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Poverty in Focus. 2007 Oct; (12):6-7.Two years ago at Gleneagles, the G8 countries promised to double their aid to Africa. Since then, they have written off a substantial part of the external debt to the largest and oil-richest country, Nigeria. But new aid to the continent has stayed flat. In 2006, while Europe increased its aid, the two largest G8 economies, USA and Japan, reduced theirs. Africa, quite rightly, commands the growing attention of donors. But aid amount targets, both for Africa and globally, are often missed. Does that matter? This article makes four propositions: (i) traditional aid amount targeting is following a false scent in development terms; (ii) supply-driven aid has questionable value; (iii) aid should be more concerned with genuine country-based development goals; and (iv) rich countries should use aid as a means of facilitation, not as patronage. Targeting aid amounts is nothing new. In 1970, the UN set the target of 0.7 per cent of rich countries' Gross National Product (GNP) for Official Development Assistance (ODA). Since then a growing number of donor countries have stated their intention to reach it. The main purpose for setting such targets for aid is to create and sustain a momentum for ODA. While most donors haven't met the target, many have agreed that they should increase assistance to the poor countries. For the politicians of the rich countries and their constituents, therefore, aid volume targeting plays a useful role in reminding governments of their obligations. The two largest donors, however-USA and Japan-are exceptions. (excerpt)
Arlington, Virginia, Family Health International [FHI], HIV / AIDS Prevention and Care Department, 2001.  p. (UNAID Best Practice Key Materials; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. HRN-A-00-97-00017-00)Countries with low HIV prevalence share a set of concerns and challenges regarding their responses to a potential HIV epidemic. Many of these countries also present an opportunity to avert large numbers of future HIV infections if appropriate prevention strategies are chosen and implemented early, greatly reducing future HIV/AIDS-related costs to the country. The purpose of this publication is to identify those challenges and propose a prevention strategy that can maintain low HIV prevalence in the general population, while reducing existing or preventing potential HIV sub-epidemics in population subgroups with substantial levels of risk behavior. Decisions on the strategic placement and targeting of prevention interventions are important to both international agencies and countries planning their prevention response. Both need to make difficult choices regarding geographic and population subgroups to ensure that resources are allocated efficiently. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
Nations of the earth report. Volume III. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: national reports summaries.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, 1992. vi, 518 p.The UN Conference on Environment and Development's (UNCED) final volume of the Nations of the Earth Report contains 72 summary reports of 80-81 developing countries or regions. These unofficial summaries do not always reflect the full and accurate positions of the governments concerned. Instead, they give an indication of the contents of the full reports so the reader will know what to find in the full reports. UNCED analysts compiled the summaries into the following main categories: drafting process, problem areas, past and present capacity-building initiatives, recommendations and priorities on environment and development, financial arrangements and funding requirements, environmentally sound technologies, international cooperation, expectations from UNCED, and table of contents for the full report. The summaries are in English. The full reports should be available on CD-ROM by mid-1993. Summaries of regional reports cover the Arctic region, Southern African Development Coordination, USSR, and the European Community. The Pacific Island Development Coordination and Organization of Eastern Caribbean States regional reports are in volume II. The appendices include UNCED guidelines for national reports, an overview of all national reports (main findings, anticipated results of the conference, drafting process, relationship between development and environment, evaluation of the process, and classification of terms), and contents of volumes I and II.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, . xxxiii, 134 p.In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. x, 229 p.This 1996 UN Human Development Report identifies human development as an outcome of economic development. The report explores the relationship between economic growth and human development. Several findings give pause for thought. 1) Growth declined over the past 15 years in about 100 countries with almost 33% of global population. 2) Unbalanced development is occurring where there is sufficient growth but little human development or where there is good human development and little or no growth. Economic growth is needed, but an understanding of the structure and quality of growth helps determine whether poverty is reduced, the environment is protected, and sustainability is ensured. Economic decline over the past 15 years has reduced the income of 1.6 billion people. 70 countries in 1996 had less income than in 1980, and 43 countries had less income than in 1970. The declines in depth and duration far exceeded the declines of the Great Depression of the 1930s in industrialized countries. The world was more polarized. $18 trillion out of a $23 trillion gross domestic product occurred in industrialized countries. The poorest 20% of world population had their share of global income decline, from 2.3% to 1.4% in the past 30 years. The share of the richest rose from 70% to 85%. Declines and recovery occurred during various periods by region. Eastern European countries and many Arab countries suffered sharp declines during the 1980s, but African declines began in the 1970s. A turnaround in policy and political will is needed to prevent growth that is "jobless, ruthless, voiceless, rootless, and futureless." Chapter topics focus on trends, growth as a way to achieve human development, links between growth and development, and creation of employment opportunities. Special articles focus on intergenerational equity, humanizing growth, and the South African example. The report presents the 1996 statistical indicators and the balance sheets.
