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Poverty in Focus. 2007 Oct; (12):6-7.Two years ago at Gleneagles, the G8 countries promised to double their aid to Africa. Since then, they have written off a substantial part of the external debt to the largest and oil-richest country, Nigeria. But new aid to the continent has stayed flat. In 2006, while Europe increased its aid, the two largest G8 economies, USA and Japan, reduced theirs. Africa, quite rightly, commands the growing attention of donors. But aid amount targets, both for Africa and globally, are often missed. Does that matter? This article makes four propositions: (i) traditional aid amount targeting is following a false scent in development terms; (ii) supply-driven aid has questionable value; (iii) aid should be more concerned with genuine country-based development goals; and (iv) rich countries should use aid as a means of facilitation, not as patronage. Targeting aid amounts is nothing new. In 1970, the UN set the target of 0.7 per cent of rich countries' Gross National Product (GNP) for Official Development Assistance (ODA). Since then a growing number of donor countries have stated their intention to reach it. The main purpose for setting such targets for aid is to create and sustain a momentum for ODA. While most donors haven't met the target, many have agreed that they should increase assistance to the poor countries. For the politicians of the rich countries and their constituents, therefore, aid volume targeting plays a useful role in reminding governments of their obligations. The two largest donors, however-USA and Japan-are exceptions. (excerpt)
Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2007 Jul; 7(7):439.The 2007 Group of Eight (G8) summit, which took place in Heiligendamm, Germany, on June 6-8, has been described by John Kirton (G8 Research Group, University of Toronto, Canada) as an "emerging centre of democratic global governance". Like many self-appointed elites, the G8 is an idiosyncratic club. The eight started as six in 1975 with a meeting in Rambouillet, France, of the heads of government of France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the USA-the most economically powerful democratic nations. This annual forum for discussion of matters of mutual interest was joined by Canada in 1976, by the European Union in 1977, and by Russia in 1997. Although the G8 nations account for nearly two-thirds of world economic output, the Russian economy is not among the world's top eight, whereas China with the fourth largest economy remains outside the G8 club. (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007 Mar; 85(3):192-199.International health policy-makers now have a variety of institutional instruments with which to pursue their global and national health goals. These instruments range from the established formal multilateral organizations of the United Nations to the newer restricted-membership institutions of the Group of Eight (G8). To decide where best to deploy scarce resources, we must systematically examine the G8's contributions to global health governance. This assessment explores the contributions made by multilateral institutions such as the World Health Organization, and whether Member States comply with their commitments. We assessed whether G8 health governance assists its member governments in managing domestic politics and policy, in defining dominant normative directions, in developing and complying with collective commitments and in developing new G8-centred institutions. We found that the G8's performance improved substantially during the past decade. The G8 Member States function equally well, and each is able to combat diseases. Compliance varied among G8 Member States with respect to their health commitments, and there is scope for improvement. G8 leaders should better define their health commitments and set a one-year deadline for their delivery. In addition, Member States must seek WHO's support and set up an institution for G8 health ministers. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Dec; 84(12):992-999.In addition to food, sanitation and access to health facilities children require adequate care at home for survival and optimal development. Responsiveness, a mother's/caregiver's prompt, contingent and appropriate interaction with the child, is a vital parenting tool with wide-ranging benefits for the child, from better cognitive and psychosocial development to protection from disease and mortality. We examined two facets of responsive parenting -- its role in child health and development and the effectiveness of interventions to enhance it -- by conducting a systematic review of literature from both developed and developing countries. Our results revealed that interventions are effective in enhancing maternal responsiveness, resulting in better child health and development, especially for the neediest populations. Since these interventions were feasible even in poor settings, they have great potential in helping us achieve the Millennium Development Goals. We suggest that responsiveness interventions be integrated into child survival strategies. (author's)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.Population dynamics and reproductive health are central to development and must be an integral part of development planning and poverty reduction strategies. Promoting the goals of the United Nations Conferences, including those of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), is vital for laying the foundation to reduce poverty in many of the poorest countries. At the ICPD in 1994, the international community agreed that US $17 billion would be needed in 2000 and $18.5 billion in 2005 to finance programmes in the area of population dynamics, reproductive health, including family planning, maternal health and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, as well as programmes that address the collection, analysis and dissemination of population data. Two thirds of the required amount would be mobilized by developing countries themselves and one third, $6.1 billion in 2005, was to come from the international community. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2005.  p.The 1994 Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD PoA) recommended a regular review of its implementation. This publication presents the official outcomes of the ICPD at Ten review. The declarations, resolutions, statements and action plans included here are taken from the official meeting reports of the United Nations Regional Commissions and the Commission on Population and Development, held between 2002-2004. Each region undertook a review process most relevant to its situation, so the review outcomes may vary across regions. The Introduction to this volume is comprised of the Opening Statement by Louise Fréchette, Deputy Secretary-General, United Nations at the General Assembly Commemoration of the Tenth Anniversary of the ICPD, held on 14 October 2004. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2005 Jul 16; 366(9481):177.This year people in bars and at football matches were asking about the Group of 8 (G8) nations summit in Gleneagles, Scotland. Such unprecedented popular interest was prompted by Bob Geldof’s Live 8 concerts and the Make Poverty History campaign. These initiatives were organised to raise awareness about African poverty and to pressure politicians into tackling the preventable global burden of disease afflicting billions of people living in low-income settings. When asked if his lobbying had paid off, Geldof said, “A great justice has been done”. He should have said “No”. While the concerts were successful as entertainment and the Make Poverty History campaign certainly raised awareness, they failed as political levers for change. What did the G8 achieve? One objective of the summit was to design policies to help Africa meet the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. The first MDG calls for the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. The G8 achieved almost nothing new here, despite the impressive rhetoric of the final Gleneagles communiqué. The G8 pledged to forgive debt for many of Africa’s poorest countries and to increase total aid to developing nations by US$50 billion by 2010. But that investment is too little too late. (excerpt)
Perspectives in Health. 2004; 9(2):14-21.Number 8 of the Millennium Development Goals calls on the world’s countries to “develop a global partnership for development.” Like the other seven, this is a worthy goal. But Goal 8 is special: It addresses not only what needs to be done to improve quality of life in the developing world, but also how rich countries can help. Boiled down, Goal 8 calls on rich countries to give more aid, cancel more debt, and reduce the trade barriers that shut out crops, clothing, and other exports from poor countries. It is a welcome innovation in the discourse on development, because it recognizes the important ways that rich countries influence the economic and physical environment in which poorer countries operate. Rich countries largely set the rules that govern flows of trade, investment, and migration, and they are the major sources of development aid. At the same time, their environmental policies affect the world, including poor countries, disproportionately. (excerpt)
Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):3-7.This year marks the 25th anniversary of the first International Conference on Primary Health Care in Alma- Ata, Kazakhstan, an event of major historical significance. Convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Alma-Ata drew representatives from 134 countries, 67 international organizations and many non-governmental organizations. China, unfortunately, was notably absent. By the end of the three-day event, nearly all of the world's countries had signed on to an ambitious commitment. The meeting itself, the final Declaration of Alma-Ata and its Recommendations mobilized countries worldwide to embark on a process of slow but steady progress toward the social and political goal of "Health for All." Since then, Alma-Ata and primary health care have become inseparable terms. A quarter century later, it is useful to look back on the event and its historical context – particularly on the theme of "Health for All" in its original sense. For one who was a direct witness to these events, it is clear that the concept has been repeatedly misinterpreted and distorted. It has fallen victim to oversimplification and voguishly facile interpretations, as well as to our mental and behavioral conditioning to an obsolete world model that continues to confuse the concepts of health and integral care with curative medical treatment focused almost entirely on disease. (author's)
POPLINE. 2003 May-Jun; 25:1, 2.If we are serious about a more equitable balance between population, environment and resources, Fornos said, " the industrialized world must commit itself to the provision of the necessary population assistance to the developing world." He stressed that solving the problem of rapid population growth is "a burden sharing exercise, with all of us - governments, multilateral agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations - working together for the common goal of improving the human condition." Fornos pointed out that throughout the world forests are declining, topsoil is eroding, deserts are expanding, temperatures are rising, and there remains the constant threat of unprecedented food and water shortages. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
Nations of the earth report. Volume III. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: national reports summaries.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, 1992. vi, 518 p.The UN Conference on Environment and Development's (UNCED) final volume of the Nations of the Earth Report contains 72 summary reports of 80-81 developing countries or regions. These unofficial summaries do not always reflect the full and accurate positions of the governments concerned. Instead, they give an indication of the contents of the full reports so the reader will know what to find in the full reports. UNCED analysts compiled the summaries into the following main categories: drafting process, problem areas, past and present capacity-building initiatives, recommendations and priorities on environment and development, financial arrangements and funding requirements, environmentally sound technologies, international cooperation, expectations from UNCED, and table of contents for the full report. The summaries are in English. The full reports should be available on CD-ROM by mid-1993. Summaries of regional reports cover the Arctic region, Southern African Development Coordination, USSR, and the European Community. The Pacific Island Development Coordination and Organization of Eastern Caribbean States regional reports are in volume II. The appendices include UNCED guidelines for national reports, an overview of all national reports (main findings, anticipated results of the conference, drafting process, relationship between development and environment, evaluation of the process, and classification of terms), and contents of volumes I and II.
