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POPULI. 1989 Dec; 16(4):4-17.Official Development Assistance (ODA) for population activities rose from US $100 to over US $400 million between 1968-72, again rising to US $500 million in 1985, then declining, representing 2% in the 1970's shrinking to 1.12% by 1982 and rising to 1.3% of all ODA by the mid- 80's. Of the 17 major donor countries, the US provides more than 1/2 of all population assistance, followed by Japan (10%). ODA reaches recipient countries through 3 channels: 1) direct bilateral aid; 2) the UN organizations and 3) non-governmental organizations. Most donors channel their funds to countries through the UN; however, Australia, Canada, Finland, the United Kingdom, the US, Germany and New Zealand use bilateral and NGO channels. The different funding mechanisms used between regions are due to specific political and cultural sensitivities of the region and of individual donors. For example, the UN provided the largest amount of money to Africa in the former years, but NGO contributions and bilateral assistance has now caught up with the UN while NGO's were the original major contributors to Latin America with bilateral funding catching up. From 1982-88 Asia received over 1/2 of all assistance declining from 58 to 42% while assistance to Africa increased from 13 to 27%; Latin America's 20% remained the same and the Middle East and North Africa received less than 10%. The major determinant of a country's population assistance is its population size, with larger countries receiving more money than the smaller, and the age of a country's program. Efforts to measure the impact of assistance has been difficult. For example, aid to India has had modest achievements while China's significant reductions in fertility were achieved before any assistance was provided. In spite of the lack of statistical evidence demonstrating the effects over time to population activities, such assistance is necessary and effective.
New York, New York, Population Council, Center for Poplicy Studies, 1985 Aug. 42 p. (Center for Policy Studies Working Papers No. 113)This analysis of family planning program funding suggests that current funding levels may be inadequate to meet projected contraceptive and demographic goals. Expenditures on organized family planning in less developed countries (excluding China) totaled about US$1 billion in 1982--about $2/year/married woman of reproductive age. Cross-sectional analysis indicates that foreign support as a proportion of total expenditures decreases with program duration. Donor support to family planning in less developed countries has generally declined from levels in the late 1970s. This is attributable both to positive factors such as program success and increased domestic government support as well as requirements for better management of funds and the worldwide economic recession. Foreign assistance seems to have a catalytic effect on contraceptive use only when the absorptive capacity of family planning programs--their ability to make productive use of resources--is favorable. The lower the stage of economic development, the less visible is the impact of contraceptive use or fertility per investment dollar. On the other hand, resources that do not immediately yield returns in contraceptive use may be laying the foundation for later gains, making increased funding of family planning programs an economically justifiable investment. The World Bank has estimated that an additional US$1 billion in public spending would be required to fulfill the unmet need for contraception. To increase the contraceptive prevalence rate in developing countries to 58% (to achieve a total fertility rate of 3.3 children) in the year 2000 would require a public expenditure on population programs of US$5.6 billion, or an increase in real terms of 5%/year. Improved donor-host relations and coordination are important requirements for enhancing absorptive capacity and program performance. A growing willingness on the part of donors to allow countries to specify and run population projects has been noted.
[Unpublished] 1985. 47 p. (MCH/85.4)Despite improvements during the last decade in the health of women and children in developing countries, a great deal remains to be done. Barriers to continued progress take a number of forms, including financial and institutional. A study of existing data on international funding for maternal/child health and family planning (MCH/FP) shows the following: in 1983 the total official development assistance funding from developed countries totalled US$39.6 billion; 72% of these funds were dispersed through bilateral agencies, the rest through multilateral agencies (in 1983); nearly 6% of bilateral funds were allocated to the health sector (which includes population); analysis of 77 UNDP country reports indicates that about 1/10th of development funding is devoted to health and population; this proportion varies considerably by geographical region, being highest in Latin America and lowest in Africa; funding for MCH/FP programs constitutes about 1/15th of health and population funds reported by the UNDP; again, this proportion is lower in Africa than in Asia or Latin America, although this may be changing; in terms of women and children to be served, it appears that, on average, international funding for MCH/FP programs provides less than US$1 each; a survey of donor agencies indicates that most donors are willing to increase their funding of MCH/FP programs; when the donors were asked to name factors that would induce them to increase MCH/FP funds, the 2 most common answers were: more requests for funding, and , better evidence of unmet needs. Institutional barriers to optimal utilization of MCH/FP resources are discussed, including those often encountered in nongovernmental, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as in host countries and industry. Finally, a number of models for effective utilization of development funds are drawn from experience and developed. They include models of global, national, institutional and health services efforts. (author's)
Report to ECOSOC on the work of the UNFPA, statement made to the Economic and Social Council at its Second Regular Session of 1982, United Nations, Geneva, 8 July 1982.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 12 p. (Speech Series No. 76)This statement reviews the state of world population for the year 1982, the UNFPA programs, and discusses preliminary activities for the International Conference on Population. Most of the countries which have experienced the largest decline in birth rate are in the Asian region. The smallest decline in birth rates is noticeable in the African continent. About 80% of the total population of the developing world lives in countries which consider their levels of fertility too high. The UNFPA has adversely been affected by the decline in the value of many currencies. Part of the reassessment of the UNFPA programs was the establishment of a system of priority countries, determined by 4 demographic and 1 economic indicators. The program priorities are family planning, population education, communication and motivation, data collection, population dynamics, and formulation, implementation and evaluation of population policy. Activities and plans for the International Conference on Population are discussed in regard to the problems, achievements and prospects in the following areas: fertility, mortality and health, population distribution and interrelationships among population.
Ottawa, Canada, IDRC, 1982. 384 p.The 1115 projects listed in this publication represent 10 years of research activity supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), from the 1st year of operation in 1971 to March 1981. In another sense they represent an account of the growing human resources competent to contribute to science and technology in developing countries--an illustration of how technology and skills are acquired in the process of securing a measure of well-being for the world's poor. The subject/area index lists projects according to their specific subjects or field of research and according to country of geographic region. Projects have been indexed using the IDRC Library Thesaurus, which is based on an internationally accepted controlled vocabulary of descriptors used to index and retrieve information about development. A brief project rationale and statement of research objectives is given for each project. The expected duration of the research is given in months, followed by a notation of "active" or "completed". A project is deemed to be completed when the initiating program division is satisfied that the work undertaken during the course of the project is finished. The project recipient organization and location is included, as well as a grant figure representing the IDRC contribution to the research. Program areas within IDRC include agriculture; food and nutrition sciences; cooperative programs; information sciences; social sciences; communications; projects of the Office of the Secretary; Special Governing Board Activities; and those of the Office of the President. Precedence for projects is given to requests from developing countries.