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In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)
The state of the world's women 1985: World Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the United Nations Decade for Women, Equality, Development and Peace, Nairobi, Kenya, July 15-26, 1985.
[Unpublished] 1985. 19 p.This report, based on results of a questionnaire completed by 121 national governments as well as independent research by UN agencies, assesses the status of the world's women at the end of the UN Decade for Women in the areas of the family, agriculture, industrialization, health, education, and politics. Women are estimated to perform 2/3 of the world's work, receive 1/10 of its income and own less than 1/100 of its property. The findings revealed that women do almost all the world's domestic work, which combined with their additional work outside the home means that most women work a double day. Women grow about 1/2 the world's food but own very little land, have difficulty obtaining credit, and are overlooked by agricultural advisors and projects. Women constitute 1/3 of the world's official labor force but are concentrated in the lowest paid occupations and are more vulnerable to unemployment than men. Although there are signs that the wage gap is closing slightly, women still earn less than 3/4 of the wage of men doing similar work. Women provide more health care than do health services, and have been major beneficiaries of the global shift in priorities to primary health care. The average number of children desired by the world's women has dropped from 6 to 4 in 1 generation. Although a school enrollment boom is closing the gap between the sexes, women illiterates outnumber men by 3 to 2. 90% of countries now have organizations promoting the advancement of women, but women are still greatly underrepresented in national decision making because of their poorer educations, lack of confidence, and greater workload. The results repeatedly point to the major underlying cause of women's inequality: their domestic role of wife and mother, which consumes about 1/2 of their time and energy, is unpaid, and is undervalued. The emerging picture of the importance and magnitude of the roles women play in society has been reflected in growing concern for women among governments and the community at large, and is responsible for the positive achievements of the decade in better health care and more employment and educational opportunities. Equality for women will require that they have equal rights, responsibilities, and opportunities in every area of life.
International Workshop on Youth Participation in Population, Environment, Development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83.
Maribo, Denmark, WAY, . 120 p.The objectives of the International Youth Workshop on Population and Development were to provide a forum to the leaders of national youth councils and socio-political youth organizations. These leaders were brought together to review national and local youth activities and their plans and action programs for the future. The outlook for these discussions was local, regional, and global. In addition the Workshop aimed at providing interaction among the youth organizations of the developing and the developed countries. These proceedings include an inaugural address by Gemini Atukorata, Minister of Youth Affairs, Government of Sri Lanka and presentations focusing on the following: youth and development; the key role of youth in production and reproduction -- important factors of development; 60% of the aid goes back to the giving country in several ways; adolescent fertility as a major concern; social development for the poor with particular reference to the well-being of children and women; commitment for the cause is the key to attract funds; and observance of the International Youth Year under the themes of participation, development, and peace. The 11th workshop session dealt with follow-up and the future direction of the World Assembly of Youth (WAY). The following points emerged in this most important session: WAY should emphasize "Youth Participation in Development" as the major program; WAY's population programs should not be limited to just information, education, and communication, and youth groups should be encouraged to become service delivery agents for contraceptives wherever possible; environment awareness should become an integral part of population and development programs; youth in the service of children, health for all, and drug abuse should be the new areas of operation for WAY; and programs of youth working in the service of disabled, especially disabled young people, and youth and crime prevention programs also found favor with the participants. Recommendations and action programs are outlined. Proceedings include a summary of WAY activities and resolutions.
AFRICAN POPULATION NEWSLETTER. 1992 Jan-Jun; (62):2-3.Governments were asked to coordinate their policies and programs regarding development, population, and environment and to take into account demographic trends and patterns of production and consumption by the UN Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment, and Development (New York, January 20-24, 1992). The meeting urged developed countries to make technologies, which were designed to achieve sustained economic growth and sustainable development, available to developing countries at a reasonable cost. International organizations were advised to increase their assistance in the fields of population, sustainable development, and environment. Governments were encouraged to undertake projects that were ecologically beneficial and labor intensive (reforestation, contour leveling, terracing small scale irrigation); to enhance the access of the rural poor to employment opportunities, credit, and social services (health, education, and family planning); to place emphasis on popular education, especially for women; to provide additional resources to local authorities for city management, particularly those experiencing rapid population growth; to provide adequate training in municipal management, including provisional environmental services; and to emphasize the participation of women as environmental managers in community-based population and environmental programs.
