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Your search found 18 Results

  1. 1
    323582

    Target the MDGs -- not aid amounts.

    Browne S

    Poverty in Focus. 2007 Oct; (12):6-7.

    Two years ago at Gleneagles, the G8 countries promised to double their aid to Africa. Since then, they have written off a substantial part of the external debt to the largest and oil-richest country, Nigeria. But new aid to the continent has stayed flat. In 2006, while Europe increased its aid, the two largest G8 economies, USA and Japan, reduced theirs. Africa, quite rightly, commands the growing attention of donors. But aid amount targets, both for Africa and globally, are often missed. Does that matter? This article makes four propositions: (i) traditional aid amount targeting is following a false scent in development terms; (ii) supply-driven aid has questionable value; (iii) aid should be more concerned with genuine country-based development goals; and (iv) rich countries should use aid as a means of facilitation, not as patronage. Targeting aid amounts is nothing new. In 1970, the UN set the target of 0.7 per cent of rich countries' Gross National Product (GNP) for Official Development Assistance (ODA). Since then a growing number of donor countries have stated their intention to reach it. The main purpose for setting such targets for aid is to create and sustain a momentum for ODA. While most donors haven't met the target, many have agreed that they should increase assistance to the poor countries. For the politicians of the rich countries and their constituents, therefore, aid volume targeting plays a useful role in reminding governments of their obligations. The two largest donors, however-USA and Japan-are exceptions. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    275416

    The progress of nations, 1998. The nations of the world ranked according to their achievements in fulfillment of child rights and progress for women.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1998. [41] p.

    The Progress of Nations is a clarion call for children. It asks every nation on earth to examine its progress towards the achievable goals set at the World Summit for Children in 1990 and to undertake an honest appraisal of where it has succeeded and where it is falling behind. This year’s report highlights successes attained and challenges remaining in efforts to register each child at birth, to immunize every child on earth and to help adolescents, particularly girls, as they set out on the path towards adulthood. With its clear league tables, The Progress of Nations is an objective scorecard on these issues. Commentaries by leading thinkers and doers stress the need for an approach to development based on child rights, calling on governments to fulfill the promises they made in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Progress of Nations reminds us annually that rhetoric about children must be backed up with action. I would commend it to anyone concerned about the status of our most vulnerable citizens. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    182585

    ICT, gender equality, and empowering women.

    Daly JA

    [Unpublished] 2003 Jul 9. 15 p.

    How can information and communication technologies (ICT) be used to promote gender equality in developing nations and to empower women? This essay seeks to deal with that issue, and with the gender effects of the “information revolution.” While obvious linkages will be mentioned, the essay seeks to go beyond the obvious to deal with some of the indirect causal paths of the information revolution on the power of women and equality between the sexes. This is the third1 in a series of essays dealing with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As such, it deals specifically with Goal 3: to promote gender equality and to empower women. It is published to coincide with the International Conference on Gender and Science and Technology. The essay will also deal with the specific targets and indicators for Goal 3. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    127134

    The 2000 round of censuses and large surveys: data collection proposals.

    Arriaga E

    In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 261-8.

    Measures must be taken to properly plan the year 2000 round of population and housing censuses. Enough time remains to propose questions which will improve the possibility of obtaining information on some population characteristics. However, collecting accurate data is only the first step in the process of census or survey taking. In order for a census to be useful, census data must be processed immediately and quickly disseminated and analyzed. Most of the programs that national and international agencies are implementing throughout the world will largely benefit the upcoming 2000 round of censuses, but only if questions are properly formulated and data quickly processed, disseminated, and analyzed. The following topics, mostly proposed by the UN, should be included in census questionnaires for most developing and some developed countries: disability, education, countries with educational registration systems, countries without educational registration systems, family structure and housing characteristics, fertility, labor force, internal and international migration, morbidity, mortality, and the special case of mortality and fertility.
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  5. 5
    099521

    Global burden sharing.

    Brundtland GX

    INTEGRATION. 1994 Jun; (40):11-3.