The role of health centres in the development of urban health systems: report of a WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1992; (827):i-iv, 1-38.The WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care (PHC) in Urban Areas has written a report after examining the development of reference health centers in urban areas in various parts of the world. It considers such centers to be a potentially important way to improve urban health services. Reference health centers, with real roots in the community and good links to first level and referral level care, can address the problems of access to health care and intersectoral collaboration. Each center should be based on a general model, but its exact operation depends on local conditions and on a comprehensive situation analysis that considers social and financial factors and the level of organizational development. Each reference center should determine what needs to be done locally with local and national resources. Outside donors should only provide assistance for operational costs and a last resort. To plan services adequately, decision makers must define geographical catchment areas and travel times. These definitions must see to it that services integrate with each other vertically (with services at health post and hospital levels), and horizontally (with government, and nongovernmental, and community projects). A solid epidemiological understanding of major local health problems is essential for expanding PHC through reference health centers. This knowledge comes from an assessment of demographic, morbidity, mortality, and social data an evaluation of coverage of underserved and marginal groups. Reference health centers would be in an ideal position to gather and analyze these data. Innovative ways to obtain the resources for urban PHC are collection of user fees and close supportive links with universities and nongovernmental organizations. The Study Group looks at how reference health centers in Cali, Colombia; Manila, the Philippines; and Newark, New Jersey in the US, developed.
HYGIE. 1991; 10(2):3-4.A strategic plan for objectives and operations of the International Union for Health Education (IUHE) in the 1990s is presented. The IUHE's principal aims are to strengthen the position of education as a major means of protecting and promoting health, to support members of the IUHE, and to advise other agencies. Core functions will include advocacy/information services/networking, conferences/seminars, liaison/consultancy/technical services, training, and research. The objectives of the IUHE are to promote and strengthen the scientific and technical development of health education, to enhance the skills and knowledge of people engaged in health education, to create a greater awareness of the global leadership role of the IUHE in protecting and promoting health, and to secure a stronger organizational and resource base. These objectives will be achieved by developing an disseminating annual policy papers on key global issues, developing new procedural guidelines for the IUHE's world and regional conferences, clarifying the roles of the headquarters and regional offices, and developing recruitment incentives to boost membership. The corporate identify of the IUHE will be revised, formal U.N. accreditation will be sought, and mutually beneficial relationships will be fostered with selected U.N. and non-governmental organizations. Additionally, the scientific and technical strengths of the IUHE will be boosted, a resources referral service developed, a fund raising office created, worker achievements recognized, and a bursary fund established.
[Unpublished] 1990. , 18 p. (GPA/GCA(3)/90.11)The member of the Global Commission on AIDS (GCA) convened on March 22-23, 1990 to explore the issue of drug use and HIV infection, review prevention activities, and identify critical issues for AIDS prevention and control in the early 1990s. This document provides a full account of each session including the names of the presenters, the information shared, and the discussions that followed. In the session about drug use and HIV infection, the problem was identified as being "truly global" because the sharing of injection equipment occurs everywhere. Some of the reasons cited for sharing equipment are initiation into intravenous drug use, social bonding, and practicality. Rapid spread of HIV has been seen in New York City, several Italian cities, Edinburgh, and Bangkok. Characteristically, it has taken only 3-5 years after the introduction of HIV for about 50% of injecting drug users (IDU) to be infected. Several studies have demonstrated that behavior change can lower the risk of transmission and infection rates. Amsterdam, Innsbruck, Seattle, and Stockholm had all achieved stabilization of their prevalence of HIV among IDUs at levels between 10-30%. It was emphasized that the means for behavior change must be provided for education to have an impact. The discussion of prevention activities featured the use of education, information, and communication (IEC) programs to execute mass campaigns, focus interventions, and provide monitoring and evaluation. Specific prevention activities discussed were condom usage, outreach to persons with sexually transmitted diseases, and blood safety. There were separate presentations on the status of blood transfusion programs and vaccine development. 10 issues were identified by the GCA that warrant priority attention in the early 1990s. These critical issues are research, complacency and abatement of a sense of urgency, preservation and protection of human rights and legal issues, equity of access, human sexuality, women and AIDS, AIDS as a disease affecting families, HIV/AIDS and drug use, economic and social implications of HIV/AIDS, and the collation and improvement of data.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1985. 