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Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1990. 40 p. (Searching Series No. 1)There are many global problems. North and South are both worried about thinning of the ozone layer and global warming. This report begins with problems created by the North and the South. The next part shows how scientists in 3rd World countries can help solve these problems. The developing countries are seen as a laboratory where solutions to global problems are being found. Greenhouse gases are heating the earth's climate. This global warming will be bad for millions of people. The carbon dioxide build-up could double between now and the 2nd half of the 21st century. The earth's average surface temperature will rise by 2 degrees centigrade by the year 2030. This could raise sea levels. Scientists from different climates will have to get together on researching this problem. More than 1/2 of the genes of plants used by the West to improve agricultural species of develop medicines are in developing countries. Gene banks should be established. It is too late to stop global warming. Methane gets into the air from many sources. Nitrous oxide is another main greenhouse gas, as is carbon dioxide. The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is destroyed when chlorine from CFCs and bromine from halons are in the upper atmosphere. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a new global health threat; as are travelling influenzas. The population will grow to about 6.2 billion by the year 2000; 9 out of 10 new births will take place in the 3rd World. The total debt of developing countries right now is more than US $1.3 trillion. This has doubled since 1980. Illegal production of narcotics is significant to various economies. There are many military threats to security. There are many scientists in the South and much health and biological research is undertaken there. In 1997, Brazil will manufacture alcohol-powered vehicles. Canada maintains many ties with developing countries. The North and South must cooperate on scientific research, including the international research centers that have been established in 3rd World countries.
In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
The potential of national household survey programmes for monitoring and evaluating primary health care in developing countries. L'apport potentiel des enquetes nationales sur les menages a la surveillance et a l'evaluation des soins de sante primaires dans les pays en developpement.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(1):38-64.National programs of household sample surveys, such as those being encouraged through the National Household Survey Capability Program (NHSCP), are a principal source of information on primary health care in developing countries. Being representative of the total population, the major population subgroups and geographic subdivisions, they permit calculation of health status and utilization of health services. Household surveys have an important role to play in monitoring and evaluating primary health care since they sample directly the intended beneficiaries, and so can be used to judge the extent to which programs are meeting expected goals. Caution is necessary, however, since methodological problems have been experienced for many evaluation surveys. National surveys are especially appropriate for measuring many indicators of progress towards national goals within a broad socioeconomic perspective. Future directions in making the optimum use of household surveys for health program purposes are indicated. The NHSCP is a major undertaking of the UN system including WHO to collaborate with developing countries to establish a continuing flow of integrated statistics on a recurrent basis to support the national development process and information priorities. It brings together the principal users and producers of data to plan and conduct surveys which respond to national needs and priorities. The NHSCP encourages countries to employ a permanent national field organization for data collection. Areas of discussion are: the potential for monitoring and evaluation, the household survey as a source of health indicators, the demand for household surveys of health, followed by a summary of the health and health-related topics covered by 6 national health and nutrition surveys conducted in several developing countries. The special themes of infant and child mortality, morbidity and nutritional surveillance are also considered. The experience of many developed countries has been very positive with the use of nonmedically organized health surveys. Although the sample survey can be used in many settings to obtain population-based data, it must be carefully designed and implemented according to scientific procedures in order for the results to be validly extrapolated to the population or subgroups of primary concern.