In: AIDS in the world II: global dimensions, social roots, and responses. The Global AIDS Policy Coalition, edited by Jonathan M. Mann and Daniel J.M. Tarantola. New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1996. 375-89.This book chapter reports on the current state of international funding for AIDS programs in developing countries. The chapter opens by discussing the development assistance provided by the developed countries which are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and notes that development assistance is declining and that no published summaries on development assistance provide detailed information on the allocation of funds to HIV/AIDS programs. The data for this chapter, therefore, were drawn from an international financing survey conducted for this publication. The nature of the survey and complications involved in this type of data collection are then reviewed. Adequate survey responses were received from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK, and the US. The data are tabulated to display bilateral, multilateral, combined multi- and bilateral, and total funding. To reveal the trends exhibited by the major donors and to track funds donated to developing countries, tables present 1) total contributions to the Global AIDS Strategy for 1986-93 according to these funding channels, 2) multilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, 3) multi- and bilateral contributions by country for 1987-93, and 4) bilateral contributions for 1986-93. Pie charts show donor contributions by country and recipient countries. The increase in World Bank loans for HIV/AIDS prevention and care is covered as is the reduced supply of donors, increasing demand for development assistance, and evidence of donor fatigue. It is concluded that it will be critical for the UN AIDS Program to improve the financial accountability of both donor and recipient countries so that HIV/AIDS resources can be evaluated. Unless this occurs, such resources will likely continue to decline in proportion to needs.
In: Jornadas Multidisciplinarias sobre el Aborto, 25 de febrero al lo de marzo, 1991. Salon de Honor del Ilustre Colegio Abogados de La Paz. [La Paz], Bolivia, Sociedad Boliviana de Ciencias Penales, 1991. 45-63.The problems created by excessive population growth at the global level and in Bolivia, and the response of the UN Population Fund are summarized. Today's world population of 5.3 billion is projected to reach 6.25 billion in 2000. In many areas, population growth has outstripped carrying capacity. Over 90% of the growth is in developing countries, where urban growth is particularly rapid. Because balance between human population and resources and environmental protection are key elements in quality of life and for sustainable development, population concerns should be a fundamental part of development strategies. The mandate of the UN Population Fund since 1973 has been to acquire and disseminate in developed and developing countries a knowledge of population problems and possible strategies to confront them, and to assist developing countries, at their request, to find appropriate solutions to their population problems. National population goals and objectives should include reducing average family sizes, reducing the proportion of women not using contraception, reducing early marriage and motherhood, and achieving a contraceptive prevalence of at least 56% of fertile-aged women in developing countries by the year 2000. Infant and maternal mortality rates should be lowered, average life expectancy should be increased to at least 62 years, and geographic distribution of the population improved. Bolivia, with its annual population growth rate of 2.2% and total fertility rate of 5.1, per capita income of $633/year, life expectancy of 58 years, and infant mortality rate of 102, is a priority country for the UN Population Fund. No coherent program of cooperation between the UN Population Fund and Bolivia has yet been developed, but 32 projects have been assisted in Bolivia since 1972 with a total investment of approximately US$105 million, of which 44.7% was destined for maternal-child health services and 29.0% for data collection.