101 p. (WHO/CDD/85.13)The Diarrheal Diseases Control (CDD) Program, initiated in 1978, is a priority program of WHO for attainment of the goal of Health for All by the Year 2000. Its primary objectives are to reduce diarrheal disease mortality and morbidity, particularly in infants and young children. This report describes the activities undertaken by the Program in the 1983-1984 biennium. During this period, the Program collaborated with more than 100 countries in the implementation of national diarrheal disease control and research activities. The biennium has witnessed a growing interest of other international, bilateral, and nongovernmental agencies in diarrheal disease control; their financial support and commitment have contributed in a large measure to furthering the development of CDD programs and related research in many countries. During the biennium, the services component continued to expand both the quantity and scope of its activities at global, regional, and national levels. This is readily seen from the increase in global acess to Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) packets from less than 5% in 1981 to 21% in 1983. Other significant developments were a substantial increase in the number of countries planning and implementing programs and the initiation of a new management course in supervisory skills. Successful implementation of national primary health care systems was recognized as necessary for the achievement of the Program's objectives. Efforts of both developing and industrialized countries must continue in a joint endeavor to reduce the problem of diarrheal diseases, especially cholera, the most severe diarrheal disease. The following areas are discussed: the health services component; the research component; information services; program review bodies; program resources and obligations; and program publications and documents for 1983-1984.
[Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
Lancet. 1998 Jul 18; 352(9123):210.Marking World Population Day, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) held a seminar in London on July 11, during which participants reviewed achievements made since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt. The seminar was part of a program of Cairo+5 events which will end in a special session of the UN General Assembly in June 1999, to review and assess the implementation of the ICPD Program of Action. The 20-year Program of Action aims to give all couples and individuals the right to freely and responsibly decide the number, spacing, and timing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so. Women's education and equality are at the program's core. Since the ICPD, the provision of family planning services has increased by 33.6%, and family planning associations reached about 9.4 million people in 1997. Lack of funding by developed nations is the main obstacle to the implementation of the Program of Action.
PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1999; 8(1):18-9.In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, the international community set the goal of ensuring universal access to reproductive health care by 2015 and agreed to finance its costs. Few governments and donor countries, however, have made good on commitments made at the ICPD. Reproductive health is not improving and may actually be getting worse. Specific goals to be reached by 2015 include meeting all unmet need for family planning, reducing maternal mortality by 75% compared with 1990 levels, and reducing infant mortality to lower than 35 deaths/1000 births. Reaching these and the related reproductive health goals of the ICPD was calculated to cost about US$17 billion/year until 2000, then to increase to $22 billion/year by 2015 (in constant 1993 US dollars). Developing countries agreed to pay 66% of the cost, while donor countries paid the remainder. Immediately after the ICPD, reproductive health funding increased substantially, then declined again, with most donor countries failing to meet their funding commitments. Failure to deliver on the promised financial support for the ICPD goals will result in higher levels of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, cases of maternal mortality, and infant deaths. Governments need to be convinced that paying for reproductive health programs is an urgent priority and that developing countries, donor countries, and multilateral institutions all have much to gain from reaching the ICPD goals.
Sexually transmitted diseases research needs: report of a WHO consultative group, Copenhagen, 13-14 September 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. Presented at the 1st International Course on Planning and Managing STD Control Activities in Developing Countries, Antwerp, Belgium, September 9-21, 1991. 31 p.In response to the growing needs for research into sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), the STD Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) in September 1989 convened a small interdisciplinary consultative group of scientists from both developing and more developed countries to review STD research priorities. The consultation was organized based upon the belief that a joint consideration of global STD research priorities and local research capabilities would increase overall research capacity by coordinating the efforts of scientists from around the world to get the job done. Participants considered the areas of biomedical research, clinical and epidemiological research, behavioral research, and operations research. However, research needs directly related to HIV were not considered except where they interfaced with research on other STDs. The above areas of research, as well as the expansion of interregional and interdisciplinary collaborations, the strengthening of research institutions, developing and strengthening research training, and facilitating technology transfer and the use of marketing systems are discussed.
