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  1. 1

    World development report 1993. Investing in health.

    World Bank

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.

    The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
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  2. 2

    The world's women 1970-1990: trends and statistics.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Statistical Office; United Nations. Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs; UNICEF; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1991. xiv, 120 p. (Social Statistics and Indicators Series K No. 8; ST/ESA/STAT/SER.K/8)

    5 UN agencies worked together to develop this statistical source book to generate awareness of women's status, to guide policy, to stimulate action, and to monitor progress toward improvements. The data clearly show that obvious differences between the worlds of men and women are women's role as childbearer and their almost complete responsibility for family care and household management. Overall, women have gained more control over their reproduction, but their responsibility to their family's survival and their own increased. Women tend to be the providers of last resort for families and themselves, often in hostile conditions. Women have more access to economic opportunities and accept greater economic roles, yet their economic employment often consists of subsistence agriculture and services with low productivity, is separate from men's work, and unequal to men's work. Economists do not consider much of the work women do as having any economic value so they do not even measure it. The beginning of each chapter states the core messages in 4-5 sentences. Each chapter consists of text accompanied by charts, tables, and/or regional stories. The 1st chapter covers women, families, and households. The 2nd chapter addresses the public life and leadership of women. Education and training dominate chapter 3. Health and childbearing are the topics of chapter 4 while housing, settlements, and the environment comprise chapter 5. The book concludes with a chapter on women's employment and the economy. The annexes include strategies for the advancement of women decided upon in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985, the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and geographical groupings of countries and areas. During the 1990s, we must invest in women to realize equitable and sustainable development.
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  3. 3

    Future prospects of the number and structure of the households in developing countries.

    Kono S

    In: Population prospects in developing countries: structure and dynamics, edited by Atsushi Otomo, Haruo Sagaza, and Yasuko Hayase. Tokyo, Japan, Institute of Developing Economies, 1985. 115-40, 329. (I.D.E. Statistical Data Series No. 46)

    This paper reviews the various methods of projecting future numbers of households, summarizes prospective major trends in the numbers of households and the average household size among the developing countries prepared by the UN Population Division in 1981, and analyzes the size structure of households among the developing countries in contrast to the developed nations. The purpose of this analysis is to prepare household projections by size (average number of persons in a household) for the developing countries. The headship rate method is now the most widely used procedure for projecting households. The headship rate denotes a ratio of the number of heads of households, classified by sex, age, and other demographic characteristics such as marital status, to the corresponding classes of population. When population projections have become available by sex, age, and other characteristics, the projected number of households is obtained by adding up over all classes the product of projected population and projected headship rate. In addition to the headship rate method, this paper also reviews other approaches, namely, simple household-to-population ratio method; life-table method, namely the Brown-Glass-Davidson models; vital statistics method by Illing; and projections by simulation. Experience indicates that the effect of changes in population by sex and age is usually the most important determinant of the change in the number of households and it would be wasteful if the household projections failed to employ readily population projections. Future changes in the number of households among the developing countries are very significant. According to the 1981 UN projections, the future increase in the number of households both in the developed and developing countries will far exceed that in population. In 1975-80 the annual average growth rate of households was 2.89% for the developing countries as a whole while that for population was 2.08%. In 1980-85, the growth rate for households for the developing countries will be 2.99%, while that for population will be 2.04%. In 1995-2000 the figure for household growth will be 2.89%, whereas that for population will be 1.77%. The past trend of fertility is the most important factor for the reduction of household size and it would continuously be the central factor. The increasing headship rates will be observed among the sex-age groups, except the young female groups, as a result of increasing nuclearization in households.
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  4. 4

    The potential of national household survey programmes for monitoring and evaluating primary health care in developing countries. L'apport potentiel des enquetes nationales sur les menages a la surveillance et a l'evaluation des soins de sante primaires dans les pays en developpement.

    Carlson BA

    World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(1):38-64.

