack of attention paid to male sterilization in countries with family planning programs, the introduction of new technology for female sterilization, the introduction of new effective methods of contraception, and the exaggerated sexual role of the male and the need to protect his virility. The author reviews successful vasectomy programs and finds that, to be successful, a program should have strong leadership, a focussed design, clinic hours that would not interfere with patients' working schedules, and should pay attention to the needs of men, e.g., emphasizing that vasectomy does not cause impotency. The program should also have a community-based orientation, since all the services are not hospital-based and can be brought to the client's home, thereby emphasizing the minor nature of the surgery. AVS believes that vasectomy as a means of family planning can be effective. It is safe, inexpensive, simple, and deliverable. A special fund was allocated in 1983 to stimulate the development of several pilot and demonstration projects in a variety of countries.