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Education for the prevention of AIDS. No. 1. Selection of extracts from teachers' guides. Revised ed. Education pour la prevention du SIDA. Selection d'extraits de guides pedagogiques a l'usage des enseignants. Educacion para la prevencion del SIDA. Seleccion de paginas de guias pedagogicas para el uso de personal docente.
[Paris, France], UNESCO, 1992 Oct. , 146 p.UNESCO's AIDS School Education Resource Center (ASERC), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), has compiled eight teachers' guides from Australia, Canada, Cameroon, Spain, the Pacific islands, Uganda, and the US (Hispanic curriculum). The teachers' ability to consider the myths, taboos, attitudes, habits, and knowledge of their students determines the effectiveness of AIDS preventive education. There are different approaches to effectively teach secondary school students. Essentially all the guides have a section on knowledge and information about HIV/AIDS (e.g., ways to prevent HIV transmission and clinical symptoms) and a section on appropriate attitudes and behavior towards HIV/AIDS (e.g., adopting preventive behavior). This last section contains participatory activities on decision making and on how students should behave towards and deal with persons with AIDS. Various teaching aids proposed by the guides include transparencies, fact sheets for teachers, pupils' guides, videocassettes, films, ideas for making puppets, and a glossary. Annex 1 has a pre-test that teachers can use to assess student knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards AIDS. Annex 2 lists bibliographical references to other guides available at ASERC.
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
Health promotion for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV infection and other STDs: a combined strategy for the 1990s.
[Unpublished] 1990 Jul. , 15,  p. (Working Paper 4)This document presents a rationale for a combined health promotion strategy to prevent sexual transmission of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It is geared to policy makers, program managers, and health educators of international and national organizations, both governmental and nongovernmental. One reason for a combined strategy is that the strategies for primary prevention of HIV infection and other STDs are similar and complementary. A combined approach will be more cost-effective than that for separate approaches. Other STDs facilitate HIV transmission; so high risk groups and the general public need to be informed of this greater risk. Thus, prevention and control of other STDs is a top priority for reducing HIV transmission. STD services can provide HIV prevention activities (education, counseling, and condom promotion and distribution). When health providers stress the serious effects of other STDs, they effect increased motivation for safer sex, particularly in areas with low HIV prevalence. A combined approach would also make optimal use of achievement, expertise, and resources of both HIV/AIDS and STD control programs and would avoid duplication of efforts. Almost all international organizations and donor agencies supported a combined health promotion strategy. In fact, some organizations already have a combined approach. The World Health Organization (WHO) should publish a document on STD basics for health promotion workers. It should adapt its Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control to make it easier to plan a combined strategy. WHO should develop specific guidelines for health promotion for the prevention and control of STDs and HIV. Research on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices should guide national AIDS/STD health promotion programs. These programs should be integrated with other components of the AIDS/STD program. WHO needs to create an STD health promotion specialist position with this professional being based in Geneva.
AIDS ANALYSIS ASIA. 1995 Jul-Aug; 1(4):2.The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) has launched a study, "Progress of Nations," of standards of health, education, nutrition, and progress for women. It reveals that many rich nations have records on health, nutrition, and women's rights that are much worse than those of poorer countries. Economic growth does not necessarily result in a better standard of living for the majority of people. "Progress of Nations" uses specific indicators to gauge achievements, then ranks each country accordingly; it also states how much individual nations are contributing to the global aid budget, and where funds are being spent. A table lists countries chronologically in order of introduction of education about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Singapore (1986), Sri Lanka (1986), Japan (1987), China (1989), Thailand (1989), Hong Kong (1990), Malaysia (1991), and Viet Nam (1991) have done so. As of early 1993, Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia, India, Lao Republic, Nepal, Pakistan, and the Philippines had not incorporated sex education into school curriculums. One section examines the fertility decline since 1963 in all countries and the unmet need for family planning. In Thailand and Indonesia, where population growth has been reduced dramatically over the last 30 years, 12% and 14% of married women aged 15-49 years want to stop having children or to postpone the next pregnancy for at least 2 years, but are not using contraception.
