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Your search found 164 Results

  1. 1
    318922
    Peer Reviewed

    Is G8 putting profits before the world’s poorest children?

    Light DW

    Lancet. 2007 Jul 28; 370(9584):297-298.

    Several affluent countries have announced donations totalling US$1.5 billion to buy new vaccines that will help eradicate pneumococcal diseases in the world's poorest children. Donations from the UK, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Norway launch what many hope will be a new era to ease the burdens of disease and foster economic growth. Yet only a quarter of the money will be spent on covering the costs of vaccines-three-quarters will go towards extra profits for vaccines that are already profitable. The Advanced Market Commitment (AMC), to which the G8 leaders and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have committed, is the difficulty. An AMC is a heavily promoted but untried idea for inducing major drug companies to invest in research to discover vaccines for neglected diseases by promising to match the revenues that companies earn from developing a product for affluent markets. By committing to buy a large volume of vaccine at a high price, an AMC creates a whole market in one stroke. However, no moneyis spent until a good product is fully developed. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    318069
    Peer Reviewed

    Inadequate, but not quite hopeless.

    Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Jul; 7(7):439.

    The 2007 Group of Eight (G8) summit, which took place in Heiligendamm, Germany, on June 6-8, has been described by John Kirton (G8 Research Group, University of Toronto, Canada) as an "emerging centre of democratic global governance". Like many self-appointed elites, the G8 is an idiosyncratic club. The eight started as six in 1975 with a meeting in Rambouillet, France, of the heads of government of France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the USA-the most economically powerful democratic nations. This annual forum for discussion of matters of mutual interest was joined by Canada in 1976, by the European Union in 1977, and by Russia in 1997. Although the G8 nations account for nearly two-thirds of world economic output, the Russian economy is not among the world's top eight, whereas China with the fourth largest economy remains outside the G8 club. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    312909
    Peer Reviewed

    Making G8 leaders deliver: an analysis of compliance and health commitments, 1996 -- 2006.

    Kirton JJ; Roudev N; Sunderland L

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):192-199.

    International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8's contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8's performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition, Member States must seek WHO's support and set up an institution for G8 health ministers. (author's)
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  4. 4
    310060

    Matrix of major donor government structures and mechanisms for financing the HIV / AIDS response in low and middle income countries.

    Kates J; Lief E

    Menlo Park, California, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, [2006]. [2] p.

    Donor governments provide multiple types of financial and other assistance to address HIV/AIDS in low and middle income countries, including grants, loans, concessional loans, commodities, and technical assistance. In addition, international assistance is provided through both bilateral and multilateral channels, and some mix of the two, reflecting donor decisions, capabilities, and preferences. Donor funding strategies and mechanisms also differ across several other dimensions, including funding cycles, regional focus, types of aid recipient, and period over which funding is committed and disbursed. Understanding such differences across donors is important for gaining a fuller picture of the international response to the epidemic. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    292944

    Lewis questions results of G8 Summit; calls for independent, international women's agency; challenges scientists to engage in campaign of advocacy. Statement by Stephen Lewis, UN Envoy on HIV / AIDS in Africa, at the opening of the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 24 July 2005.

    Lewis S

    AIDS Bulletin. 2005 Sep; 14(3):10-13.

    This is a meeting of scientists and experts in the world of AIDS. I am neither a scientist nor an expert. I'm an observer. I have spent the last four years, traveling through Africa, primarily southern Africa, watching people die. I think I understand, better than most, why your collective scientific and academic work can be said to be the most important ongoing work on the planet. But precisely because the work you do speaks to the rescue of the human condition, you carry an immense public and international authority. I beg you never to underestimate that authority. And I beg you to use it beyond the realms of science. What we desperately need in the response to AIDS today are voices of advocacy: tough, unrelenting, informed. The issues are so intense, the situation is so precarious for millions of people, the virus cuts such a swath of pain and desolation, that your voices, as well as your science, must be summoned and heard. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    189286

    Financial resource flows for population activities in 2000.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. x, 103 p.