National perspectives on population and development. Synthesis of 168 national reports prepared for the International Conference on Population and Development, 1994.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1995. viii, 112 p.This document highlights some of the most interesting and salient features of the 168 national reports prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and illustrates the variety and complexity of situations encountered across countries and regions. Part 1 presents insights into changing perspectives on population issues, especially into the recurrent themes of 1) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment and 2) the role and status of women. The evolution of political commitment to population concerns during the past two decades is also traced, and the challenges ahead are outlined. Part 2 deals with population dynamics issues through a discussion of the implications of population growth and structure, improving health conditions, influencing fertility, and internal and international migration. The statistics used in this document are those found in the national reports and complementary information forms. The UN geographic system of classification of countries is used, and frequent distinctions are made between developing and industrialized countries.
In: Race to save the tropics. Ecology and economics for a sustainable future, edited by Robert Goodland. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1990. 171-89.Sustainability denotes well-being, intergenerational equity, minimal use of exhaustible mineral reserves, slow depletion of nonrenewable energy resources allowing an orderly societal transition to renewable energy sources, and agricultural sustainability. Many parts of the world have already surpassed their carrying capacity. To effectively apply environmental management to economic development, decision makers must understand the fundamental relationship among growth, equality, and ethics. Liberation of women and reduction of excess consumption by the rich are needed to achieve environmental sustainability. We have been able to solve some environmental problems once they have reached a crisis stage by investing money into their solution. Prevention is the only means to address irreversible environmental effects, however. The major reason for biodiversity loss is destruction of tropical forests which support 50% of the world's 5-30 million species on 7% of the land area. A large percentage of the biodiversity in the Philippines, Haiti, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and parts of India is already gone. Some corporations have begun to respond responsibility to the environment. In 1987 the largest investor in economic development in developing countries, the World Bank, implemented environmental policies for all programs. The Bank normally refuses to finance projects designed to convert wildlands of special concern, e.g. to national parks. Projects concerning wildlands other than those of special concern should only occur on already converted land. A more open decision making process is required to justify any deviations from the above policies. If wildlands development is defended, the project should just convert less valuable wildlands. Financing preservation of another wildland is required for any conversion of wildlands not of special concern. If a project does not involve conversion of wildlands, the Bank requires the preservation of wildlands for their environmental services alone.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):120-53.As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group meeting on population distribution and migration was held in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in January 1993. Participants considered the scope of migration which included a net internal migration of between 75 million and 1 billion people during 1975-85 and international migration which census data put at 77 million in the 1970s and early 1980s. World economic trends during the 1980s were reviewed, as were changes in the nature and configuration of various countries. The following topics were explored: patterns of population distribution and development, policies affecting internal migration and population distribution, internal migration and its implications for development, economic aspects of international migration, international migration in a changing world, international migration between developing countries, and refugees and asylum-seekers. 37 recommendations were prepared for governments, social institutions, and the international community. The first 10 urge that population distribution be an integral part of development policies, that government policies and expenditures be evaluated for their contribution to social and economic goals, that the capacity and competence of municipal authorities to manage urban development be increased, that government funding be decentralized, that economic and institutional links be developed between urban centers and surrounding rural areas, that alternatives to out-migration from rural areas be created, that the income-earning capacities of migrants be improved, that group mobilization by and for people affected by migration be encouraged, that adequate access to health services and family planning be assured, and that the underlying causes of environmental degradation, natural disasters, and war be addressed with mechanisms developed to protect victims. 13 recommendations deal with international migration and call for appropriate policies, cooperation, protection of human rights, an end to discrimination toward women, the normalization of family life among documented migrants, the promotion of good community relations between migrants and the rest of society, the guarantee of equal economic and social rights to longterm foreign residents and facilitation of their naturalization, the provision of legal information to potential migrants, the provision of equal educational and training opportunities to the children of migrants, and the institution of sanctions against the organizers of illegal migration. The next 7 recommendations urge that the causes of forced migration be addressed, that refugees receive assistance and protection, that the responsibility for refugees be shared equitably, that the right to asylum be protected, that appropriate repatriation programs be supported, that long-standing refugee populations be helped to achieve self-sufficiency, and that the specific needs of refugee women be addressed. The final 7 recommendations cover data and research needs regarding population distribution and migration and urge support for research on population distribution, the collection of national statistics, a review of existing standard definitions and classifications of rural and urban populations and of international migration, cooperation in the registration and monitoring of refugee populations, and the promotion of an exchange of information on trends and policies of international migration.