NEW YORK TIMES. 1992 Jun 4; A1, B10.The international AIDS Center at the Harvard School of Public Health led a coalition of AIDS research from around the world in an analysis of more than 100 AIDS programs and discovered that the HIV/AIDS pandemic is more serious than WHO claims. Its findings are in the book called AIDS in the World 1992. AIDS programs do not implement efforts that are known to prevent the spread of HIV. For example, clinicians in developing countries continue to transfuse unscreened blood to many patients, even though HIV serodiagnostic test have existed since 1985. Further, programs do not evaluate what works in other programs. As long as people debate whether or not to distribute condoms, exchange needles, or offer sex education and whether people with AIDS deserve care, the fight against HIV/AIDS is hindered. The report recommends that leader come up with a new strategy to address the AIDS pandemic. WHO claims to have done just that at its May 1992 meeting. An obstacle for WHO is political pressure from member nations. On the other hand, the private Swiss foundation, Association Francois-Xavier Bagnoud, finances the Harvard-based AIDS program, allowing members more freedom to speak out. The head of the Harvard program believes the major impact of AIDS has not yet arrived. Contributing to the continual spread of HIV is the considerable difference of funding for AIDS prevention and control activities between developed and developing countries (e.g., $2.70 per person in the US and $1.18 in Europe vs. $.07 in sub-Saharan Africa and $.03 in Latin America). Even though developed countries provide about $780 million for AIDS prevention and care in developing countries, they do not enter in bilateral agreements with developing countries. 57 countries limit travel and immigration of people with HIV/AIDS. Further, efforts to drop these laws have stopped. Densely populated nations impose travel constraints to prevent an explosive spread of HIV.
CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 1992 Jul; 38(7):314-5.Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1992; 13(2-3):232-6.In 1989, the city of Rennes, France created its healthy city committee consisting of people from different sectors to strengthen health and the environment and to encourage public participation. It organized existing activities and integrated the health dimension into municipal decisions at all levels to create joint healthy city projects. For example, over 18 months, the Brittany Youth Information Center, the city of Rennes, the National School of Public Health, representatives of about 60 groups, teenagers, and private citizens organized and implemented an adolescent health week in November 1990. The intersectoral and participative approach of preparation resulted in new working relationships contributing to health for all. Some other healthy city projects included noise abatement actions, family gardens, a health information and documentation center, creation of a sexually transmitted disease/AIDS group, and roof safety campaigns. Organizers of all projects considered the health criteria including quality of the environment, support for the disabled, safety, and access to health care. Rennes became part of national and regional networks in France consisting of 30 cities. It also joined the WHO-European network and the French-speaking network where cities shared information via meetings and symposia. WHO emphasized a different health promotion topic each year such as community participation and equity. Issues discussed at the 1990 symposium in Stockholm were clean cities campaigns, nonpolluting urban transportation, the social and cultural environment, and unique urban problems of eastern European countries. The French-speaking network involved French-speaking areas and countries in Canada, Europe, and Africa. Sharing problems of cities in the developed countries could allow developing countries to avoid some of the same problems. The healthy cities approach cannot be just the responsibility of municipal authorities but also requires the backing of national governments and international groups.
NURSING JOURNAL OF INDIA. 1992 Apr; 83(4):82-90.Heart attacks and stroke kill about 12 million people each year or 25% of all deaths. No other single disease takes so many lives or disables so many people each year. Besides many of these dead are <65 years old resulting in considerable premature deaths. Heart attacks and stroke caused by life style choices even affect people living in developing countries as these countries reduce the prevalence of infectious diseases and develop socioeconomically with their concomitant increase in life expectancies. People in these countries still develop heart diseases that almost do not even exist in developed countries including rheumatic heart disease and heart disease caused by Chagas' disease. Crowded living conditions caused by poverty and limited medical services cause strep throat which left untreated can turn into rheumatic fever and then to heart disease. Yet treatment with penicillin protects against all 3 conditions. About 300,000 new rheumatic heart disease cases arise each year. Yearly deaths from rheumatic heart disease equals about 60,000. Poverty is also responsible for Chagas' disease of which about 17 million suffer in Latin America. In developing countries, the middle class is at highest risk of hypertension. Health promotion activities have resulted in a decline in cardiovascular diseases in developed countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. These activities include health education, diet changes, exercise, and no tobacco use. These activities also reduce the prevalence of other diseases thus keeping populations healthier longer. It is important that the healthy life styles begin when children are young. WHO dedicated World Health Day 1992 to heart health to promote heart healthy activities which can save 6 million lives yearly.