[New York, New York], United Nations, 1992.  p.Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
In: Urban and rural development in Third World countries: problems of population in developing nations, edited by Valentine James. Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland, 1991. 297-314.National security must be broadened to include national cultural survival in tandem with resource availability or scarcity, and tensions between developed and developing countries must be reduced. Budget priorities must accommodate a sense of fairness, humanness, and justice. Politics reflect priorities and values for scarce resources for US society and for the world. The needs of the Third World are described, followed by a presentation of a developmentalist alternative and a case study of Brazil and Central America. Attempts have been made to secure stability and harmony through unilateral armament, bilateral and multilateral treaty arrangements, and a European balance of power strategy. None of these strategies has been particularly successful. The UN Charter also provides for collective security arrangements and unilateral and regional defense systems. 9 objective and subjective criteria for a viable collective security system are listed. The US has never agreed on a definition of aggression or that it is totally undesirable. 157 nations are part of the UN, while others are still denied membership on ideological grounds. Confidence in the system and its members is lacking and nations have been unwilling to subordinate national behavior to UN standards. Collective security in the political world has not been realized. Nuclear deterrence has been used by the US since the 1950 for national security. Aristotle recognized that economic well-being is related to peace, and gross inequalities are related to conflict. The needs of developing countries are the reduction of poverty and of the gap between rich and poor nations. Poor nations are susceptible to corruption, capital flight, and increasing military expenditures. The US strategy has been to support corruptible repressive regimes. Budget priorities need to be reevaluated. An alternative developmentalist strategy would improve conditions to halt the spread of hostile ideologies and socioeconomic instability.
Development co-operation in the 1990s: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee. 1989 report.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1989. 287 p.This report on the major development issues likely to impinge on the aid process during the next decade has been developed by the 19 members of the Development Assistance Committee of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Part I of the report discusses what will happen in the next century and current issues in the work of the committee. Part II of the report contains the basic document resulting from the year-long debate. The goal has been to bring together in a coherent framework a state-of-the-art assessment of the aid system for the 1990s. Part II considers broad-based economic growth, participatory development, key sectors for broad-based growth, equitable development strategies, investing in people, environmental issues, financial challenges, and future directions for the aid system. Part II examines trends in flows for the aid system, including total volume and prospects, the sources of aid, and multilateral aid. A statistical annex contains statistics on aid from various sources and socioeconomic and population trends in developing countries.
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, International Development Research Centre, 1990. 40 p. (Searching Series No. 1)There are many global problems. North and South are both worried about thinning of the ozone layer and global warming. This report begins with problems created by the North and the South. The next part shows how scientists in 3rd World countries can help solve these problems. The developing countries are seen as a laboratory where solutions to global problems are being found. Greenhouse gases are heating the earth's climate. This global warming will be bad for millions of people. The carbon dioxide build-up could double between now and the 2nd half of the 21st century. The earth's average surface temperature will rise by 2 degrees centigrade by the year 2030. This could raise sea levels. Scientists from different climates will have to get together on researching this problem. More than 1/2 of the genes of plants used by the West to improve agricultural species of develop medicines are in developing countries. Gene banks should be established. It is too late to stop global warming. Methane gets into the air from many sources. Nitrous oxide is another main greenhouse gas, as is carbon dioxide. The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases also contribute to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is destroyed when chlorine from CFCs and bromine from halons are in the upper atmosphere. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a new global health threat; as are travelling influenzas. The population will grow to about 6.2 billion by the year 2000; 9 out of 10 new births will take place in the 3rd World. The total debt of developing countries right now is more than US $1.3 trillion. This has doubled since 1980. Illegal production of narcotics is significant to various economies. There are many military threats to security. There are many scientists in the South and much health and biological research is undertaken there. In 1997, Brazil will manufacture alcohol-powered vehicles. Canada maintains many ties with developing countries. The North and South must cooperate on scientific research, including the international research centers that have been established in 3rd World countries.