    Financial Resource Flows for Population Activities in 2000 is the fourteenth edition of a report previously published by UNFPA under the title of Global Population Assistance Report. The United Nations Population Fund has regularly collected data and reported on flows of international financial assistance to population activities. The Fund’s annual Reports focused on the flow of funds from donors through bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental channels for population assistance to developing countries1 and countries with economies in transition. Also included were grants and loans from development banks for population activities in developing countries. (excerpt)
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  7. 7
    187693
    Peer Reviewed

    International developments in adolescent health care: a story of advocacy and achievement.

    Bennett DL; Tonkin RS

    Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003 Oct; 33(4):240-251.

    The contemporary health problems of young people occur within the context of the physical, social, cultural, economic, and political realities within which they live. There are commonalities and differences in this context among developed and developing countries, thus differing effects on the individual’s personal as well as national development. Internationally, the origins and evolution of health care for adolescents can be viewed as an unfolding saga taking place particularly over the past 30 years. It is a story of advocacy and subsequent achievement in all corners of the world. This paper reviews the important developments in the international arena, recognizes major pioneers and milestones, and explores some of the current and future issues facing the field. The authors draw heavily on their experiences with the major nongovernmental adolescent health organizations. The special roles of the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) are highlighted, and special consideration is given to the challenge of inclusion through youth participation. (author's)
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  8. 8
    182283

    Working out of poverty. Report of the Director-General. International Labour Conference, 91st Session 2003.

    Somavia J

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, 2003. ix, 106 p.

    Chapter 1 crystallizes my thoughts, commitments and ideas on this vital issue. We have a rich historic mandate that calls us to the challenge of fighting poverty. Our experience on the ground is bringing that mandate to life throughout the world. And we face common challenges as we join with others to provide women and men with the tools and support to work out of poverty. Chapter 1 is my personal exploration of these key issues. The subsequent chapters are more technical in nature, providing an in-depth and detailed account of the various dimensions of ILO efforts to eradicate poverty. Chapter 2 focuses on the complexity of poverty and the cycle of disadvantage that it creates. Chapter 3 describes ILO action on the ground and tools in the fight against poverty. Chapter 4 examines how rights at work and the institutional structure of the informal and formal labour market relate to employment creation, poverty reduction and competitiveness in a global economy. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the need for a coordination of policies that focus on different dimensions of the life of people living in poverty. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    074890

    The global possible: resources, development, and the new century.

    Global Possible Conference (1984: Wye Plantation)

    In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)

    Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
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  10. 10
    273137

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  11. 11
    041441

    Fourth programme report, 1983-1984.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)

    The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
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  12. 12
    031138

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  13. 13
    027206

    International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.

    World Assembly of Youth

    Maribo, Denmark, WAY, [1984]. 120 p.

    The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
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  14. 14
    019447

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  15. 15
    017787

    [Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.

    Westinghouse Health Systems

    Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)

    This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
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  16. 16
    168253

    To cure poverty, heal the poor. WHO study finds investments in health pay big development dividends.

    Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):22-3.

    Research conducted by the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, established by the WHO and headed by Harvard University economist Jeffrey Sachs, found that the economic impact of ill health on individuals and societies is far greater than previous estimates. Providing basic health care to the world's poor, the commission asserted, is both technically feasible and cost effective. However, the price tag is high, with the annual spending on health care in the least developed countries and other low-income states increased from US$53.5 billion to US$93 billion by 2007, and to US$119 billion per year by 2015. These amounts are intended to finance essential services required to meet the minimum health goals adopted by world leaders at the September 2000 UN Millennium Assembly. These objectives can be achieved by forging a new global partnership between developed and developing countries for the delivery of health care. Moreover, donor countries and multilateral agencies would have to increase their overall support for health programs in all developing countries.
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  17. 17
    168060

    Securing future supplies for family planning and HIV / AIDS prevention.