AIDS Education and Prevention. 1992 Fall; Suppl:1-13.Homelessness among youth is universal, but is particularly great in developing countries. Children advocates have categorized youth with no fixed address in the US as runaways, throwaways, homeless youth, system youth, and street youth. About 50% of such youth are system youth who have lived in institutions or foster homes. Around 21% are children whose parents forced them out of the home. 60% have been sexually abused at home. Homeless youth are at higher risk of HIV than those who have a home. This risk comes primarily from unprotected, often homosexual, intercourse and iv drug use. Some subgroups of street youth in Brazil have an HIV prevalence rate of 35%. Street youth take on these risky behaviors to just survive. PAHO, WHO, and UNICEF have placed HIV prevention among teenagers as a top priority. VArious countries have hosted national and international conferences on this topic. In June 1990, the 1st International Conference on AIDS and Homeless Youth took place in San Francisco to gather international community specialists from 32 countries to respond to the AIDS crisis. Many recommendations came from this conference. 1st, all nations and international bodies must recognize and enforce the rights of children. Street youth must have access to comprehensive health care (mental health care, treatment for substance abuse, bereavement services, and HIV testing and counseling). Health workers must be prepared to provide street-based services. HIV prevention messages based in reality must reach these children. Research needs include epidemiologic data, cross-national and cross-cultural trends, ethnographic descriptions, and high risk behaviors. The next international conference is planned for September 1992 in Brazil and will include street youths as delegates.
[Unpublished] 1992 Apr. , 13 p.Leaders of WHO and the International Union for Health Education have joined to review health education as it exists in various regions and nations of the world. Health education should be a focus of national and international strategies to foster health for all. The blend of planned social actions and learning experience which allow people to control the causes of health and health behaviors and those conditions which influence their health status and that of others embraces health education. People and community participation is needed in health education since it supports respect for others and a groundwork for following joint efforts and partnerships. Health behaviors consist of healthy life styles, preventive behaviors, and social actions that lead to equitable health, environmental, and social policies. Constant and complex changes in biological, social, and environmental factors affect health. For example, chronic diseases have replaced infectious diseases as the leading public health problem. Yet new communicable diseases, e.g., AIDS, have appeared in developing and developed countries. Health educators, health workers, teachers, parents, and friends must all promote health education. Successful health education programs have various management and technical program characteristics. For example, they have access to the financial resources needed to plan, staff, conduct, and manage the program. Political will, staff and resources to support program operations, a solid organizational structure including high level administrative and management support, and accessible services are all principal components of successful programs. Such programs also face clear, flexible goals. Other important characteristics include careful planning, monitoring, and evaluating of programs; using multiple theories or models; intersectoral collaboration; many intervention methods; participation; and qualified staff. Health educators and others working toward health for all should do so through advocacy, empowerment, and support strategies.
