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  1. 1
    134214

    New data on oral contraceptive pills and the risk of heart attack. Press release.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1997 Apr 24. 3 p. (Press Release WHO/33)

    A study conducted by the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Program of Research, Development, and Research Training in Human Reproduction confirmed that young women in both developed and developing countries with no predisposing risk factors for cardiovascular disease can use oral contraceptives (OCs) without increasing their risk of acute myocardial infarction. The study was conducted in 21 centers in 12 developing and 7 developed countries and involved 369 women with acute myocardial infarction and 941 healthy controls. The duration of OC use did not affect the risk of heart attack. In OC users under 35 years who smoke and use the pill, the incidence of heart attack increases from the 3.5 cases/million woman-years recorded in nonsmoking OC users to about 40 cases/million woman-years. The risk of heart attack rises substantially, however, in OC users over 35 years of age who smoke: to 500 cases/million woman-years. The overall risk of heart attack is 10 times higher in OC users with high blood pressure than in women with normal blood pressure or non-users of OCs. The data did not reveal consistent differences in heart attack risk according to the OC's estrogen dose; there were too few OC users enrolled in the study who were using pills containing gestodene or desogestrel to permit conclusions about the relative safety of second- and third-generation OCs. These findings indicate that the minimal heart attack risk associated with OC use can be avoided by screening women for potential risk factors for such disease, especially high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking.
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  2. 2
    054483

    Integrated Programme for Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention and Control (NCD).

    Shigan EN

    WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS QUARTERLY. RAPPORT TRIMESTRIEL DE STATISTIQUES SANITAIRES MONDIALES. 1988; 41(3-4):267-73.

    Because declining mortality from infectious diseases is accompanied by increasing mortality from noncommunicable diseases in both developed and developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated the Integrated Program for Community Health in Noncommunicable Diseases (Interhealth). Interhealth is based on the concepts that 1) noncommunicable diseases are related to a set of risk factors some of which can be controlled; 2) the entire community must be involved; 3) health promotion intervention strategies, such as population control, risk identification, screening and prevention strategies, must be integrated; 4) different categories of intervention (e.g., lifestyle changes, health care reorganization) must be coordinated; 5) social and environmental changes will be necessary; and 6) noncommunicable disease prevention and control strategies will be implemented through existing primary health care systems. The core program of Interhealth addresses heart diseases, stroke, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory diseases from the point of view of their common risk factors: diet, tobacco, physical activity, environment, oral hygiene, blood pressure, lipids, and glucose. The Interhealth program is being developed as a dynamic system, consisting of 4 main activities: experimental testing by means of demonstration projects (of which there are currently 18 in 15 countries); mathematical modeling of disease/risk factor interrelations; training; and research activities. These activities will be supported by organizational, financial and information activities at WHO headquarters and in the WHO Regional Offices.
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