    Ashford L

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb. [8] p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)

    This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
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  18. 18
    166356

    Where status counts: rethinking western donor-funded women's projects in rural Africa.

    Bryceson DF

    Tanzanian Journal of Population Studies and Development. 1996; 3(1-2):1-14.

    In the space of two and a half decades, documentation of African rural women's work lives has moved from state of dearth to plethora. Awareness of women's arduous workday, and the importance of women agriculturists to national economies are now commonplace among African policy-makers and western donor agencies. Throughout the dramatic upheaval in African development policy of recent years, as state and market forces realign, donor agencies have consistently espoused a concern to improve the material conditions and status of rural women's working day throughout sub-Saharan Africa overwhelm donor's scattered projects directed at alleviating women's workload. The central question posed is how external donor agencies can extend beyond localized project efforts to help provide the material foundation for widespread change in women's working day of a self-determining nature. Still local in scale and last on the agenda, will measures to address women's work be elevated to a more central position in international development program efforts in sub-Saharan Africa? (author's)
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  19. 19
    154855

    Grants, not loans, for the developing world [editorial]

    Lancet. 2001 Jan 6; 357(9249):1.

    The year 2000 marked a turning point in public perception of globalization and its effects on poorer nations. A key force behind this awareness-raising process was Jubilee 2000, an international movement advocating a debt-free start to the millennium for a billion people. In response, the World Bank and International Monetary Fund announced during the closing days of 2000 that debt relief for 22 countries had been approved. However, there is clearly still a long way to go, especially where the links between indebtedness and poor health are concerned. Although these efforts at debt relief that could improve public health for the most highly indebted developing countries are a step in the right direction, the countries concerned will still be paying on average 0.5 times more on remaining debt service than on health. Critics argue that access to such relief demands continued adherence to the structural adjustment model, which, since its inception in the early 1980s, has been undermining HIV/AIDS control. It is noted that the shift to export-oriented economics was leading to social changes such as increased mobility, migration, urbanization, and dislocation of family units, favoring HIV spread in the developing world. The solution, critics contend, is ending loans and channeling international assistance into grants for the poorest nations.
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  20. 20
    117376

    International funding of the global AIDS strategy: official development assistance.

    Laws M

    In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 375-89.

    This book chapter reports on the current state of international funding for AIDS programs in developing countries. The chapter opens by discussing the development assistance provided by the developed countries which are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and notes that development assistance is declining and that no published summaries on development assistance provide detailed information on the allocation of funds to HIV/AIDS programs. The data for this chapter, therefore, were drawn from an international financing survey conducted for this publication. The nature of the survey and complications involved in this type of data collection are then reviewed. Adequate survey responses were received from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and the US. The data are tabulated to display bilateral, multilateral, combined multi- and bilateral, and total funding. To reveal the trends exhibited by the major donors and to track funds donated to developing countries, tables present 1) total contributions to the Global AIDS Strategy for 1986-93 according to these funding channels, 2) multilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, 3) multi- and bilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, and 4) bilateral contributions for 1986-93. Pie charts show donor contributions by country and recipient countries. The increase in World Bank loans for HIV/AIDS prevention and care is covered as is the reduced supply of donors, increasing demand for development assistance, and evidence of donor fatigue. It is concluded that it will be critical for the UN AIDS Program to improve the financial accountability of both donor and recipient countries so that HIV/AIDS resources can be evaluated. Unless this occurs, such resources will likely continue to decline in proportion to needs.
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  21. 21
    113190

    Health promotion for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV infection and other STDs: a combined strategy for the 1990s.