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):102-19.As part of the preparation for the forth-coming UN International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met in Paris, France, in November 1992 to discuss population growth and demographic structure. As part of the demographic background for the meeting provided by the UN Population Division, participants were informed that although the world population growth rate began to decline in the late 1970s, this decline has not yet resulted in declining absolute numbers, and the annual increment to the world population was not expected to decline to the level that existed in 1985 until the period 2020-25. World population increased from 2.5 billion in 1950 to 5.3 billion in 1990. The medium variant population projection of the UN shows world population at 6.3 billion in 2000 and 8.5 billion in 2025 (the high variant shows 9.4 billion in 2025 and the low variant shows 7.6 billion). Population aging is expected to reach unparalleled levels in 2010-20. The meeting then considered the topics of population growth and socioeconomic development, confronting poverty in developing countries, demographic impacts of development patterns, demographic and health transitions, population growth and employment, social change and the elderly in developing countries, and social development and ageing in developed countries, The expert group meeting then prepared 19 recommendations aimed at governments, social institutions, and the international community. The recommendations call for political commitment to human resources development and population and development programs, especially in least developed countries, alleviation of poverty and social inequality, and equality of access to social and health resources that will lead to reduced mortality and fertility. Governments are urged to place a high priority on education and on increasing women's access to education and to remove barriers to economic independence for women. Health-sector priorities should be reassessed to provide the most cost-effective and efficient means of providing health care, reproductive health-care programs should receive high priority, and efforts should be made to minimize the effects of HIV infection and reduce the spread of AIDS. The needs of the elderly should be met with a "safety net," which should be developed in countries with no social security programs. The elderly should be recognized as an important human resource for development, and intergenerational equity should exist to accommodate their needs, with special efforts made to help them remain in their own homes and communities. Governments should collect accurate, comprehensive, and regular data on population characteristics and trends, and the international community should facilitate the comparative analysis of such data. Training should be provided to professionals in demography and related fields in developing countries.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume IV. Changes in the human dimension of development, ethics and values, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 60-3.Since the early 1980s, 2 major events have occurred globally: the beginning of the information revolution and the dominance of the services economy. Based on the utilization of computers and modern telecommunications, the information age is transforming societies, improving the quality of life and fostering the global exchange of culture and knowledge, goods and services. New equipment, techniques, and materials have greatly improved efficiency and productivity in agriculture and industry, but simultaneously they are demanding more educated and qualified labor. The question is how women in developing societies are going to fare in this new information age. The UN Development Programme's (UNDP) 1990 Human Development Report reveals that in developing countries the literacy rate is still only 50% among women, but primary school enrollment is more than 80%. More than one-third go on to secondary education and more than 5% into higher education. Services now account for 28% of the labor force, compared with 61% in the industrialized countries. Women in developing countries now constitute one-third of the labor force. Illiteracy is gradually being eradicated; education levels among the young generation are improving. The services economy offers a prime opportunity for women because it does not require the fixed working regimes of the past which greatly hindered women's participation. Computers and modern communications have brought flexible working hours and conditions. Women, particularly in developing countries, must seize the opportunities. This requires a better educated population, a core of scientists and technocrats, and a home base for production. While in the industrialized countries of Europe, North America, and Japan, there are more than 14 scientists and technicians/every 100 people, in the developing countries there is only 1 scientist or technician/every 100 people. UNDP and other multilateral development agencies can help make the opportunities available to the women of the developing world.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 168-88.Man's envisaged economic conversion is integration of ecology and economy through reduction in resource input of production which results in a reduction of emissions and wastes that adversely affect the natural environment. Some industrial nations, the UN Environment Programme, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development already use environmental indicators of adverse effects of production (e.g., emission data). We know less about the environmental significance of input factors in industrial production and which indicators contribute environmentally significant information about the structure of the economy, however. Using data from 31 countries, not including the US, an economist demonstrates that delinking of energy, steel, and cement consumption and weight of freight transport from the growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) results in environmental gratis effects (rate of usage of input factors having a negative impact on the environment stays lower than the growth rate of GDP). It appears that the trend in developed countries is industrial restructuring. The conventional environmental policy is react-and-cure strategies on air and water pollution, noise, and waste. This costly policy needs to be improved by comparing environmental expenditures with data on environmental damage, identifying problems before ecosystems are destroyed, and incorporating cost-effective preventive measures. Environmental impact assessments are a means to accelerate technical knowledge and public awareness. Environmental standard setting should be a continuous process. Economy as it now exists indicates disharmony with nature (i.e., natural raw materials are swapped for produced waste materials polluting the environment). We should incorporate the external effects of production within our conscious or subconscious guiding principles, return the costs to the economic units that cause the environmental problem, and include the ecological viewpoint into all investment and economic decision making. We have yet to adapt a throughput economy (systematic reduction of depletable resources and generation of pollution emissions and wastes through recycling and clean technology).
