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  1. 1
    273137

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  2. 2
    019447

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  3. 3
    017787

    [Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.

    Westinghouse Health Systems

    Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)

    This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
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  4. 4
    099546

    [Plan International Guatemala] Plan Internacional Guatemala.

    Castillo E

    HABLEMOS DE VITAMIN A. 1994 Aug-Nov; 3(2):5.

    Plan International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit international organization that provides assistance to needy children, their families, and their communities through ninety-eight local offices in twenty-seven developing countries. Donors from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Holland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States sponsor children in the countries. Communication between the child and the sponsor is a vital element of Plan International. Sponsored children always remain with their families, which are fortified by health, educational, community development, and income-generating programs. Plan projects are designed to assure community participation, long-term sustainability, and tangible results. Plan International is a consulting member of UNICEF and is recognized by UNESCO. Plan International was created in 1937 to provide food, housing, and educational services to children victimized by the Spanish Civil War. During World War II the program provided assistance in England to expatriate children from throughout Europe. After the war, the organization extended its assistance to children in several other European countries and for a short time to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and China. As Europe recovered from the war, Plan International gradually withdrew from these countries and began new programs in developing countries. In Guatemala, Plan International began work in Amatitlan in 1979 and in Villa Nueva in 1990. It promotes measures to prevent diarrhea, respiratory disorders, and nutritional problems, and to encourage growth monitoring and vitamin A supplementation. The Child Survival Project provides vitamin A to children under five in educational visits made twice yearly through the community health committees, with participation of health volunteers and promoters and Ministry of Health and Social Security Institute personnel. Home visits are made to provide health information, Mebendozole, ferrous sulfate, and vitamin A.
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  5. 5
    082318

    Janet Brown: on global environmental issues, the people are leading and the leaders are following.

    Lerner SD

    In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 229-36.

    A senior associate with the World Resources Institute believes that it is more worthwhile to strengthen the UN Environment Program than to create a new international environmental organization. Another possibility would be to convert the UN Trusteeship Council's purpose from administering UN territories to dealing with environmental issues. The Council has an equal number of developing countries and developed countries and no country has veto power. She also favors ad hoc groups dealing with very specific issues, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change. We need an international debt management authority which purchases outstanding debt at real market prices to finance policies and programs that alleviate poverty and protect the environmental issues should lie with 1 organization. She dismisses suggestions that the Group of Seven industrialized nations serve as a group to propose international initiatives because developing countries would not accept the G-7 process plus the G-7 countries do not even agree on environmental issues. Citizens push US politicians to address environmental issues rather than the politicians leading on environmental issues. Some members of the US Congress have taken the initiative, however, including Senators Gore and Mikulski from Tennessee and Maryland, respectively. The President must have a vision for a transition to sustainable development, which he does not. In the 1973-74 oil crisis, industry took it upon itself to become more energy efficient and still had real growth in the gross national product, illustrating that the costs required to become more sustainable are not as great as many people claim. Sustainable agriculture would reduce the demand for fossil fuels, on which fertilizers and pesticides are based. It would require making institutional changes. USAID should change dramatically the system it uses to distribute foreign aid money and to dedicate considerably more money to the environment and development.
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  6. 6
    052045

    Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Caribbean Community [CARICOM]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [4], 30, [49] p.

    To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
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  7. 7
    272166

    The global research agenda, a South-North perspective.