    Paalman M

    [Unpublished] 1990 Jul. [2], 15, [20] p. (Working Paper 4)

    This document presents a rationale for a combined health promotion strategy to prevent sexual transmission of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is geared to policy makers, program managers, and health educators of international and national organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental. One reason for a combined strategy is that the strategies for primary prevention of HIV infection and other STDs are similar and complementary. A combined approach will be more cost-effective than that for separate approaches. Other STDs facilitate HIV transmission; so high risk groups and the general public need to be informed of this greater risk. Thus, prevention and control of other STDs is a top priority for reducing HIV transmission. STD services can provide HIV prevention activities (education, counseling, and condom promotion and distribution). When health providers stress the serious effects of other STDs, they effect increased motivation for safer sex, particularly in areas with low HIV prevalence. A combined approach would also make optimal use of achievement, expertise, and resources of both HIV/AIDS and STD control programs and would avoid duplication of efforts. Almost all international organizations and donor agencies supported a combined health promotion strategy. In fact, some organizations already have a combined approach. The World Health Organization (WHO) should publish a document on STD basics for health promotion workers. It should adapt its Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control to make it easier to plan a combined strategy. WHO should develop specific guidelines for health promotion for the prevention and control of STDs and HIV. Research on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices should guide national AIDS/STD health promotion programs. These programs should be integrated with other components of the AIDS/STD program. WHO needs to create an STD health promotion specialist position with this professional being based in Geneva.
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  22. 22
    099978

    Population control in the new world order.

    Hartmann B

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the forum on Population Policies, Women's Health and Environment, Women's Event, UNCED, 92 Global Forum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 6, 1992. 13 p.

    In the "new world order" after the Cold War, population control ideology is being polished with a feminist and environmentalist gloss, and marketed with mass communication techniques as another means of social control. In the South the main mechanisms of population control are: 1) Structural adjustment. Government commitment to reduce population growth is often a condition of International Monetary Fund and World Bank structural adjustment loans. This is most recently the case in India, where government expenditure on population control is slated to increase. 2) Targeting population assistance at countries with the largest population sizes. The USAID is planning to double its aid to 17 big countries (India, Indonesia, Brazil). 3) Rapid introduction of long-acting provider-dependent contraceptive technologies, such as Norplant, in health systems that are ill-equipped to distribute them safely or ethically. In addition, these technologies do not protect women from sexually transmitted diseases, notably HIV. They neglect male methods such as the condom and vasectomy. 4) Renewed pressure on governments to remove prescription requirements for hormonal contraceptives. 5) Mass marketing of contraceptives and neo-Malthusian messages. 6) Continued data collection to persuade Southern officials of the need for population control. In the North, population control intensification takes these forms: 1) Expensive and sophisticated propaganda efforts by population agencies trying to increase aid allocations. European government aid agencies are under pressure to change their relatively progressive stances on population to ones more in keeping with the UN Population Fund and World Bank agenda. 2) Alliance building between population agencies and mainstream environmental organizations. 3) Immigration restrictions. 4) Coercive population control of poor women, especially women of color. In addition, a population doublespeak is used to obscure the real intentions of the population establishment when promoting contraceptive choice, claiming to improve women's status, protecting the environment by reducing population growth, endorsing sustainability, and building consensus.
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  23. 23
    099546

    [Plan International Guatemala] Plan Internacional Guatemala.

    Castillo E

    HABLEMOS DE VITAMIN A. 1994 Aug-Nov; 3(2):5.

    Plan International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit international organization that provides assistance to needy children, their families, and their communities through ninety-eight local offices in twenty-seven developing countries. Donors from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Holland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States sponsor children in the countries. Communication between the child and the sponsor is a vital element of Plan International. Sponsored children always remain with their families, which are fortified by health, educational, community development, and income-generating programs. Plan projects are designed to assure community participation, long-term sustainability, and tangible results. Plan International is a consulting member of UNICEF and is recognized by UNESCO. Plan International was created in 1937 to provide food, housing, and educational services to children victimized by the Spanish Civil War. During World War II the program provided assistance in England to expatriate children from throughout Europe. After the war, the organization extended its assistance to children in several other European countries and for a short time to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and China. As Europe recovered from the war, Plan International gradually withdrew from these countries and began new programs in developing countries. In Guatemala, Plan International began work in Amatitlan in 1979 and in Villa Nueva in 1990. It promotes measures to prevent diarrhea, respiratory disorders, and nutritional problems, and to encourage growth monitoring and vitamin A supplementation. The Child Survival Project provides vitamin A to children under five in educational visits made twice yearly through the community health committees, with participation of health volunteers and promoters and Ministry of Health and Social Security Institute personnel. Home visits are made to provide health information, Mebendozole, ferrous sulfate, and vitamin A.
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  24. 24
    090456