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 154-60.The most common global concerns are the threat to the earth's ecological balance, challenges originating from new technologies, and the ability of developing countries to respond to these changes in a way conducive to sustainable development. Creative learning means that political systems assimilate new information when making policy decisions. pathological learning implies that political systems prevent new information from influencing policies, eventually leading to the system's failure. Policymakers cannot ignore the new technologies and the changing environment. The UN University had identified the most important research gaps with regard to technological development. recommendations from this study are more research on the relationship between the effects of existing trends in the technological revolution and the formation of development strategies and the significance of identifying alternatives of technological development better suited to the actual needs and conditions of developing countries. For example, biotechnology may produce new medications to combat some tropical diseases, but a lack of commercial interest in industrialized countries prevents the needed research. Research in the Himalayas shows the importance of focusing on the linkages between mountains and plains, instead of just the mountains, to resolve environmental degradation. This finding was not expected. The researchers promote a broader, more holistic, critical approach to environmental problem-solving. Humans must realize that we have certain rights and obligations to the earth and to future generations. We must translate these into enforceable standards at the local, national, and international levels to attain intergenerational equity. Policy-makers must do longterm planning and incorporate environmentally sound technologies and the conservation of the ecological balance into development policy. sustainable development must include social, economic, ecologic, geographic, and cultural aspects.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume V. Ecological change: environment, development and poverty linkages, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 88-107.A new global geopolitical structure is taking shape, a multipolar system strengthened by various regional economic powers (e.g., the European Economic Community). These powers will inevitably vie for global status. This system will be based on a succession of bridges and linkages of global interdependence on human rights and freedom, energy and environmental management, international trade and finance, technological and science development, and modern communications. These bridges and linkages should effect a more balanced global structure. The best prospect for a system of cooperation and interdependence among nations is the UN. Proper engineering of these bridges and linkages within a global and regional framework can bring about sustainable development. If competition between various economic power blocs is the guiding principle of these bridges and linkages, the world will experience a new era of regional and global conflict. For example, developed countries and their transnational companies once controlled the oil industry. They exploited huge oil reserves in developing countries and did not provide them appropriate compensation for depletion of their most important natural resource. Host countries reacted to this unfair treatment and took over and nationalized the companies, leading to a sizable increase in oil prices in the 1970s. This then caused global economic instability and general mistrust between exporting and importing countries. Demand for oil fell, and the producing countries could not decide how to distribute the oil sales reduction among themselves, so the buyers took control and still have control of the oil market. The demand for oil is rising and preserves are shrinking which will result in a rapid increase in oil prices. Thus, all nations must invest in development of new sources of energy. Oil should be just a short bridge towards sustainable development. Developed countries should place peaceful resolution of regional conflicts and bilateral disputes at the top of their agenda. Internationalism should replace nationalism and multilateralism should replace bilateralism.