    International Development Research Centre [IDRC]

    Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1990. 40 p. (Searching Series No. 1)

    There are many global problems. North and South are both worried about thinning of the ozone layer and global warming. This report begins with problems created by the North and the South. The next part shows how scientists in 3rd World countries can help solve these problems. The developing countries are seen as a laboratory where solutions to global problems are being found. Greenhouse gases are heating the earth's climate. This global warming will be bad for millions of people. The carbon dioxide build-up could double between now and the 2nd half of the 21st century. The earth's average surface temperature will rise by 2 degrees centigrade by the year 2030. This could raise sea levels. Scientists from different climates will have to get together on researching this problem. More than 1/2 of the genes of plants used by the West to improve agricultural species of develop medicines are in developing countries. Gene banks should be established. It is too late to stop global warming. Methane gets into the air from many sources. Nitrous oxide is another main greenhouse gas, as is carbon dioxide. The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is destroyed when chlorine from CFCs and bromine from halons are in the upper atmosphere. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a new global health threat; as are travelling influenzas. The population will grow to about 6.2 billion by the year 2000; 9 out of 10 new births will take place in the 3rd World. The total debt of developing countries right now is more than US $1.3 trillion. This has doubled since 1980. Illegal production of narcotics is significant to various economies. There are many military threats to security. There are many scientists in the South and much health and biological research is undertaken there. In 1997, Brazil will manufacture alcohol-powered vehicles. Canada maintains many ties with developing countries. The North and South must cooperate on scientific research, including the international research centers that have been established in 3rd World countries.
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  8. 8
    060158

    Global population assistance: the 1989 assessment.

    Ness GD; Thomas S

    POPULI. 1989 Dec; 16(4):4-17.

    Official Development Assistance (ODA) for population activities rose from US $100 to over US $400 million between 1968-72, again rising to US $500 million in 1985, then declining, representing 2% in the 1970's shrinking to 1.12% by 1982 and rising to 1.3% of all ODA by the mid- 80's. Of the 17 major donor countries, the US provides more than 1/2 of all population assistance, followed by Japan (10%). ODA reaches recipient countries through 3 channels: 1) direct bilateral aid; 2) the UN organizations and 3) non-governmental organizations. Most donors channel their funds to countries through the UN; however, Australia, Canada, Finland, the United Kingdom, the US, Germany and New Zealand use bilateral and NGO channels. The different funding mechanisms used between regions are due to specific political and cultural sensitivities of the region and of individual donors. For example, the UN provided the largest amount of money to Africa in the former years, but NGO contributions and bilateral assistance has now caught up with the UN while NGO's were the original major contributors to Latin America with bilateral funding catching up. From 1982-88 Asia received over 1/2 of all assistance declining from 58 to 42% while assistance to Africa increased from 13 to 27%; Latin America's 20% remained the same and the Middle East and North Africa received less than 10%. The major determinant of a country's population assistance is its population size, with larger countries receiving more money than the smaller, and the age of a country's program. Efforts to measure the impact of assistance has been difficult. For example, aid to India has had modest achievements while China's significant reductions in fertility were achieved before any assistance was provided. In spite of the lack of statistical evidence demonstrating the effects over time to population activities, such assistance is necessary and effective.
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  9. 9
    049841

    The OECD and migration: Canadian perspectives.

    Taylor C

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 18 p.

    The implications for Canada of the migration recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are discussed. OECD has 24 member countries in Europe, as well as Japan, U.S.A., Canada, Australia and New Zealand. OECD organized a set of recommendations on migration and foreign manpower in the 1960s, which was updated in 1979 under the title "Migration, growth and development," commonly known as the "Kindleberger report," and focusing on migration of workers from less-developed to developed European OECD member countries. The OECD Kindleberger report deals with subjects such as social implications of migration, trend of South-to-North flows of illegal foreign workers, challenges to sovereignty of nations, macro-economic effects of migration, long-term demographic role of migration, increasing pluralism of societies, responsibility of the sending countries to solve their development problems. The OECD subsequently held a Working Party on Migration Conference on the Future of Migration in May 1986. The Canadian responses to the Conference are listed in a 7-point policy framework. Topics included policy convergence, sovereignty, economic role of migration, demographic impact, and control of immigration as regards tourism, illegal migrants, economic refugees, organized networks for border crossing, penalties on employers, and the effect of regularizing illegal migrants on future flows.
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  10. 10
    051416