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 40 p.The decade of the 1990's, the Fourth Development Decade, will be "critical" because of the world's demographic situation will determine the future for the 21st century in terms of population growth and the effect of growing populations in terms of damage to the environment. Despite the fact that government political support for population programs and activities rose from 97 countries in 1976 to 125 in 1988 (Africa rose from 16 in 1978 to 30 in 1988), the contraceptive prevalence rates in developing countries (excluding China) during the 1980's fell below 40%. Many countries encountered a "mix" of difficulties maintaining their family planning programs (FP) because of declining political support and the debt burden forcing governments to reduce investments in health and social welfare programs, including FP. By the year 2025 the UN expects 8,467 million people; 147 million (<5%) will be in the industrialized countries and 95% in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia. This report discusses human resource development during the Fourth Development Decade. FP and population programs must become integral components of countries' development process to achieve sustainable economic growth. 19 recommendations are offered on how to achieve sustained fertility declines. This UNFPA report includes the following sections: Introduction; Part 1 "The Challenges Ahead"; Part 2 "Keeping the Options Open"; Part 3 "Human Resource Development-A New Priority"; Conclusion and Recommendations.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 189-90.Population problems should be of great concern to all. The Swiss government is pleased to see the progress that has been made in dealing with population dilemmas since the Bucharest Conference, 1974. However, the government, taking into consideration the diversity of different cultures, believes that it is up to each government to individually decide their own approach to dealing with population problems. In developing countries high population growth has made it difficult for governments to deal with the poverty created by these dilemmas. The results are poor or inadequate social facilities. However, in developed countries the governments have to deal with an aging society and damage done to non-renewable resources. The Swiss government will continue to give support to individual governments, in addition to international NGOs such as the UN.
Development co-operation, 1988 report: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1988. 254 p.The members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee provided about $41.5 billion in development assistance in 1987, over 80% of world aid, which exceeded $50 billion. In real terms, this is a 1% drop in assistance over 1986. Among the larger countries, Japan's 1987 performance was outstanding; its assistance increased by 13.5%. There has been considerable disappointment with the relatively low priority accorded to development assistance by the US, but the US is in the middle of a period of fiscal and trade policy adjustment seen as important to the well-being of the international economic system. Official development assistance still provides more than half of total net financial flows to developing countries. The DAC has just reached a new consensus of principles of project approval, including 1) a conducive policy environment, 2) clear and realistic goals, 3) project design corresponding to managerial and technical capacity, 4) affordability in terms of initial costs and of operations and maintenance, 5) active involvement of local authorities and target groups including women, 6) choice of appropriate technologies, 7) realistic time frames, 8) adequate maintenance and support systems, 9) compatibility with domestic socio-cultural environments, and 10) environmental sustainability. There is an encouraging convergence in economic thinking with a recognition by OECD and developing countries alike that what happens in each is important to the world economy. Trade is now seen even more clearly than in the past as fundamental to the development process. The worldwide consensus on the importance of private-sector growth suggests that developing countries are likely to be seeking more help for direct assistance to the market economy and for improving government institutions needed to provide vital services and support. There is a renewed interest in looking at aid policy for upper middle-income countries.
Washington, D.C., PAHO, 1988 Jul. v, 117 p. (Official Document No. 221)The global economy continued to adversely affect member countries' health programs and activities in 1987. For example, Latin American and Caribbean countries lost >$US28 billion in 1987 and from 1982-1987 they lost $US130 billion. At the same time, the percentage of adolescents and elderly in the total population increased tremendously, the numbers of people experiencing chronic and disabling diseases also increased while infectious and parasitic diseases still posed challenges for the health community, and the number of urban poor continued to grow. In 1987, to help member countries deal with the everchanging health needs of their populations, PAHO focused on population groups and geographic regions and within these defined areas concentrated on specific diseases. For example, PAHO worked with member governments to formulate, implement, and evaluate policies and programs on the health of adults. Specifically, diseases and conditions emphasized in adult health included cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, accident prevention, and the prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of alcoholism and drug abuse. Other emphases were maternal and child health and family planning and those diseases and conditions associated with the population. Additionally, PAHO continued with special programs and initiatives to maximize its role as a catalyst and to mobilize national and international resources in support of activities aimed at selected health priorities. Some of these initiatives included the Expanded Program on Immunization, the Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination, and the Caribbean Cooperation in Health. In addition, each country's PAHO activities have been summarized.