    The Prime Minister of Norway discusses issues of population growth and sustainable development. Months before the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, she establishes the basis upon which a global compact on population and development can be built. Individuals and groups in developed countries increasingly implore people in developing countries to reduce their levels of fertility in the interest of environmental protection and sustainable development. People in developing countries, however, point out that the industrialized developed countries have a disproportionately large role in polluting the environment. Fertility declines, lower consumption levels in the North, and less waste are all needed to safeguard the long-term health and survivability of the planet. The world simply cannot sustain a Western level of consumption for all. Accordingly, a commitment by the South to reduce population growth should be coupled with an equal commitment from the North to reduce the strain of consumption and production patterns on the global environment. Individual attitudes and habits must change while internationally coordinated political decisions are also made about the course and content of the world economy. Norway hosted a meeting January 1994 to address changing consumption patterns in hopes of launching a qualitatively new debate on sustainable consumption in the North and to demonstrate to the South that we are serious about our responsibility. As we move ahead, the author stresses the need to recognize the importance of providing education to both men and women, and paying the bill for necessary global reforms.
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  6. 6
    074898

    The global partnership for environment and development. A guide to Agenda 21.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. [4], 116 p. (E.92.I.15)

    The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
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  7. 7
    059868

    North-South cooperation for survival.

    Waiyaki M

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Dec; (22):14-7.

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.
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  8. 8
    052045

    Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Caribbean Community [CARICOM]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [4], 30, [49] p.

    To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
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  9. 9
    203698

    Child survival, women and population.

    Axelbank J

    [New York, United Nations, 1986.] 27 p.

    The ongoing crisis confronting women and children in the Third World--where disease and hunger are taking millions of lives of young children every year and where population growth still proceeds at an unacceptably high rate--is actually worsening in some areas. The European Parliamentarians' Forum on Child Survival, Women, and Population: Integrated Strategies was held under the auspices of The Netherlands government and organized in cooperation with 3 UN organizations: the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the UN Fund for Population Activities. It is critical that the world regain the momentum of past decades in reducing appalling child mortality rates, improving the health and status of women, and slowing population growth. Development programs from health education to agriculture are hampered or crippled by the inability of development planners to recognize the centrality of the woman's role. Maternal and child health is the logical entry point for primary health care. Education is the springboard for rescuing women in the Third World from poverty, illness,endless childbearing, and lowly social status. One should educate women to save children. Women in the developing world must be given access to basic information to be able to take advantage of new, improved or rediscovered technologies such as 1) oral rehydration therapy, 2) vaccines, 3) growth monitoring through frequent charting to detect early signs of malnutrition, 4) breast feeding, and 5) birth spacing. Education is the single most documented factor affecting birth rate, status of women, and infant and child health. The presentations at The Hague threw into sharp relief the close links, the cause and effect chains, and the synergisms associated with all the factors connected, directly or indirectly, with child survival, women's status, and population--factors such as education, economic opportunities, and overall development questions. A 4-point agenda includes 1) encouraging UN agencies and organizations concerned with social development to work closely together and to enhance the effectiveness of their programs, 2) seeking greater support for the UN's social development programs, 3) focusing public attention on the interrelatedness of health, maternal and child survival and care, women's status, and freedom of choice in family matters, and 4) maintaining and strengthening commitment through the dialogue of parliamentarians.
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  10. 10
    038479
    Peer Reviewed