    Annual report of the Director 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1988 Jul. v, 117 p. (Official Document No. 221)

    The global economy continued to adversely affect member countries' health programs and activities in 1987. For example, Latin American and Caribbean countries lost >$US28 billion in 1987 and from 1982-1987 they lost $US130 billion. At the same time, the percentage of adolescents and elderly in the total population increased tremendously, the numbers of people experiencing chronic and disabling diseases also increased while infectious and parasitic diseases still posed challenges for the health community, and the number of urban poor continued to grow. In 1987, to help member countries deal with the everchanging health needs of their populations, PAHO focused on population groups and geographic regions and within these defined areas concentrated on specific diseases. For example, PAHO worked with member governments to formulate, implement, and evaluate policies and programs on the health of adults. Specifically, diseases and conditions emphasized in adult health included cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, accident prevention, and the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of alcoholism and drug abuse. Other emphases were maternal and child health and family planning and those diseases and conditions associated with the population. Additionally, PAHO continued with special programs and initiatives to maximize its role as a catalyst and to mobilize national and international resources in support of activities aimed at selected health priorities. Some of these initiatives included the Expanded Program on Immunization, the Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination, and the Caribbean Cooperation in Health. In addition, each country's PAHO activities have been summarized.
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  11. 11
    049276

    Dominican Republic: Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jun. [6] p.

    To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
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  12. 12
    048989

    Contraceptive prevalence in St. Kitts-Nevis.

    Jagdeo TP

    New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1985. xi, 102, 24 p. (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)

    An analysis of Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys is the focus of this report by the IPPF, Western Hemisphere Region, through its Caribbean Population and Development project. This booklet reports on 1 aspect of the project--the analysis of contraceptive surveys conducted in St. Kitts-Nevis and Montserrat to determine levels of contraceptive use and assess the effectiveness of information, education, and delivery services. Chapter 1 outlines the background, economic, social, and family structures, and organization of family planning services in St. Kitts-Nevis. The methodology of the survey is explained. Chapter 2 provides a demographic analysis of fertility, parity, and unplanned pregnancy rates. The level of awareness of contraceptives and contraceptive outlets is presented in Chapter 3. Patterns of contraceptive use, with user and non-user profiles, preferred sources for contraceptive outlets, user satisfaction with methods and outlets, male involvement in family planning, and the timing of contraceptive use are the topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides an overview of contraceptive use, family planning programs, and sense of self-worth in St. Kitts-Nevis. Social sources of resistance to contraceptive use and the contraceptive intentions of non-acceptors are characterized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 offers a summary and conclusions of the study findings, and the 1984 contraceptive prevalence survey used in St. Kitts-Nevis is supplied in the appendix.
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  13. 13
    041887

    Annual report: 1985.

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America [PPFA]. Family Planning International Assistance [FPIA]

    New York, New York, FPIA, 1985. 206 p.

    Summarizing the work of the Family Planning International Assistance (FPIA) for the past 14 months, with emphasis on 1985, this document contains both regional and country reports for Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America. FPIA's strategy in Africa during 1985 was to focus on small, high-risk projects which call for extensive technical assistance. Project Assistance accounted for 48.8% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 47.5% of the total value of FPIA assistance to the region. Special Grants accounted for slightly over 2.1% of the total assistance to Africa. In the Asia and Pacific Region, components of the FPIA strategy include: consolidate support and provide technical assistance to those agencies whose family planning services can be institutionalized and serve to complement and influence the goals, objectives, and program procedures of their governments' national family planning programs; problem solve with grantee agencies approaches to innovative delivery of temporary method services; provide training opportunities and technical assistance to project management and staff as well as to influential nonproject persons; and establish how FPIA commodities can complement supplies available to nongovernmental organizations through their government warehouses and bilateral supported community retail sales program. Project Assistance accounted for 47.1% of the total value of FPIA assistance in the region; Commodity Assistance accounted for 50.8% and Special Grants slightly over 1% of total assistance to the region. In Latin America, FPIA's program goals respond to agency goals of promoting family planning services in areas of unmet need, upgrading existing family planning service models, and encouraging service continuation following the phase-out of FPIA support. Project Assistance accounted for 46.8%, Commodity Assistance 52.2%, and Special Grants less than 1% of total FPIA assistance to the region. The combined value of all types of assistance provided worldwide during 1985 totaled over $18 million: $7.2 million in direct support to 128 funded projects in 39 countries; and $10.1 million in commodities shipped to 218 institutions in 66 countries. Oral contraceptive and condom shipments alone were sufficient to supply 2.4 million contraceptors for 1 year.
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  14. 14
    200507