New York, New York, Longman, 1988. xv, 223 p.In 1964 Wilbur Schramm, on a grant from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), wrote a book called "Mass Media and National Development." It painted a glowing picture in which the mass media would reveal the way to development and enable the Third World countries to achieve in a few decades the development that had occurred over centuries in the West. By the 1970s it became clear that population growth was overtaking development. The Third World nations began to see the mass media as tools of the conspiracy of transnational corporations in their to keep the Third World a source of cheap labor. The Third World countries began to seek an alternate route to development, without help from either the East or the West. Their ideal and model was China, where the radical alternative had been shown to work. The Third Word countries joined together as the "Non-Aligned MOvement," a organization which had been founded in Indonesia in 1955. By the 1970s the Third Word countries constituted a majority in UNESCO, which they turned into a forum of resentment against the Western mass media, which they perceived as using dominance over world news flow to keep the Third World in a state of cultural dependency on the West. The poverty of the Third World nations, they claimed, was the heritage of colonialism, and the West owed them restitution. The Western news media were identified as the modern day equivalent of the colonial armies of imperialism. The debate over the dominance of Western influence in world news flow was launched in UNESCO by a request from the Soviet Union in 1972 for "a declaration on the fundamental principles governing the use of the mass media with a view to strengthening peace and understanding and combatting war, propaganda, radicalism, and apartheid." The debate in UNESCO took on a new name, the "New World Information Order," in which the Third World nations argued that they had the right to restrict the free flow of news across their borders. UNESCO Director General, Amadou M 'Bow, tabled the resolution and appointed a commission, headed by Sean MacBride, to undertake general review of communications problems in modern society. The report, entitled "Many Voices, One World," was in many ways vague, but it at least endorsed the Western values of free flow of information. The Us offered technological assistance to the Third World under the auspices of the International Program for the Development of Communication. This institution was designed as a world clearinghouse for communication development, but as such it accomplished little. Meanwhile, the Third World countries gave priority to developing their own national news agencies and the Non-Aligned News Agencies Pool, dedicated to the "journalism of national development." What this meant, if effect, was journalism limited to "development news" (which by definition was always good)and to "protocol news," i.e., ribbon-cutting and other ceremonial events. By the time of the US withdrawal from UNESCO at the end of 1984, the issue was becoming, if not resolved, at least quiescent, with some indications of progress. At the 1983 conference at Talloires, the World Press Freedom Committee and the Associated Press put together a list of 300 journalistic exchange, training, and internship programs in 70 countries. The World Bank issued a report on "Telecommunications and Economic Development," and a report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the International Telecommunications Union pointed out the cost-benefit relationship of telecommunications to economic development. Finally, a report by an international commission headed by Sir Donald Maitland stressed the importance of shifting existing resources to telecommunications so that basic communications services would be available to everyone on earth by the early 21st century.
[The Church, the Family and Responsible Parenthood in Latin America: a Meeting of experts] Iglesia, Familia y Paternidad Responsable en America Latina: Encuentro de Expertos.
Bogota, Colombia, CELAM, 1977. (Documento CELAM No. 32.)This document is the result of a meeting organized by the Department of the Laity of the Latin American Episcopal Council on the theme of the Church, Family, and Responsible Parenthood. 18 Latin American experts in various disciplines were selected on the basis of professional competence and the correctness of their philosophical and theological positions in the eyes of the Catholic Church to study the problem of responsible parenthood in Latin America and to recommend lines of action for a true family ministry in this area. The work consists of 2 major parts: 12 presentations concerning the sociodemographic, philosophical-theological, psychophysiological, and educational aspects of responsible parenthood, and conclusions based on the work and the meetings. The 4 articles on sociodemographic aspects discuss the demographic problem in Latin America, Latin America and the demographic question in the Conference of Bucharest, maturity of faith in Christ expressed in responsible parenthood, and social conditions of responsible parenthood in Peruvian squatter settlements. The 3 articles on philosophical and theological aspects concern conceptual foundations of neomalthusian theory, pastoral attitudes in relation to responsible parenthood, and pastoral action regarding responsible parenthood. 2 articles on psychophysiological aspects discuss the couple and methods of fertility regulation and the gynecologist as an advisor on psychosexual problems of reproduction. Educational aspects are discussed in 3 articles on sexual pathology and education, education for responsible parenthood, and the Misereor-Carvajal Program of Family Action in Cali, Colombia. The conclusions are the result of an interdisciplinary effort to synthesize the major points of discussion and agreements on principles and actions arrived at in each of the 4 areas.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 321-47. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)Although emigration from the Caribbean has long been viewed as beneficial to the region's economic development, it is increasingly clear that it also represents an impediment and a lost opportunity. After analyzing migration-for-development programs for other regions and identifying those factors that were most effective while also relevant to the Caribbean, the authors propose a set of programs that would reduce the cost of emigration to Caribbean development and multiply the benefits. The proposals include 1) Caribbean remittance banks, 2) incentive programs to recruit US-based Caribbean professionals from private and public life, and 3) a set of measures to encourage the next generation of Caribbean professionals to use their skills in their home countries. An alternative is presented that is between the statist approach to emigration of the Cuban government and the wholly individualistic approach of the rest of the Caribbean governments. It uses the available ways to reconcile the personal right to emigrate with the collective concern for economic development. It involves steps by Caribbean governments, by donor governments like that of the US who are interested in the region, and by international development institutions. To the extent that economic development is a primary concern of those interested in the Caribbean, increased attention should be given to migration as a central factor in the development equation.