    National programs of household sample surveys, such as those being encouraged through the National Household Survey Capability Program (NHSCP), are a principal source of information on primary health care in developing countries. Being representative of the total population, the major population subgroups and geographic subdivisions, they permit calculation of health status and utilization of health services. Household surveys have an important role to play in monitoring and evaluating primary health care since they sample directly the intended beneficiaries, and so can be used to judge the extent to which programs are meeting expected goals. Caution is necessary, however, since methodological problems have been experienced for many evaluation surveys. National surveys are especially appropriate for measuring many indicators of progress towards national goals within a broad socioeconomic perspective. Future directions in making the optimum use of household surveys for health program purposes are indicated. The NHSCP is a major undertaking of the UN system including WHO to collaborate with developing countries to establish a continuing flow of integrated statistics on a recurrent basis to support the national development process and information priorities. It brings together the principal users and producers of data to plan and conduct surveys which respond to national needs and priorities. The NHSCP encourages countries to employ a permanent national field organization for data collection. Areas of discussion are: the potential for monitoring and evaluation, the household survey as a source of health indicators, the demand for household surveys of health, followed by a summary of the health and health-related topics covered by 6 national health and nutrition surveys conducted in several developing countries. The special themes of infant and child mortality, morbidity and nutritional surveillance are also considered. The experience of many developed countries has been very positive with the use of nonmedically organized health surveys. Although the sample survey can be used in many settings to obtain population-based data, it must be carefully designed and implemented according to scientific procedures in order for the results to be validly extrapolated to the population or subgroups of primary concern.
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  5. 5

    Fresh thinking on fertility.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    Populi. 1983; 10(1):13-35.

    Levels and trends of fertility throughout the world during the 1970s are assessed in an effort to show how certain factors, modifications of which are directly or indirectly specified in the World Population Plan of Action as development goals, affected fertility and conditions of the family during the past decade. The demographic factors considered include age structure, marriage age, marital status, types of marital unions, and infant and early childhood mortality. The social, economic, and other factors include rural-urban residence, women's work, familial roles and family structure, social development, and health and contraceptive practice. Recent data indicate that the rate at which children are born into the world as a whole has continued its slow decline. During 1975-80 there were, on the average, 29 live births/1000 population at mid year. During the preceding 5-year period, there occurred annually about 32 live births/1000 population. This change represents a decline of 3 births/1000 population worldwide and approximately 14 million fewer births over a period of 5 years. This change in the global picture largely reflects the precipitous downward course that appears to have characterized China's crude birthrate. There are marked differences in fertility levels between developing and developed regions. In developing countries, births occurred on the average at the rate of 33/1000 population during 1975-80, compared with only about 16/1000 in the developed nations. Levels of the crude birthrate varied even more among individual countries. The changes in levels and trends of fertility may be attributed to many of the factors noted in the Plan of Action as requiring national and international efforts at improvement. The populations of the less developed and more developed regions as a whole aged somewhat during the decade of the 1970s. In both regions, the number of women in the reproductive ages increased relative to the size of the total population, but the change was more marked in the less developed regions. Recommendations in the Plan of Action as to establishment of an appropriate minimum age at 1st marriage subsume existence of too low an age at 1st marriage mainly in certain developing countries. The Plan of Action calls for the reduction of infant mortality as a goal in itself using a variety of means. Achievement of this goal might also affect fertility. Recent findings concerning the influence of social, economic, and other factors upon fertility levels and change are summarized, with focus on topics highlighted in the World Population Plan of Action.
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  6. 6

    Estimates and projections of the number of households by country, 1975-2000 based on the 1973 assessment of population estimates and projections.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, UN, 1981 May 15. 76 p. (ESA/P/WP.73)

    The household estimates and projections presented in this report cover the period 1975-2000 and use the population estimates as assessed in 1978. The purpose of these household estimates is to respond to the need for demographic projections in terms of individual traits such as sex, age, labor force status, occupation, and urban-rural residential status and in terms of group characteristics such as the family and household composition. Families and households form the primary unit where individuals are socialized and interact with each other, and, consequently, can be considered as the molecular units of a population. The objectives of this report are to apply existing projections methods to available data, discuss the major problems encountered in their application, especially with regard to the estimation and projection of headship rates, and present the results. The detailed results are presented in tables and provide the total number of households, their annual rates of growth, and average household size by area, region, and country for each 5-year period between 1975 and 2000 according to medium, high, low, and constant variants. During the next 2 decades, it is expected that the number of households in the world will increase at a faster rate than the world's population. The total number of households of the world, which is estimated to have been about 909 million in 1975, is projected to increase by another 775 million (85%), reaching 1684 million by the turn of the century (medium variant). The range of the low and high variants is 1622 and 1754 million, respectively. The average household size for the world population is projected to decline from 4.4 persons in 1975 to 3.7 persons in the year 2000, reflecting the expected future fertility declines and the assumed increases in headship rates. The relatively rapid increases of households projected for the less developed regions is largely due to their high rates of population growth and to expected changes in headship rates. Among the 8 major areas of the world, the rate of increase in the number of households will be the highest in Africa and Latin America. The lowest average annual growth is expected in Europe.
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