    [The Collaborating Centers of the World Health Organization and AIDS: report of a meeting of the World Health Organization] Les Centres Collaborateurs de l'OMS et le SIDA: memorandum d'une reunion de l'OMS.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 1986; 64(1):63-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) meeting on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) held in Geneva in September 1985 stressed the importance of the WHO collaborating centers in the worldwide struggle against AIDS. The network of collaborating centers was established after and April 1985 WHO meeting to facilitate international cooperation in training of laboratory personnel, supplying reference reactives, evaluating diagnostic tests, and organizing activities to establish the natural history of the disease in different parts of the world. The AIDS virus is transmitted during sexual intercourse, by parenteral exposure to blood or contaminated blood products, or from the mother to the infant during the perinatal period. In the US and Western Europe, over 90% of victims are still homosexual and bisexual men, intravenous drug users, and their sexual partners, but in many developing countries heterosexuals with active sex lives are the main victims. There are no indications that the virus is spread by casual contact or by insect vectors. Health authorities of all countries should establish surveillance programs to measure the extent of AIDS infection. A precise case definition including only the most serious manifestations of the disease should be used. The US Centers for Disease Control definition has been approved for countries with appropriate diagnostic capabilities. Only immunological diagnostic methods are practical for large scale routine testing. Radioimmunological and immunoenzymatic titers are the most frequently used routine testing procedures. They are very sensitive, but because of the possibility of false positive results, confirmation using another test is needed for individuals belonging to low risk populations. The Western blot or other immunoblotting tests are most often used for confirmation. Progress in laboratory diagnosis would be furthered if international reference standards, simpler diagnostic tests, and other measures were made avaliable. Until drugs capable of preventing and treating AIDS become available, prevention will depend mainly on reduction of risks based on information and education. Cases of AIDS spread by blood transfusion can be eliminated by excluding donors belonging to high-risk groups and by testing the blood for antibodies before transfusion. Reuse of nonsterile needles and syringes should be absolutely avoided. Despite efforts to identify an effective agent for treatment of AIDS, no substance has been found as yet that supplies more than a transitory arrest of viral replication. Interferon has been shown to be effective against Kaposi's sarcoma. New antiviral agents should be careful studied in conformity with accepted protocols for drug evaluation. Numerous attempts to develop an anti-AIDS vaccine are underway. The heterogeneity of the virus poses a significant problem. Several specific recommendations for its 1986-87 program were made to further the role of the WHO as a centraL clearinghouse for AIDS information.
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  11. 11
    033836

    Report on the evaluation of various family life education projects with particular emphasis on youth in the English-speaking Caribbean: general conclusions and recommendations.

    Corona E; Epps RP; Kodagoda N; Simonen M

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Nov. xii, 39, [7] p.

    Most family life education (FLE) projects included in this evaluation have the longterm objectives of reducing the incidence of teenage prognancy, and promotion of self-reliance and positive, responsible behavior among youth. The immediate objectives and project strategies are also very similar across projects, e.g., in-school and out-of-school FLE, comprehensive youth services, including family planning (FP) and training. The evaluation shows that project design has improved over the years (clearer and measurable formulation of objectives, more comprehensive workplans and better explanation of budgetary items) and projects have moved from addressing a wide variety of broad issues to a more focused consideration of adolescent fertility. However, the Evaluation Mission in concerned that due to the similarities in project design, country-and-time-specific factors have not always been adequately taken into consideration. Other concerns include the lack of systematic needs assessment and use of baseline data to guide implementation. All the projects evaluated have contributed to the training in FLE/FP of a large number of family life educators, teachers and nurses and have thus significantly strengthened professional national capability. Nevertheless, training needs still exist in motivational/attitudinal variables, sex roles, teaching/learning technics. The projects have made a significant contribution to the introduction of FLE into schools and teacher training institutions. The focus at present should be the institutionalization of FLE within the in-school sector, including the development of a policy approving FLE in schools. The development of community-based health centers was often the central activity of the out-of-school FLE component of the projects. These centers have contributed to shaping the countries' attitudes by creating an awareness of teenage pregnancy, by developing an acceptable strategy, by providing a focal point for discussing sensitive issues, and by becoming a mechanism for community mobilization. The projects have also contributed to making FP services available and specialized services for adolescents are being established. The emphasis has been more on education and awareness creation than on contraceptive distribution to adolescents. At present the need is to strengthen the service delivery components. The limited availability of data suggests that adolescent pregnancy remains an urgent problem in the region. Sustained and more focused FLE/FP program efforts directed to adolescents continue to be needed in the region. The most important general lesson learnt from the programs is that programs in adolescent fertility can be started and implemented in countries even prior to declaration of policy by governments. However, at a certain stage of implementation the programs cannot be carried further without explicit government policies and control.
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  12. 12
    118751

    Family life education materials: selected annotated bibliography.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Programme Development Department

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 Aug. 50 [11] p.