    Using migration to enhance economic development in the Caribbean: three sets of proposals.

    Pastor RA; Rogers R

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
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  15. 15
    200506

    Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.

    Brown GA

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.
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  16. 16
    200516

    Migration and development in Hispaniola.

    Preeg EH

    In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)

    The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
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  17. 17
    040737

    Evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project.

    McGreevey WP; Bergman E; Godwin K; Sanderson W

    [Unpublished] 1986 Aug. 71, [45] p. (AID Contract No. DPE-3024-C-00-4063-00)

    The evaluation of the Resources for Awareness of Population in Development (RAPID II) Project was initiated on June 18, 1985, 25 months into the project operation, to determine if the results of actions undertaken thus far have been adequate to justify the time and money spent on them and to find ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the program efforts. The objective of the 5-year RAPIDS II project is to assist those involved in development planning to better understand the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development and thereby increase the less developed country (LDC) commitment to efforts designed to reduce rapid rates of population increase. This evaluation report discusses the development assistance context and then focuses on the following: RAPID II operations over the 1984-85 period; policy analyses and LDC subcontracting; the RAPID model and its presentation; visits by the evaluation team to the countries of the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Cameroon, and Liberia; what works in terms of population policy development; some major problems and potential resolutions; and RAPID II activities over the 1985-88 period. US Agency for International Development (USAID) officials in Washington as well as in the field described RAPID II as being of continuing utility in helping to create a climate favorable to more effective population policies. The review of RAPID II activities was generally positive. The project was identified as useful in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Due to the evidence of satisfactory performance in the field, the evaluation focused on differences between plan and midterm results with a view toward suggesting course corrections that can improve project performance. As population policy development is an inherently ambiguous field of activity, it has not been possible to draw clear lines between specific policy development activities and policy change in particular countries. Yet, there has been an improvement in the environment for population programs in LDCs. There were significant differences between planned and actual expenditures under the several subcategories of project expenditure. RAPID II total expenditures in the first 2 years of the project equalled budgeted expenditures when the contract was signed, but the distribution of expenditures by category was substantially different from what had been anticipated. It is recommended that emphasis in the project must shift predominantly to policy analyses (80% of remaining funds) and that that RAPID-style presentation resources (20%) be used carefully for only the highest priority requests. In regard to development of LDC subcontracts for policy analysis, efficiency has been low.
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  18. 18
    045167

    Sterilizations by sex and percentages of: male to female sterilizations and total number of sterilizations as percentage of total new acceptors. 1979-1984.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Western Hemisphere Region [WHR]

    [Unpublished] [1986]. 3 p.

    This is an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) collection of data detailing numbers of sterilizations in each country of the western hemisphere from 1979 to 1985. The table presents sterilizations among males and females, total number of sterilizations, ratio of male to female expressed in percentages, and ratio of sterilizations to new acceptors also expressed as percentages. The countries with the numbers over 10,000 in 1986 were Columbia, Guatemala and the Dominican Republic. Countries with 1000 to 9999 were U.S., Honduras, Mexico, El Salvador, Ecuador and Brazil, in order. Most nations reported 5 to 10 times more female than male sterilizations. The exception was the U.S., with 10 times more vasectomies in the latter years. The total reported ranged from 63,400 in 1980 to 94,448 in 1985.
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  19. 19
    270361

    Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia, recent findings and some programme implications.