In: Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1985. 140-56. (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean.)The island of Hispaniola is divided between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, each with 5 or 6 million people. The constrasts between the countries, however, are more striking. Haiti is overwhelmingly poor and black and has an autocratic government. The Dominican Republic is considerably more advanced economically and boasts a functioning democracy. This chapter examines international (from both countries to the US and from Haiti to the Dominican Republic) migration, rural-urban migration, and development in both countries. The key to resolving the interrelated issues of migration and development in Hispaniola is a balanced program of economic, social, and political development in Haiti. The current situation of containing Haitian migration pressures through US Coast Guard surveillance at sea and Dominican border patrols by land provides a practical solution for curtailing illegal Haitian migration in the short run. However, it could serve merely to bottle up growing problems of poverty and unemployment in Haiti, leading to even greater perhaps uncontainable pressures for out-migration at some future point, unless coupled with a forceful program to improve conditions within the country. A successful development strategy for Haiti will require firm and substantial commitments by the government of Haiti and the international community. The recent record of the Duvalier government in promoting national development has been disappointing, but it is not bad or hopeless as often protrayed by critics abroad. The 2 major issues of migration that influence development in the Dominican Republic are the substanitial emigration of Dominicans to the US and the longstanding question of Haitian workers in the Dominican Republic. The situation of the latter at this point is relatively stable and calm, with recognition of the contribution Haitian workers make to the Dominican economy but with a fear of possible political turmoil and economic collapse in Haiti, in which large numbers of Haitians pour across the unsecurable border seeking refuge in the Dominican Republic.
In: High risk mothers and newborns: detection, management and prevention, edited by Abdel R. Omran, Jean Martin and Bechir Hamza. Thun, Switzerland, Ott Verlag, 1987. 247-56.In 1974 the first international government level meeting on population was held in Bucharest. The Conference focused world-wide attention on the importance of population as a factor in socioeconomic development plans. It also achieved the production of a WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION, much to the surprise of many observers who had been concerned during the whole year about the positions on population being taken by many influential countries and some international experts. The atmosphere in Bucharest differed considerably from that surrounding the 1984 conference in Mexico City. The first meeting had been held largely at the urging of the more industrialized nations, many of them openly stating that the population growth rates of developing countries were frustrating their opportunities for flourishing economically. The Less Developed Countries (LDCs) therefore looked on the conference as an effort to divert attention from major development problems to that of population. The developmentalist camp maintained that development is the best contraceptive. The opposing camp maintained that population, as a variable in development, should be planned and managed. The Mexico International Conference on Population, 1984, was convened largely at the request of the LDCs. It was to review the progress made since 1974, to reschedule and upgrade the recommendations of the WORLD POPULATION PLAN OF ACTION. The LDC debt crisis posed a major development crisis. North-South tensions still existed, yet there was no polarization about development and population. It would appear that in most countries the political acceptance of family planning for health or human rights and welfare reasons can now be taken for granted. Whatever the rationale, the reality is that information and services are not reaching many individuals and couples in need. The issue now is how to provide services in a way that makes them accessible, affordable, and effective.
