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  1. 1

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  2. 2

    Annual report 1988-1989.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, 1989. 33 p.

    In 1952 in Bombay, India, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) was founded at a conference with delegates from 8 nations. By the end of 1988, 104 members and 2 affiliations made up IPPF and it was providing family planning assistance to >130 countries. Data has confirmed that child spacing, be it through modern contraceptive practices or traditional means, improves the health of both mother and child. These data support what IPPF and the family planning movement have been advocating for decades. To further promote better health through family planning, IPPF has renewed its commitment to work together with its donors, among its members, and other agencies. For example, in 1988, the Kenyan Family Planning Association (KFPA) helped support a soil protection project of a local women's group. The KFPA offered the women family planning services and operated an immunization program. In September 1988, staff and volunteers determined what programs were needed to reach IPPF's goal: 450 million couples worldwide will be using modern contraception by 2000. They also outlined 3 basic principles for IPPF's work: the individual and couple's right to control their own fertility; the opportunity to plan a family contributes greatly to mental and physical health; and the need to maintain a balance between natural resources and population. Also this group identified Africa as the region in most need of IPPF family planning assistance. In Africa, youth projects highlighting adolescent pregnancy and AIDS education have been targeted. During 1988-1989, IPPF continued active support for the remaining regions. As of 1988-1989, USAID had not renewed the financial support it withdrew in 1985. In April 1989, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, who was the Director-General of WHO for 15 years, replaced Mr. Bradman Weerakon as IPPF's Secretary-General.
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  3. 3

    Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia, recent findings and some programme implications.

    Eastman SJ

    ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.

    Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
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  4. 4

    The Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme.

    Gurney M

    World Health. 1985 Nov; 13-15.

    In November 1980, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and James Grant, head of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), drafted a joint program to improve the nutritional status of children and women through developmental measures based on primary health care. The government of Italy agreed to fund in full the estimated cost of US$85.3 million. When a tripartite agreement was signed in Rome in April 1982, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutrition Support Program (JNSP) came into being. It was agreed that resources would be concentrated in a number of countries to develop both demonstrable and replicable ways to improve nutrition. Thus far, projects are underway or are just starting in 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. In most of these countries, infant and toddler mortality rates are considerably higher than the 3rd world averages. Program objectives include reducing infant and young child diseases and deaths and at the same time improving child health, growth, and development as well as maternal nutrition. These objectives require attention to be directed to the other causes of malnutrition as well as diet and food. JNSP includes nutrition and many other activities, such as control of diarrhea. The aim of all activities is better nutritional status leading to better health and growth and lower mortality. Feeding habits and family patterns differ from 1 country to another as do the JNSP country projects. Most JNSP projects adopt a multisectoral approach, incorporating varied activities that directly improve nutritional status. Activities involve agriculture and education as well as health but are only included if they can be expected to lead directly to improved nutrition. A multisectoral program calls for multisectoral management and involves coordination at all levels -- district, provincial, and national. This has been one of the most difficult things to get moving in many JNSP projects, yet it is one of the most important. Community participation is vital to all projects. Its success can only be judged as the projects unfold, but early experiences from several countries are encouraging.
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  5. 5

    Statistics on children in UNICEF countries.


    New York, UNICEF, 1984 May. 280 p.

    The data in this set of 135 country profiles for 1981 are made up from 9 major sources and cover the countries and territories with which the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) cooperates. In terms of infant morttality, countries are divided into 5 infant mortality groups: a very high infant mortality (a) group of countries, with a 1981 infant mortality rate (IMR) estimate of 150 (rounded) or more deaths per 1000 live births; a very high infant mortality (b) group of countries with a 1981 IMR estimate between 110 (rounded) and 140 (rounded); a high infant mortality group of a middle infant mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of between 26 and 50 (rounded); and a low infnat mortality group of countries, with a 1981 IMR estimate of 25 or less. For each country data are also presented on nutrition, demographic, education, and economic indicators.
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