    Eastman SJ

    ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.

    Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
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  20. 20
    046031

    [Vaccination, the right of each child, World Day of Health 1987] Vacunacion: derecho de cada nino, Dia Mundial de la Salud 1987.

    Guerra de Macedo C; Mahler HT

    BOLETIN DE LA OFICINA SANITARIA PANAMERICANA. 1987 Mar; 102(3):263-80.

    In the 10 years since the Panamerican Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization initiated the Extended Immunization Program in the Americas (PAI), coverage has increased from less than 1/3 to over 1/2 of children immunized in their first year against 6 major childhood diseases. Due mainly to the PAI, the incidence of measles, tetanus, and diptheria has been reduced by 1/2, that of whooping cough by 75%, and that of tuberculosis by about 5% annually. About 75% of children are immunized against polio, which has 1/10 as many victims today as 10 years ago. PAHO and several other organizations have targeted 1990 for eradication of polio from the South American continent. Since the PAI was established in 1977, more than 15,000 health workers have been trained, cold chains have been established to preserve vaccines, and more than 250 technicians have been trained to maintain and repair the needed equipment. The cost of the campaign to eradicate polio is estimated at US $ 24 million per year for the entire region--a low total compared to the costs of hospitalization and rehabilitation of the victims in the absence of such a program. The goal of immunizing all the world's children by 1990 proposed by the World Health Assembly in 1977 is achievable, but much remains to be done. The number of children immunized in the largest Third World countries ranges from 20-90% owing in part to national immunization days but also to assumption by local communities of the goal of universal immunization by 1990. All deaths produced by these 6 killer diseases are not registered, but the World Health Organization estimates that measles takes 2.1 million lives annually, neonatal tetanus 800,000, and whooping cough 600,000. Governmental and nongovernmental international organizations have made financial help available to countries needing it for their immunization programs. Most developing countries are expected to achieve the goal of universal immunization by 1990, but the 10 poorst countries of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean may not be able to do so. At the worldwide level, 41% of the 118 million children who survive their first year have been vaccinated against measles and 46% against tuberculosis. 47% have received the full course of vaccine against diptheria, whooping cough, tetanus, and polio. The cost of these immunization is $5-15 per child and 80% is assumed by local countries. The World Health Organization recommends that all children, even the undernourished or slightly ill, be vaccinated, and that all health services vaccinate. Parents should be urged to return for the 2nd and 3rd doses of polio and DPT vaccines. Vaccination programs should pay more attention to impoverished urban populations. Several countries of the region have added innovations such as vaccination against other illnesses, house to house searches for unvaccinated children, or use of mass media to publicize national vaccination programs.
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  21. 21
    041766

    Honduras.

    United States. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs

    BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-7.

    Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.
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  22. 22
    270321

    The challenges ahead.

    Guerra de Macedo C

    WORLD HEALTH. 1987 Oct; 26-9.

    In the next 13 years, health services must be created that will double present coverage. Preparations must be made for a population in which the proportion of elderly persons is increasing each year, and which is becoming increasingly urbanized, both geographically and culturally. The approval in 1986 by the Pan American Sanitary Conference--the highest policy organization of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) in the Western Hemisphere--of program priorities for the 1987-1990 quadrennium has provided the tools to confront these challenges in a systematic and pragmatic way. This political decision established the quadrennial frame of reference for the Organization's cooperation in transforming health systems, with its activities now underway in 3 related areas of priority: the development of the health infrastructure, with emphasis on primary health care; specific programs for priority health problems among the most vulnerable groups; and the information management needed to carry out these programs. By targeting these 3 areas, the member countries have given the Organization a mandate to move effectively against the potential catastrophe of 300 million people lacking health services by century's end. This is a regional approach, developed on the basis of the particular socioeconomic and health conditions of the Western Hemisphere. But it is also an approach fitting perfectly within the principles which the Member States of the WHO accepted when they approved in 1977 the universal call for Health for All by the Year 2000.
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  23. 23
    270320

    Health services for all.