DEVELOPMENT: SEEDS OF CHANGE; VILLAGE THROUGH GLOBAL ORDER. 1987; (4):117-21.In this article the relations between government and non-government organizations (NGOs) are analyzed. In many countries, government and NGOs are 2 different worlds with little interaction between them. The differences between the 2 types of organizations could be summarized as the difference in the scale of operations, in the approach to development, different underlying philosophies, a different way of operating, different counterparts in developing countries, different projects and programs and a different way of dealing with the political context of development projects and programs. Collaboration between developed countries' governments and NGOs to stimulate development could be improved through: 1) a more systematic exchange of information between the 2 types of organizations; 2) the formulation of conditions for success in a particular country; 3) more sub-contracting of certain kinds of projects and project components to NGOs; 4) carrying out activities together; 5) improving the modalities and procedures of financial support to NGOs and in some cases its volume as well; and 6) moving from emergency to prevention. It is important to search for new fields of collaboration between government and non-government organizations. Examples are working with NGOs to formulate and implement food policies, relying on NGOs for feedback on certain policies, or in trying to achieve structural adjustment with a human face.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1987 Feb; 1-7.Honduras is a democratic, constitutional republic located between Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua in Central America. Although in the early history of the nation there were frequent revolutions, Honduras has been independent throughout much of its existence. Since the decade of the 1980s, there has been close cooperation with the US including bilateral economic and security assistance, and joint military exercises. The government constitution adopted in 1982 assures that there will be a powerful executive branch, a unicameral legislature, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Following 18 years of military government, Honduras is now under civilian and constitutional rule. Its major serious concerns center around development in the economic and social spheres. Honduras is the least developed Central American country. In 1984, it became a Caribbean Basin Initiative beneficiary country and as a result, the research and development of nontraditional export products has grown greatly. The US has been its most important trade partner. Among others, the US and the World Bank have committed large amounts of financial resources to help Honduras. Honduras and El Salvador are attempting to come to some agreement about their mutual boundaries and Honduras is concerned about the Nicaraguan and general Central American situation. It supports the US position and policy toward Nicaragua. In response to the threats posed by some of its neighbors, Honduras has focused on developing a mobile deterrent force with strong counterterrorism capabilities. Honduras relies heavily on US material assistance and political support.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1987. vi, 247 p. (Population Studies, No. 102; ST/ESA/SER.A/102)WORLD POPULATION POLICIES presents, in 3 volumes, current information on the population policies of the 170 members states of the UN and non-member states. This set of reports in based on the continuous monitoring of population policies by the Population Division of the Department of International Economic and Social Affairs of the UN Secretariat. It replaces POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, POPULATION POLICY BRIEFS: CURRENT SITUATION IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, and POPULATION POLICY COMPENDIUM. Except where noted, the demographic estimates and projections cited in this report are based on the 10th round of global demographic assessments undertaken by the Population Division. Country reports are grouped alphabetically; Volume I contains Afghanistan to France. Each country's entry includes demographic indicators detailing population size, a structure, and growth; mortality and morbidity; fertility, nuptiality, and family; international migration; and spatial distribution and urbanization. Current perceptions of these demographic indicators are included, along with the country's general policy framework, institutional framework, and policies and measures. A brief glossary of terms and list of countries replying to the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th inquiries are appended.
In: Latin American Conference on Population and Development Planning, Cartagena, Colombia, 1979. Final report. New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1979. 1-17. (RLA/78/P15; UNFPA/79/CDPP/LA/3)This paper examines UNFPA's role in promoting the integration of population into development planning, with a special emphasis on the Latin America region. The 1st section traces the resolutions and instruments adopted by the UN in the last 25 years on the subject of population and development, later framed in the broader context of a new international development strategy. UNFPA's general mandates and its intercountry activities are described in the 2nd section. The 3rd section summarizes the general situation in Latin America in regard to the integration of population policies and development planning, and outlines the response of UNFPA to the requests of governments at the regional and country levels. The 4th section is a concluding statement indicating UNFPA's willingness to seek guidance from Member States on its course of action and to meet requests for assistance from governments as it considers this necessary and desirable.
Development co-operation, 1986 review: efforts and policies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 1986. 292 p.The 1986 annual report details the efforts and policies of the Development Assistance Committee members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (DECD). Part 1 provides an overview of development assistance by region and ways it might be improved as well as a chapter on Africa's long-term prospects. Part 2 covers current trends and policy issues in official development assistance, including volume trends and prospects, basic priorities, shifts in geographic and functional aid distribution, financial terms of aid, environmental concerns, and the role of women in development. Individual countries' assistance is covered as well as multilateral agencies. Part 3 deals with improving aid effectiveness through strengthened aid co-ordination and better policies. Separate sections cover improved development policies and coordination, technical assistance in support of improved economic management capacity, cooperation in agricultural development, and cooperation for improved energy sector management. Part 4 reviews trends in external resource flows to Sub-Saharan Africa. Annexes detail good procurement practices for official development assistance and the recommendations of the Council of the DECD on the environment and development assistance.
