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In: Methodological foundations for research on the determinants of health development, by World Health Organization [WHO]. [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Office of Research Promotion and Development, 1985. 1-7. (RPD/SOC/85)Health development planning is part of overall development planning and is influenced by the total development process. Those dealing with health planning may present the health sector's development as the most important aspect of development whereas there may be more urgent problems in other sectors. All socioeconomic plans aim at improving the quality of life. There is some correlation between spending on health programs and the health indices. The health indices are poor in countries which accord low priority to health. A table gives measure of health status by level of GNP/capita in selected countries. No direct correlation appears between income and mortality. This paper examines the functions of health development planning; health development plans; intersectoral collaboration; health information; strategy; financial aspects; implementation, evaluation and reprogramming; and manpower needs. A health development plan usually includes an analysis of the current situation; a review of the immediate past plan and previous plans; the objectives, strategy, targets and physical infrastructure of the plan; program philosophy with manpower requirements; financial implications; and the role of the private sector and nongovernment organizations and related constraints. The main health-related determinants include: education, increased school attendance, agriculture and water, food distribution and income, human resources programs and integrated rural development. The strategy of health sector development today is geared towards development of integrated health systems. Intercountry coordination may be improved with aid from the WHO. Health expenditures in countries including Bangladesh, India and Norway is presented.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.