    Osuna J

    WORLD HEALTH. 1987 Oct; 23-5.

    The World Health Assembly of 1977 determined that all member governments should have as their primary goal--to achieve by the year 2000--a level of health that would allow their citizens to enjoy an economically and socially productive life. The goal is now known as "Health for All by the Year 2000" (HFA/2000). Problems directly related to health, grouped under personal health services, can be differentiated from infrastructure development, including methods and proceedures to improve health. The former encompasses maternal and child health, nutrition, treating infectious and chronic diseases, and environmental factors. The latter covers human, technical, and auxiliary resources, administration, planning, evaluation, information, legislation and regulation, basic and applied research, and financing. Almost all Latin American and Carribean countries are looking at 3 main strategies. The 1st is finding new ways to interconnect health sector institutions and to mesh goals and operations of institutions with overall policy and national objectives. Here, health ministries take on the broad task of guiding, leading, and mobilizing national and international resources and analyzing progress. 2nd, all the countries have tried hard to offer better alternatives for service financing for better and fuller health coverage, including equitable access by all people to the care level required by each case, and to eliminate unnecessary proceedures that raise costs without helping to solve real health problems. A 3rd route is implementing efficacious methods of planning, administration, and health service evaluation.
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  24. 24
    270319

    Health as a bridge for peace.

    Schneider ML

    WORLD HEALTH. 1987 Oct; 4-6.

    3 years ago, the Central American countries of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama began a subregional initiative with PAHO/AMRO named "Health as a Bridge to Peace." Formally called "Priority Health Needs in Central America and Panama," this initiative has included: 1) A temporary cease-fire in El Salvador each year between government and guerrillas, permitting a 3-day nationwide immunization campaign throughout the country; 2) Belize's inclusion for the 1st time in an annual meeting of the Ministers of Health in Central America and Panama. The directors of the Social Security Institutions also participated. Although recent conflicts had strained international dialog, the initiative spurred cooperation between all countries of the region, including formal agreement between the Ministers of Health of Honduras and Nicaragua to conduct joint border monitoring to prevent the spread of malaria and other tropical diseases, mutual spraying in malaria endemic areas by Nicaragua and Costa Rica, and training and technical cooperation exchanges between the countries and their neighbors. Last year, in the 1st joint purchase from a revolving fund for essential drugs, the countries obtained some 17 drugs more than 300% cheaper than each had purchased them seperately the previous year. Priorities of the initiative are health services, human resources, essential drugs, food and nutrition, tropical diseases, and child survival. It concentrates on mothers and on children under 5, on refugees and displaced persons, and on the urban and rural poor.
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  25. 25
    270085

    The role of UNFPA in promoting of population and development planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: Latin American Conference on Population and Development Planning, Cartagena, Colombia, 1979. Final report. New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979. 1-17. (RLA/78/P15; UNFPA/79/CDPP/LA/3)

    This paper examines UNFPA's role in promoting the integration of population into development planning, with a special emphasis on the Latin America region. The 1st section traces the resolutions and instruments adopted by the UN in the last 25 years on the subject of population and development, later framed in the broader context of a new international development strategy. UNFPA's general mandates and its intercountry activities are described in the 2nd section. The 3rd section summarizes the general situation in Latin America in regard to the integration of population policies and development planning, and outlines the response of UNFPA to the requests of governments at the regional and country levels. The 4th section is a concluding statement indicating UNFPA's willingness to seek guidance from Member States on its course of action and to meet requests for assistance from governments as it considers this necessary and desirable.
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