[Recommendations of the Population World Plan of Action and of the United Nations Expert Group on Population Distribution, Migration and Development] Recomendaciones del Plan de Accion Mundial sobre Poblacion y del Grupo de Expertos de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo.
In: Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984, [compiled by] Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO]. Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 21-31.Highlights are presented of the expert meeting on population distribution, migration, and development held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in March 1983 to prepare for the 1984 World Population Conference. Rafael Salas, Secretary General of the World Population Conference, indicated in the inaugural address of the meeting that changes in the past 10 years including the increasing importance of short-term movements, illegal migrations, and refugees would require international agreements for their resolution. In the area of internal migrations, Salas suggested that in addition to migration to metropolitan areas which continues to predominate, short-term movements of various kinds need to be considered in policy. Improvement in the quality of life of the urban poor is an urgent need. Leon Tabah, Adjunct Secretary General of the World Population Conference, pointed out that population distribution and migration had received insufficient attention in the 1975 World Population Conference, and that the World Population Plan of Action should be modified accordingly. Among the most important findings of the meeting were: 1) The Plan of Action overstressed the negative effects of urbanization and rural migration. Available evidence suggests that migration and urbanization are effects rather than causes of a larger process of unequal regional and sectorial development 2) The historical context of each country should be considered in research and planning regarding population movements. 3) Analyses of the determinants and consequences of migration were reexamined in light of their relationship to the processes of employment, capital accumulation, land tenure, technological change, ethnic and educational aspects, and family dynamics. 4) The need to consider interrelationships between urban rural areas in formulation of policy affecting population distribution was emphasized. 5) National development strategies and macroeconomic and sectoral policies usually have stronger spatial effects than measures specifically designed to influence population distribution, and should be examined to ensure compatability of goals. 6) Population distribution policies should not be viewed as ends in themselves but as measures to achieve larger goals such as reducing socioeconomic inequalities. 7) Multiple levels of analysis should be utilized for understanding the causes and consequences of population movements. 8) Programs of assistance should be organized for migrants and their families. 9) The human and labor rights of migrants and nonmigrants should be considered in policy formulation. 10) Policies designed to improve living and working conditions of women are urgently needed.
[National Conference on Population Distribution, Migration and Development, Guadalajara, Jalisco, May 11, 1984] Reunion Nacional sobre Distribucion de la Poblacion, Migracion y Desarrollo, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 11 de mayo de 1984.
Mexico City, Mexico, CONAPO, 1984. 107 p.Proceedings of a national conference on population distribution, migration, and development held in Guadalajara, Mexico, in May 1984 in preparation for the 1984 World Population Conference are presented. 2 opening addresses explain the objectives and relevance of the national conference, while the 1st conference paper outlines the recommendations of the World Population Plan of Action and of an expert meeting sponsored by the UN in Tunisia in 1983 on the topic of population distribution, migration, and development. The main conference papers discuss recent evolution of population distribution in Mexico; migration, labor markets, and development, including migratory flows and the economic structure of Mexico, recommendations of the World Population Conference of 1974, the migration policy of the Mexican National Development Plan, and the National Employment Service as an instrument of migration policy; and reflections on the World Population Conference, the Mexican government, and the design of an international migration policy, including commentarty on the recommendations of the expert committee on international migration convened in preparation for the World Population Conference, and comments on problems in design of migration policy. The main recommendations of the conference were 1) the principles of the World Population Plan of Action, particularly in regard to respect for fundamental human rights, be reaffirmed; 2) policies designed to influence population movement directly be supplemented by and coordinated with other social and economic policies likely to produce the same effect; 3) coordination among all sectors be improved to ensure effective implementation of policy goals; 4) efforts be undertaken to provide more detailed information on internal migratory movements; 5) laws governing migration and population distribution in Mexico be carefully analyzed and possibly modified; and 6) a clear and realistic international migration policy be formulated which would take into account the need for more detailed data on international migration, a clear definition of policy objectives in international migration, respect of basic human rights, and coherence between external and internal international migration policies.