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[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. 18 p.The implications for Canada of the migration recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) are discussed. OECD has 24 member countries in Europe, as well as Japan, U.S.A., Canada, Australia and New Zealand. OECD organized a set of recommendations on migration and foreign manpower in the 1960s, which was updated in 1979 under the title "Migration, growth and development," commonly known as the "Kindleberger report," and focusing on migration of workers from less-developed to developed European OECD member countries. The OECD Kindleberger report deals with subjects such as social implications of migration, trend of South-to-North flows of illegal foreign workers, challenges to sovereignty of nations, macro-economic effects of migration, long-term demographic role of migration, increasing pluralism of societies, responsibility of the sending countries to solve their development problems. The OECD subsequently held a Working Party on Migration Conference on the Future of Migration in May 1986. The Canadian responses to the Conference are listed in a 7-point policy framework. Topics included policy convergence, sovereignty, economic role of migration, demographic impact, and control of immigration as regards tourism, illegal migrants, economic refugees, organized networks for border crossing, penalties on employers, and the effect of regularizing illegal migrants on future flows.
Policy initiatives of the multilateral development banks and the United Nations specialized agencies.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 301-20. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The International Labour office (ILO) of the UN analyzes manpower supply and demand and creates guidelines on the treatment of both legal and illegal migrant workers. The UN Economic and Social council (ECOSOC) oversees economic and social issues concerning population. The World Health Organization (WHO) oversees health issues relating to population. The World Bank has been the active member of the World Bank group in Latin America and the Caribbean because only Haiti qualifies to borrow from the soft loan affiliate of the Bank--the International Development Association (IDA). In 1983, the World Bank/IDA made 12 loans to the Caribbean countries totaling $205 million, $120 million of which went to Jamaica. The Bank has shown that special techniques are needed for successful rural development projects involving community understanding and participation, and that traditional development techniques will not work. An interesting change in World Bank philosophy and policy has been the recognition of the need for devising and adopting appropriate technologies to the needs of the rural areas; such technologies include community involvement in water and sanitation, the use of simple hand pumps, low-cost housing, and small-scale irrigation. These solutions are a far cry from the earlier belief that the large dam and power station and the mechanization of agriculture are the cure-all. The 3rd institution specifically geared to making loans to the Caribbean countries is the Caribbean Development Bank, whose accumulated lending amounted to $435 million as of 31 December 1983.