HYGIE. 1992; 11(2 Suppl):8-14.In 1991, the Executive Director of UNICEF addressed the World Conference on Health Education in Helsinki, Finland which centered on international cooperation in improving health. Health educators should convince world leaders to apply the money available after reductions in military spending due to the end of the Cold War toward revitalizing health and education systems and alleviating poverty. Another opportunity that they should not let slip away is that more countries are choosing democracy. The international consensus is now leaning toward human centered development. At least 71 national leaders and representatives from 88 other countries have supported the World Summit Plan of Action which emphasizes health education efforts leading toward child survival. This global, political endorsement also presents a plan for social mobilization. Health educators have already contributed greatly to the success of achieving universal child immunization (>80%) by the end of 1990. They communicated health education messages via the mass media and traditional channels to motivate individuals and society to immunize their children. UNICEF has 27 goals for the 1990s such as eradication of polio and guinea worm disease. In 1989, UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, and about 100 other agencies began the Facts for Life initiative by 1st publishing a book. Lay and professional health educators have incorporated its messages into various media: street theater, radio, comics, soap operas, billboards, T-shirts, and bumper stickers. Medical research has shown that individual responsibility for one's own health adds years to life expectancy, e.g., individuals should not smoke. Health educators face the challenge of reaching adolescents, especially since most behavior patterns are established during adolescence. Other challenges include developing effective messages to curb the AIDS pandemic, to motivate hospitals to promote breast feeding, and to encourage world leaders to place children's needs at the top of society's priorities.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1991; 12(4):496-7.WHO estimates that the number of AIDS cases worldwide will grow from about 1.5 million to 12-18 million by 2000--a 10 fold increase. Further it expects the cumulative number of HIV infected individuals to increase from 9-11 million to 30-40 million by 2000--a 3-4 fold increase. Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, the Director-General of WHO, points out that despite the rise in AIDS, there is something for which to be thankful--neither air, nor water, nor insects disseminate HIV and causal social contact does not transmit it. Further since AIDS is basically a sexually transmitted disease, health education can inform people of the need to make life style changes which in turn prevents its spread. In addition, Dr. Nakajima illustrates how frank health education and information campaigns in the homosexual community in developed countries have resulted in reduced infection rates. In fact, many of the people disseminating the safer sex message in the homosexual community were people living with HIV and AIDS. HIV has infected >7 million adults and children in Sub-Saharan Africa since the AIDS pandemic began. It is now spreading quickly in south and southeast Asia where at least 1 million people carry HIV. In fact, WHO believes that by the mid to late 1990s HIV will infect more Asians than Africans. Further Latin America is not HIV free and it can be easily spread there too. Heterosexual intercourse has replaced homosexual intercourse and needle sharing by intravenous drug users as the leading route of HIV transmission.
NURSE EDUCATION TODAY. 1991 Aug; 11(4):245-7.The international aspects of midwife education are discusses: the 5 most pressing questions concerning midwife education, steps taken by world health bodies to improve midwife educationists. The most challenging issues are international health studies in all programs; including the role of WHO, and other international agencies; instruction analyzing influence of Western on developing nations; content on demographic, economic and political factors affecting health of developing countries; and how health care educationists can achieve health for all. In the light of the WHO Safe Motherhood Initiative embodied in the slogan "Health For All," midwives all over the world are committed to reduce maternal mortality 50% by 2000. ICM/WHO/UNICEF made an action statement in 1987, the World Health Assembly published a Resolution on Material Health and Safe Motherhood, and a Resolution on Strengthening Nursing Midwifery. In 1990 the Governments of 70 countries committed to safe motherhood, i.e., 50% reduction of maternal mortality, as part of the World Declaration and Plan of Action on Survival, Development and Protection of Children, at a meeting at the UN. 1990 40 midwife educationists met in Kobe, Japan at a Pre-Congress Workshop before the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM), of the WHO/UNICEF. They discussed ways to approach the 5 major causes of maternal mortality: postpartum hemorrhage, obstructed labor, puerperal sepsis, eclampsia and abortion. Each participant assessed the status of midwife education in her own country. Some of the factors affecting maternal and child health are illiteracy, low status of women, population growth, and inadequate food production and distribution. There is a shortage of midwife teachers and teaching materials, and curricula are usually based on inappropriate Western models. In Europe, midwives still have much work to do to reduce maternal morbidity.