LIVING MARXISM. 1994 Jul; (69): p.In September 1994, hundreds of family planners, population experts, government officials, and charities from around the world will meet in Cairo to debate population concerns during the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), a platform for population experts who believe that the world's problems can be explained in terms of population statistics. These people believe that the poverty and hunger which are endemic throughout the world exist because there are too many people trying to get their share of limited resources. However, rather than critically examine the prevailing global economic system which causes poverty and food shortages, and trying to increase the amount of resources available for distribution, attendees at the 1994 ICPD will search for ways to check population growth. Conference delegates are also concerned about mass international population movements from poor countries to more affluent nations. Careful to not offend Third World leaders, populations, and sensitivities, and in an attempt to garner support for colonial-style interference in domestic population matters, population control is now being sold as a way of safeguarding people's health in developing countries and something positive for the reproductive health rights of women. In reality, however, all funds spent upon family planning in and for the Third World simply propagate the message that more Black children is bad and fewer Black children is good.
WORLD HEALTH FORUM. 1997; 18(2):107-15.In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified the following issues for consideration as it designed its new strategy to achieve "health for all" in the 21st century: the determinants of health, health patterns in the future, intersectoral action, essential public health functions, partnerships in health, human resources for health, and the role of the WHO. Because ethical considerations play a vital role in developing the strategy, the WHO sought the input of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences in this regard. As understanding of the role and nature of medical ethics has deepened in the past decades, new ethical questions are continually being raised by changing patterns of disease and health care and by technological advances. The new health-for-all strategy must, therefore, give prominence to the consideration of equity, utility, equality, and human rights. In order to attain justice, the equilibrium between equity and equality should be maintained. Cultural diversity will also inform notions of equity. The principles of primary health care contained in the WHO's Alma-Ata Declaration also need to be strengthened to place proper emphasis on the need for information systems, decision-making mechanisms, and support systems. The most important activities the WHO is applying to its effort to renew its "health for all" strategy are 1) clarifying the concepts; 2) strengthening links to related fields; 3) working in partnership with countries, regions, and organizations; and 4) promoting the dissemination of information and ideas. The WHO's renewed strategy must bring clarity, practicality, and effectiveness to global health activities while fostering an understanding of the moral issues that contribute to human well-being.
ANNUAL REVIEW OF POPULATION LAW. 1989; 16:1, 222-30.This document contains the text of the Amsterdam Declaration "A Better Life for Future Generations," which was issued on November 9, 1989, by the International Forum on Population in the Twenty-First Century. The Declaration opens with a preamble which emphasizes our responsibilities towards future generations; acknowledges the interdependent nature of population size, resources, and development; expresses concern about rapid growth; recognizes the central position occupied by women in development and population growth; and recognizes that the goal of development is to improve quality of life. The Declaration continues by presenting current population figures and their implications. Other topics considered include population and sustainable development; population goals, objectives, and program priorities; and resource requirements. The Declaration issued a call to action asking all governments, intergovernmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to increase their financial commitments to fulfill ongoing and emerging population needs. Specific requests were then directed to all countries; all developing countries; all donors; parliamentarians and community leaders; the press and media; the UN and its specialized agencies; the World Bank and regional development banks; the UN Population Fund and its governing bodies; nongovernmental, professional, and other voluntary organizations; and women's organizations.
International workshop report: Counselling and HIV Infection for Family Planning Associations, 13-17th March, 1989.
[Unpublished] 1989.  p.The International Family Planning Federation's AIDS Prevention Unit sponsored a five-day workshop on counseling and HIV infection for family planning associations (FPAs) at a facility for people with HIV/AIDS in March 1989. The objectives included sharing experiences in counseling on HIV/STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) in family planning programs, examining the integration of sexual health issues into family planning counseling, identifying training needs in interpersonal communication and sexual health issues, sharing approaches to meeting those training needs, and developing an action plan for counseling and sexual health. After introductions on the first day, participants divided into groups to address what they wanted to get out of the workshop, what they wanted to contribute to the workshop, and what their biggest concern is about integrating counseling with AIDS/STDs into their family planning programs. They also shared information on their programs about the status of FPAs in terms of counseling and HIV. The second day involved a name game and role playing to illustrate different levels of communication. Participants also discussed the difference between information, education, and counseling and took part in an exercise geared to trigger facts and feelings. On the third day, the group provided feedback on the facts and feelings discussion trigger, toured the London Lighthouse (the workshop site), and participated in counseling role plays. Activities on the fourth day aimed to process the role plays, to develop counseling skills, and to define sexual health. Participants also played the "safer sex" game. The last day of the workshop involved role plays of exploring the situation, showing materials participants had brought with them and talking about them, future plans, and discussion of the most valuable thing learned at the workshop. Participants also made conclusions and recommendations based on discussions at the workshop.