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  1. 1

    Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia, recent findings and some programme implications.

    Eastman SJ

    ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.

    Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
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  2. 2

    The United Nations and the politics of population, 1960-74.

    Patton CG

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984. [505] p.

    One form of international authority proposed by David Mitrany was that of an advisory and coordinating one where both the performance of a task and the means for its accomplishment remain mainly under national control. Mitrany's theoretical framework and its organizational analogue within the UN and national political arenas account for the emergence of a new UN population policy to cope with the rapid global population growth between 1960 and 1974. The most prestigious outcome of this policy was the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), whose centralized contributions came primarily from the US, Japanese, Swedish, and some other west European governments. Its aim is to assist governments in the development of national family planning programs and in related demographic and family planning training and research programs. UNFPA grants went to UN-system agencies, governments, and private organizations. Recipients include India, Pakistan, Egypt, Malaysia, Kenya, Nigeria and Mexico. A mew ideology emerged to support the concept of an interventionist policy to lower the birth rate. That ideology include the responsibility of each government for its own population; an emphasis on social framework for parental choices about family size; and a legitimate role for international assistance. How the UNFPA came into existence is a political process involving government delegations and officials, UN Secretarist staff, and representatives of selected religious and population transnational organizations. It is also a Laswellian social process model of 7 decision-outcomes marking the significant population events and interactions underlying the creation of UNFPA. 6 UN resolutions and 2 decisions by the Secretary-General denominate these decision outcomes. 2 analytic approaches account for these decision outcomes--the Parsonian concept of organized levels (institutional, managerial, and technical) in conjunction with the Laswellian concepts of centralization/decentralization and concentration/decontration, and the concept of coalitions, (legislative and programming). This expanded UN population policy process reveals the interconnectedness of elites and groups in a global network centered at UFPA. (author's modified)
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  3. 3

    Responsiveness and innovation: the role of the UNFPA in a restructured United Nations economic and social programme, statement made at the Ad Hoc Committee on the Restructuring of the Economic and Social Sectors of the United Nations System, New York, 20 February, 1976.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1976]. 15 p.

    Efforts to restructure the UN apparatus concerned with economic development are intended to make the international community more responsive to human problems. In the early 50's, the UN system responded to the need for aid for such population activities as census taking, data analysis, and training and research on the relationships between population trends and social and economic factors. However, for many years, most international assistance for population was supplied by voluntary humanitarian organizations. In 1971, the General Assembly (GA) recognized that the UNFPA had become a viable entity in the UN system and called upon the Fund to play a leading role in promoting population programs. In 1972, UNFPA was made a Fund of the GA and the Governing Council of the United Nations Development Program was designated as the Governing Council of UNFPA. The aims and purposes of the UNFPA are: 1) to build up, on an international basis, the knowledge and capacity to respond to national, regional, interregional, and global needs in the population and family planning fields, to promote coordination in planning and programming; and to cooperate with all concerned; 2) to promote awareness, in developed and developing countries, of the social, economic and environmental implications of national and international programs, and of the human rights aspects of family planning; 3) to extend aid to developing countries in dealing with population problems at their request; and 4) to play a leading role in the UN system by promoting Fund projects. The Fund is now supporting such projects as data collection, family health, population policy, and research and training. In determining future structure several factors should be considered: the subject matter, the allocations of resources, the delivery of project services and the time frame of the activity.
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