    Bilateral population assistance.

    Harrington J

    In: Population policies and programmes. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Policies and Programmes, Cairo, Egypt, 12-16 April 1992. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 165-80. (ST/ESA/SER.R/128)

    The International Forum on Population held at Amsterdam in 1989 called for a doubling of support to the population sector by the year 2000, which was endorsed by a United National General Assembly resolution in 1989 and by a meeting of the Development Assistance Committee of OECD in June 1990. In 1992 the United States provided 56.4% of all population funding and 78.3% of all bilateral funds. By 1990, the percentage had dropped to 42.1%. Donors other than the United States have delivered their bilateral assistance through 1) multilateral-bilateral arrangements channeling bilateral funds through United Nations bodies; 2) international nongovernmental organizations, such as the International Statistical Institute (ISI); 3) regional institutions such as CELADE in the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, and the University of the West Indies; 4) local nongovernmental organizations; 5) national nongovernmental organizations, such as the Danish Red Cross or the World University Service (Canada), the World Bank, or the Asian Development Bank. As of 1989/90 only a few countries had many bilateral donors: Bangladesh, 10; Kenya, 9; Tanzania and Zimbabwe, 5 each; while 4 others had 4 donors and 8 had 3 donors. A total of 59 countries are receiving bilateral assistance. The recently proposed Priority Country Strategy of the United States would focus bilateral population funding on 17 countries, while phasing down the others. To maintain current levels of contraceptive prevalence, donor funding will have to double by the year 2000. So far, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom have committed themselves publicly. There will be further pressure to reduce population growth rates in developing countries, as they are the root causes of international migration. In the past 25 years most countries have established population policies which they are implementing. All developed countries have a responsibility to assist with population programs.
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  25. 25
    082490

    Technology: impact on human development.

    Basma Bint Talal

    In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume IV. Changes in the human dimension of development, ethics and values, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 60-3.

    Since the early 1980s, 2 major events have occurred globally: the beginning of the information revolution and the dominance of the services economy. Based on the utilization of computers and modern telecommunications, the information age is transforming societies, improving the quality of life and fostering the global exchange of culture and knowledge, goods and services. New equipment, techniques, and materials have greatly improved efficiency and productivity in agriculture and industry, but simultaneously they are demanding more educated and qualified labor. The question is how women in developing societies are going to fare in this new information age. The UN Development Programme's (UNDP) 1990 Human Development Report reveals that in developing countries the literacy rate is still only 50% among women, but primary school enrollment is more than 80%. More than one-third go on to secondary education and more than 5% into higher education. Services now account for 28% of the labor force, compared with 61% in the industrialized countries. Women in developing countries now constitute one-third of the labor force. Illiteracy is gradually being eradicated; education levels among the young generation are improving. The services economy offers a prime opportunity for women because it does not require the fixed working regimes of the past which greatly hindered women's participation. Computers and modern communications have brought flexible working hours and conditions. Women, particularly in developing countries, must seize the opportunities. This requires a better educated population, a core of scientists and technocrats, and a home base for production. While in the industrialized countries of Europe, North America, and Japan, there are more than 14 scientists and technicians/every 100 people, in the developing countries there is only 1 scientist or technician/every 100 people. UNDP and other multilateral development agencies can help make the opportunities available to the women of the developing world.
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