    The need for family life education today is urgent. The rapid social changes taking place around the world are altering traditional family and community structures and values, and the task of preparing young people to cope with adult life has become more difficult. If family life education is to succeed, it must meet the needs of the young people for whom it is designed. Some common needs of young people are: coping with the physical and emotional changes of adolescence; establishing and maintaining satisfying personal relationships; understanding and responding positively to changing situations, e.g. the changing roles of men and women; and developing the necessary values and skills for successful marriage, child-rearing and social participation in the wider community. The potential scope for family life education programs encompasses psychological and emotional, social, developmental, moral, health, economic, welfare and legal components. The integration of these perspectives into family life education programs are issues which are explored in many of the materials listed in this bibliography. The bibliography is divided into 5 sections. It includes a listing of materials which discuss the definition, content and scope of family life education. It also presents family life bibliographies, curriculum guides, and training manuals and handbooks. Finally, it deals with studies of family life education programs and projects. Publishers' addresses are listed at the end of the bibliography.
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  13. 13
    037687

    Using the mass media to expand child care in Central America.

    Naranjo C

    Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.

    The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
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  14. 14
    024731

    Adolescent fertility: report of an international consultation, Bellagio 1983.

    McKay J

    London, England, IPPF, 1984 May. ii, 59 p.

    The Bellagio consultation was held in July, 1983 on the initiative of the Programme Committee of International Medical Advisory Panel to consider more closely what the needs of adolescents are and what more should be done to meet them. Participants from several countries--within and outside of IPPF--were invited. Before the Consultation, participants exchanged information, experience and ideas in writing as a basis for their discussion. 3 topics were focused on: 1) needs and problems; 2) information, education, and counselling; and 3) reproductive health management. An action plan for the next 3 to 5 years was drawn up. It offers broad suggestions about the kind of activities that would be appropriate for family planning associations and IPPF to take. Adolescents all over the world are in need of much better education and health care related to fertility, these are not the same in each society. A comprehensive approach to adolescent needs is favored. The recommendations form part of a broad discussion about how adolescents can best be helped to behave responsibly. Adolescent fertility has implications for health, psychological, social and economic well being. General program and operational guidelines are given, as are 8 areas for action: 1) creation of awareness and advocacy; 2) youth leadership and participation in adolescent programs; 3) information and education; 4) counseling; 5) fertility-related services; 6) sharing of experience, information and resources; 7) training and skill development; and 8) research. A list of participants and background papers is given.
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  15. 15
    012315

    Investing in people: the economics of population quality.

    Schultz TW

    Berkeley, Calif./London, England, University of California Press, 1981. xii, 173 p. (In series: Royer Lectures)

    This work, intended for a general as well as professional audience, argues that the acquired abilities of people including education, experience, skills, and health, are basic in achieving economic progress in the developing world. The 1st section examines the phenomenon of poverty in the developing world and stresses the contributions of human capital to productivity and human welfare in the lower income countries. Possible investments in human quality are surveyed, and theoretical and empirical observations concerning education and health are presented. A separate chapter assesses the role of higher education in developing countries, arguing that although governments in many countries impair the role of higher education, achievements have been substantial in a number of them. The next section examined economic consequences of the increases in the value of time that occur with development. A discussion of methodological and conceptual difficulties in measuring the value of time is included. The final section analyzes some serious economic distortions that result from government policies in developed as well as developing countries and that prevent the potential economic productivity of the poor from being realized. Distortions in the school systems of large cities, in allocation of funds for research, and in various aspects of life in developing countries that are affected by the international donor community are examined. Some implications of the findings are suggested in a brief concluding chapter.
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  16. 16
    267141

    Population problems and international cooperation, statement made at a meeting of the Scientific Council of the Moscow State University, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 29 September 1982.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1982]. 19 p. (Speech Series No. 80)