In: Change: threat or opportunity for human progress? Volume II. Economic change, edited by Uner Kirdar. New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. 21-31.The world may no longer be seen as divided along North-South and East-West lines of economic development and political institutions. Characteristics of the South are developing in pockets of the North, and parts of the South are assuming characteristics of the North. The former East-West political dichotomy has collapsed and the outmoded concept of national markets has been replaced by the themes of internationalization and globalization. It is hoped that this new perspective will lead to less absolute poverty and fewer developing countries by the turn of the century. A global development agenda for the 1990s may include the integration of environment and development; the integration of Eastern European countries into the international community in such a way that the position of developing countries will be strengthened; the discussion of trade and investment policies beyond the Uruguay Round; the coordination of international policies and programs for alternative, renewable, and safe energy; the development of international policies on migration which target the root causes; demilitarization; democratization; putting the domestic policies of industrialized countries on the agenda so that they pursue frugal and sustainable economic growth while restructuring industry and agriculture to increase the market access of developing countries; human development; the development of new approaches to increase the transfer of resource and reverse the current South-North net flow; and the reform of the United Nations.
In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 237-48.The former secretary of the Brundtland Commission, now the executive director of the Center for Our Common Future, presents a historical overview of the international environment efforts since the formation of the independent Brundtland Commission. The 21-member commission held public hearings in Brazil, Canada, China, Europe, Indonesia, Kenya, and the USSR to get the common people's perspective. In fact, the commission used their quotes in the report, Our Common Future. The members organized regional presentations of the report to nongovernmental organizations and to governments. The UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) emerged from the debate, which occurred on the day of the 1987 stock market crash, so it did not get much media coverage. The Center for Our Common Future was created to promote the messages of the commission's report and to increase the dialogue on sustainable development. The Center has set up a global network of 160 working partners in 70 countries. A key message of the report is forging a path from confrontation to cooperation. We all must accept part of the responsibility of working toward sustainable development. Participants in a 1990 meeting in Vancouver agreed that the UNCED process needs broad participation. 26 issues are on the UNCED agenda, including water, toxics, biodiversity, biotechnology, land management, ocean management, and acid rain, which are too numerous to manage at the UNCED. A North/South issue is no longer relevant because we are a global community and we must cooperate. The only way the North is going to advance is if it considers its economic self-interest. Much of the world is waiting for the US to lead, but it is not budging. Many suggest that Europe take the lead, e.g., Norway's climate fund. Grass roots groups need to organize and empower themselves to effect change.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1993. xii, 329 p.The World Bank's 16th annual World Development Report focuses on the interrelationship between human health, health policy, and economic development. WHO provided much of the data on health and helped the World Bank on the assessment of the global burden of disease found in appendix B. Following an overview, the report has 7 chapters covering health in developing countries: successes and challenges; households and health; the roles of the government and the market in health; public health; clinical services; health inputs; and an agenda for action. Appendix a lists and discusses population and health data. The report concludes with the World Development Indicators for 127 low, lower middle, upper middle, and high income countries in tabular form. All developed and developing countries have experienced considerable improvements in health. But developing countries, particularly their poor, still experience many diseases, many of which can be prevented or cured. They are starting to encounter the problems of increasing health system costs already experienced by developed countries. The World Bank proposes a 3-part approach to government policies for improving health in developing countries. Governments must promote an economic growth that empowers households to improve their own health. Growth policies must secure increased income for the poor and expand investment in education, particularly for girls. Government spending on health must address cost effective programs that help the poor, such as control and treatment of infectious diseases and of malnutrition. Governments must encourage greater diversity and competition in the financing and delivery of health services. Donors can finance transitional costs of change in low income countries.
Highlights of interventions at meeting for 1994 International Conference on Population and Development.
POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1993 Jun; (219):4-5.The Preparatory Committee for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt (September 5-14, 1994), has received recommendations for the conference's final document from various population and development organizations. UNFPA's Executive Director, who serves as Secretary-General of this Conference, recommends that the document should list goals for all countries to achieve over 20 years, particularly a goal of dedicating 20% of public sector expenditures to social programs. She also calls for developing countries to reach levels of developed countries in maternal and infant mortality, life expectancy, education, gender equality, and access to the entire spectrum of family planning services. The Conference should affirm reproductive rights. Population activities of official development assistance should increase from 1.5% to 4%. Representatives from other groups and/or countries echo her concerns, but some want to accord more emphasis to other issues as well, including development, demographic aging, employment, the disabled, and poverty. The Japanese representative informs the Committee that the Government of Japan, UNFPA, and the United Nations University are sponsoring an international conference on global population issues in Tokyo during the summer of 1994. The Nepalese representative hopes the Conference recommendations will be practical, affordable, and appropriate to the objectives of developing countries. The Pakistani representative wants the Cairo Conference to build on the Bucharest and Mexico City Conferences and on the UN Conference on Environment and Development rather than renegotiating them.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. , 116 p. (E.92.I.15)The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
From empty-world economics to full-world economics: recognizing an historical turning point in economic development.
In: Population, technology, and lifestyle: the transition to sustainability, edited by Robert Goodland, Herman E. Daly, Salah El Serafy. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1992. 23-37.The human economy has moved from an era in which manmade capital was the limiting factor in economic development to the present when remaining natural capital has become the limiting factor. Natural capital is the stock from which comes natural resources. As human populations have grown and many countries have developed economically, manmade capital has been developed and accumulated to exploit often unowned natural capital and resources as if they had no price. No self-interested social class exists to protect these resources from overexploitation. Current levels of extracting and harvesting natural capital are simply not sustainable. This concept of full-world economics, however, is not accepted as academically legitimate by those of the empty-world school. Neoclassical economics considers factors of production to be substitutable and not complementary; this is not the case for the world's stock of natural capital. Assuming that natural capital has become the limiting factor, economic logic dictates the need to maximize its productivity and increase its supply. Investment and technology should therefore focus upon preserving and restoring natural capital while improving the productivity of natural capital more than manmade capital. Population growth must be reduced in developing countries and both population growth and per capita resource use must be constrained in more developed countries. Supporting these objectives, the World Bank, the UN Environment Program, and the UN Development Programme have started a biospheric infrastructure investment called the Global Environment Facility. It will provide concessional funding for programs investing in the preservation or enhancement of the protection of the ozone layer, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, protection of international water resources, and protection of biodiversity. These issues will gain prominence in development bank lending policies.
African debt crisis and the IMF adjustment programmes: the experiences of Ghana, Nigeria and Zambia.
In: Development perspectives for the 1990s, edited by Renee Prendergast and H.W. Singer. Basingstoke, England, Macmillan, 1991. 37-57.Sub-Saharan African countries suffer from rapidly growing external debt and the concomitant burden of its service; debt service in 1987 accounted for 40.6% of exports. Liberal and neo-Marxist rationales exist to explain the development and existence of the African debt crisis. The former view, however, drives the market-oriented development approach of the IMF and World Bank and has resulted in the development and imposition of structural adjustment programs (SAP). Main components of SAP are exchange rate reforms or currency devaluation; trade liberalization; export promotion; rationalization of public expenditure, capital, investment, and employment in the public sector; privatization and commercialization of public enterprises; producer price adjustment; wage restraints; withdrawal/reduction of subsidies; tax structure reform; and financial/administrative reforms. SAP, however, ignores that the narrow production base of post-colonial African states encourages unpredictable export earnings which in turn make it hard for countries to concurrently service debt and pay for imports to cushion the effects of SAP. Internally, programs also ignore the inflationary effect of devaluation while underestimating the social cost of domestic tightening on living standards. While national leaders are willing to take steps towards much-needed structural reform, they object to SAP policies which exacerbate Africa's dependence upon external financial flow. The African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programmes for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation therefore proffers that the IMF modify its policy to allow African states to strengthen and diversify production capacities. Recommendations are largely reflationary and would require substantial internal and external funding. In sum, donor and recipient states must recognize that both internal and external factors caused the present situation and that interested parties must continue to explore viable options for action; African nations need structural reform but with out paralyzing their productive bases; and that the social costs of SAP must be evenly distributed in order to be politically acceptable. The structural adjustment experience of Ghana, Nigeria, and Zambia are presented as examples of these realities and conclusions.