NETWORK. 1991 Sep; 12(2):14-7, 27.Many unwanted births and pregnancies could be avoided by improving instructions for and comprehension of the use of oral contraceptives. Employed less than only the IUD, the oral contraceptive pill is the 2nd- most widely used reversible form of contraception, used by 8% of all married women of reproductive age. 6-20% of pill users, however, fall pregnant due to improper pill use. Improving instructions in the pill pack, ensuring that instructions are correct, and working to facilitate user understanding and motivation have been identified as priorities in maximizing the overall potential effectiveness of the pill against pregnancy. Since packets in developing countries may consist of pills in cycles of 21, 22, 28, or 35 days, providers must also be trained to instruct users in a manner consistent with the written instructions. Pictorial information should be available especially for semi-literate and illiterate audiences. The essay describes recommendation for instruction standardization and simplification put forth by Family Health International, and endorsed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. International Planned Parenthood Federation efforts to increase awareness of this issues are discussed.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
JORDEMODERN. 1987 Jun; 100(6):172-3.As long as breast-feeding in the developing and developed countries is threatened by bottle-feeding and too early introduction of supplementary diets, the discussion about how breast-feeding is best protected must be kept alive within the organizations and the mass media. Representatives of the Swedish private organizations' foreign assistance programs participated in a seminar on April 3, 1987 in Stockholm, arranged by the Nordic Work Group for International Breast-Feeding Questions in cooperation with International Child Health (ICH). Breast-feeding increased strongly in Sweden during the 1970s, but bottle-feeding is still the norm in large parts of Europe and continues to increase in the developing countries. 6 years have passed since the international code for marketing of breast milk substitutes (even called the child food code) was approved by WHO, in 1981. It contains rules that limit companies' marketing efforts and establish responsibilities and duties that apply to health personnel. The application of these rules is slow and differences between company policies and practice exist. In a larger perspective, we are dealing with the position and significance of woman and children within the family and society. During a WHO meeting in 1986, a resolution was adopted that reinforces the content of the code, e.g., it stops the distribution of free breast milk substitutes to the hospital, where free samples are often given to leaving mothers. The WHO countries also expressed negative feeling toward marketing child food during a period where breast-feeding may be affected negatively. How the resolution is going to be implemented in Sweden is not yet known. There are signs that even in Sweden the existence of the code is being forgotten. The seminar participants recommended that the Social Board issue a simplified and easily read reminder about the code for wider distribution in Sweden.
[The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.
Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
[The Collaborating Centers of the World Health Organization and AIDS: report of a meeting of the World Health Organization] Les Centres Collaborateurs de l'OMS et le SIDA: memorandum d'une reunion de l'OMS.
BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1986; 64(1):63-8.The World Health Organization (WHO) meeting on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) held in Geneva in September 1985 stressed the importance of the WHO collaborating centers in the worldwide struggle against AIDS. The network of collaborating centers was established after and April 1985 WHO meeting to facilitate international cooperation in training of laboratory personnel, supplying reference reactives, evaluating diagnostic tests, and organizing activities to establish the natural history of the disease in different parts of the world. The AIDS virus is transmitted during sexual intercourse, by parenteral exposure to blood or contaminated blood products, or from the mother to the infant during the perinatal period. In the US and Western Europe, over 90% of victims are still homosexual and bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and their sexual partners, but in many developing countries heterosexuals with active sex lives are the main victims. There are no indications that the virus is spread by casual contact or by insect vectors. Health authorities of all countries should establish surveillance programs to measure the extent of AIDS infection. A precise case definition including only the most serious manifestations of the disease should be used. The US Centers for Disease Control definition has been approved for countries with appropriate diagnostic capabilities. Only immunological diagnostic methods are practical for large scale routine testing. Radioimmunological and immunoenzymatic titers are the most frequently used routine testing procedures. They are very sensitive, but because of the possibility of false positive results, confirmation using another test is needed for individuals belonging to low risk populations. The Western blot or other immunoblotting tests are most often used for confirmation. Progress in laboratory diagnosis would be furthered if international reference standards, simpler diagnostic tests, and other measures were made avaliable. Until drugs capable of preventing and treating AIDS become available, prevention will depend mainly on reduction of risks based on information and education. Cases of AIDS spread by blood transfusion can be eliminated by excluding donors belonging to high-risk groups and by testing the blood for antibodies before transfusion. Reuse of nonsterile needles and syringes should be absolutely avoided. Despite efforts to identify an effective agent for treatment of AIDS, no substance has been found as yet that supplies more than a transitory arrest of viral replication. Interferon has been shown to be effective against Kaposi's sarcoma. New antiviral agents should be careful studied in conformity with accepted protocols for drug evaluation. Numerous attempts to develop an anti-AIDS vaccine are underway. The heterogeneity of the virus poses a significant problem. Several specific recommendations for its 1986-87 program were made to further the role of the WHO as a centraL clearinghouse for AIDS information.
Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: country reports.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xiv, 89 p.UNFPA has provided funding for various family life education (FLE) projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean since the mid-1970s; this report is an independent evaluation of the projects in Antigua, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, St. Lucia, and St. Christopher and Nevis. Although birth rates are relatively low in the English-speaking Caribbean, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and the number of births to women under the age of 20 is an important problem in the region. The Mission concluded overall that the projects have contributed to pioneering and groundbreaking efforts demonstrating that it is possible to initiate and make considerable progress in the implementation of FLE/FP programs for adolescents even when adolescent pregnancy and births are still highly sensitive and controversial issues and when there are no official policies in favor of such programs. The Mission concluded also that project design had improved over the years and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. All the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers, and nurses and, as a result, have significantly strengthened professional national capability. The projects have shown that despite the lack of official policy approving FLE in schools and generally overcrowded curricula, FLE can be introduced into schools. In the area of FP service delivery, the projects included in the evaluation have contributed to making FP services generally available through integration with the government maternal and child health services. The main management issues across the projects were similar and included staffing, coordination, supervision, monitoring and evaluation. There is a need to adjust project design so that gender separation is minimized and that the FLE content deals better with issues such as self-awareness, sex roles, and self-esteem. The wider impact of the projects included in this evaluation, to be reflected, for example, in reduced incidence of teenage pregnancy, reduced maternal and infant/child morbidity and mortality, and more generally in the life patterns of women, cannot yet be measured.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50  p.The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
Population Review. 1980 Jan-Dec; 24(1-2):5-8.The medical system perfectd in India--"Knowledge of the Span of Life"--in many ways foreshadowed the World Health Organization's (WHOs) own definition of health as a "state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing." The goal of "health for all by the year 2000" envisages strengthening of public health programs of developing countries, where most diseases are concomitants of economic backwardness. Yet, it should not be assumed that developed countries are without health problems. They are experiencing the tensions, mental and physical, to which residents of densely populated cities succumb. Once it is recognized that better health is not simply an offshoot of overall economic development, and that major improvements in health are possible in the absence of industrialization, it follows that the patterns of public health and health administration of advanced countries are not necessarily appropriate for developing nations. What must be stressed is the need for a health revolution in developing countries, to wipe out diseases and to make available specialized treatment as well as to provide basic health care and to take preventive measures. Education from the earliest stages needs to include certain elementary information about health, sanitation, cleanliness, the avoidance of contagious diseases, and the preservation of the environment which is closely linked to these. There is a need at this time for a global campaign for eradication of leprosy, prevention of blindness, and greater research to produce an ideal contraceptive. Family planning programs are awaiting a big breakthrough. Without a safe, preferably oral, drug which women and men can take, no amount of government commitment and political determination will bring success.
New York, New York, IPPF, .  p.This Annual Report 1983 of the Western Hemisphere Region International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) presents a selection of activities of all 43 associations. The annual meeting of the Western Hemisphere Regional Council offered a striking contrast to the 1st meeting in 1953. In 1983, the total regional enterprise contained some 3500 paid employees and even larger number of active volunteers. It involved large numbers of cooperating physicians, the direct participation of universities, hospitals, and other community institutions, and had the support of thousands of community distributors. These were people operating a total of 2044 clinics and 11,894 community distribution posts. Their messages went out through press, raido, and television and reached 3/4 of the Hemisphere's population. The comparison of the 2 meetings 30 years apart testifies to the successes realized by the associations in the Western Hemisphere. Their accomplishments serve to reveal the full measure of the task they set for themselves. This was to demonstrate that family planning is the strongest single correlate of family health. It was to establish family planning as a human right and to show that the practice of family planning helps to develop attitudes of mind in which people reassert control over their lives. Yet the full task calls for constantly new approaches in which success has not yet been won. This report comments on a number of these, of which the following are a partial list: the integration of family planning with other development strategies, including broad-scale community development; the addition to family planning of other elements of primary health care; the incorporation into family planning programs of a direct attack on infant mortality through vaccinations, oral rehydration therapy, and the promotion of breastfeeding; a renewed emphasis on the advancement of women; and the elaboration of fresh approaches to national leadership. Success is always partial, yet it can lead to the mistaken idea that the ultimate answers have been found. The family planning associations in Latin America and the Caribbean have had to pay a price for their achievements -- in complacencies on the part of international donors and official sectors that have come to see the Region's population problems as essentially "solved." On the other hand, the regional network is firmly established and subject to a constant review that seeks to improve service delivery. The trend toward program integration directs the associations toward new and challenging activities.