    This statement discusses certain population problems within a framework of international cooperation. Specifically, linkages between population and development, basic data collection, population and development research, policy formulation, family planning, communication and education, training, population migration, urbanization, aging of the population, and integration of population with development planning, are all issues examined. Solving the problems generated by population growth of developing countries are social and economic development, accumulation of resources and economic growth. All countries need data on population structure and its changes in order to plan effectively. There is a continuous need to learn more about the dynamics of population change, especially for demographers in developing countries. Data gathering, processing, analysis and research are crucial components in the formulation of policies. UNFPA devotes a great amount of its resources to family planning, education and training programs within countries. The inability to find employment opportunities has led to considerable internal and international migration, increasing and promoting urbanization and overcrowded cities. Aging of the population is becoming an important issue for developed countries and will necessitate further policy formulation. Population planning needs to become a more effective arm of overall development planning.
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  17. 17
    020536

    New trends in community special education.

    Mittler P

    Assignment Children. 1983; (63/64):45-57.

    Despite recent advances in research and practice, improvements in services have reached only a relatively small proportion of handicapped people. The potential of the many people who work first hand with handicapped children--professionals, volunteers, and parents--needs to be developed. What training should be provided? Who should be trained? How can manpower be used most effectively? Special education is moving beyond the schools and into the community. Another major development in special education is the development of a closer working relationship between professionals and parents. Teachers are likely to work with other professionals--psychologists, physicians, social workers, speech therapists, physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Teachers have become better at setting short-term objectives and more skilled in the use of relevant assessment techniques of the child. These trends are discussed for both developed and developing countries. 2 modes of staff training are discussed: 1) the "pyramid model," in which a small team receives intensive practical training on the understanding that they will then run similar courses for other people in their locality; this second generation then assumes a commitment to train a third generation, resulting in a large number of people being trained; 2) the "manpower model," a vertical structure of workers with 4 different levels of training and responsibility. International cooperation is discussed. The Final Report of the UNESCO Expert Meeting on Special Education made a number of recommendations for international action.
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  18. 18
    030478

    The United Nations population training programme: aspects of technical co-operation

    United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development

    New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development, 1983. v, 42 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.E/28)

    This report examines the origins of the UN program in population training and the main methods adopted over the past 20 years to implement it. Its 6 chapters cover the following: origins of the UN population training program (the urgency for population training, initial objectives of the UN training program, the state of the art in the 1950s, the role of the UN, and initial dimensions of the UN training programs); establishment of the UN demographic training centers (International Institute for Population Studies, IIPS, in Bombay, India; Latin American Demographic Centre, CELADE, in Santiago, Chile; Cairo Demographic Centre, CDC, Cairo, Egypt; Institut de formation et de recherche demographiques, IFORD, Yaounde, United Republic of Cameroon; Regional Institute for Population Studies, RIPS, Accra, Ghana; UN-Romania Demographic Centre, CEDOR, Bucharest, Romania; and the Joint UN/USSR Interregional Demographic Training and Research Program in Population and Development Planning, Moscow, USSR); individual characteristics and program differentials of the UN demographic training centers (language of instruction, admission requirements, length of training programs, curricula, specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and output of the training centres); the UN international fellowship program in population (placement of successful fellowship candidates, distribution of fellows by region of origin, subjects of study of successful candidates, comparison with the training offered through the UN demographic training centres); country projects for creating population training facilities; and the future of the UN population training program. Apart from the programs in Bucharest and Moscow, the basic terms of reference of all the regional and interregional demographic training centers are to provide courses of training in demography, to carry out demographic research, and to provide technical assistance in the field of demography and the population disciplines generally in response to government requests. Beyond these basic objectives, each centre has its own individual characteristics. In the years since their foundation, the UN sponsored regional and interregional training centers and programs have contributed significantly to an increase in the number of trained demograhers worldwide. From the academic year 1972-73 to 1979-80, a total of 1323 students were registered at these centres. The international fellowship program is notable in that the methods for the selection, placement, and evaluation of fellowship holders are designed to ensure that the skills acquired become available to the fellows' country of origin.
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