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  1. 1
    181497

    Fertility, contraception and population policies.

    United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 2003. iv, 37 p. (ESA/P/WP.182)

    Governments’ views and policies with regard to the use of contraceptives have changed considerably during the second half of the 20th century. At the same time, many developing countries have experienced a transition from high to low fertility with a speed and magnitude that far exceeds the earlier fertility transition in European countries. Government policies on access to contraceptives have played an important role in the shift in reproductive behaviour. Low fertility now prevails in some developing countries, as well as in most developed countries. The use of contraception is currently widespread throughout the world. The highest prevalence rates at present are found in more developed countries and in China. This chapter begins with a global overview of the current situation with regard to Governments’ views and policies on contraception. It then briefly summarizes the five phases in the evolution of population policies, from the founding of the United Nations to the beginning of the 21st century. It examines the various policy recommendations concerning contraception adopted at the three United Nations international population conferences, and it discusses the role of regional population conferences in shaping the policies of developed and developing countries. As part of its work programme, the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat is responsible for the global monitoring of the implementation of the Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). To this end, the Population Division maintains a Population Policy Data Bank, which includes information from many sources. Among these sources are official Government responses to the United Nations Population Inquiries; Government and inter-governmental publications, documents and other sources; and non-governmental publications and related materials. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    168060

    Securing future supplies for family planning and HIV / AIDS prevention.

    Ashford L

    Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau, MEASURE Communication, 2002 Feb. [8] p. (MEASURE Communication Policy Brief; USAID Contract No. HRN-A-00-98-000001-00)

    This document presents factors that contribute to the growing shortfall of contraceptive supplies in developing countries. These include: 1) more people of reproductive age; 2) growing interest in contraceptive use; 3) the spread of HIV/AIDS; 4) insufficient and poorly coordinated donor funding; and 5) inadequate logistics capacity in developing countries. An international network called the Interim Working Group on Reproductive Health Commodity Security is helping to raise awareness of the problem and find solutions. The group convened a meeting in Istanbul in May 2001, in which representatives of governments and nongovernmental organizations endorsed actions in four areas-- advocacy, national capacity building, financing, and donor coordination. Continued work on this issue focuses on developing country-specific strategies that bring together the national and international partners who play a role in bringing supplies to those who need them.
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  3. 3
    059868

    North-South cooperation for survival.

    Waiyaki M

    INTEGRATION. 1989 Dec; (22):14-7.

    Affirming that international cooperation along North-North, North-South, and South-South lines is essential for mutual survival, Mr. Waiyaki calls upon international understanding, good w ill, determination, and compromise in achieving mutually beneficial socioeconomic development for developing nations, while avoiding serious international confrontation and internal civil strife. He cites remaining instances of colonialism and the debate over Africa's debt repayment as potential conflict areas, then provides previously suggested resolving steps involving the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Economic Commission for Africa. Regarding internal strife, he discusses the hardships imposed upon African populations by structural adjustment programs. Should such exacerbatory measures be implemented in the hope of fostering development, negative international ramifications are possible. Specifically, the potential failure of measures to redress regional population and environmental problems should not be discounted. Improved communications and increasing interdependence continue to make the world seem smaller, allowing regional changes to affect the world on a broader scale. Key issues in high population growth, especially in Africa, Latin America, and Oceania, and environmental concerns are explored. The address includes specific mention of determinant factors and suggestions for Northern country interventions in finding solutions to these comprehensive concerns.
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  4. 4
    049276

    Dominican Republic: Contraceptive Social Marketing Project.

    Futures Group. Social Marketing for Change [SOMARC]

    [Unpublished] 1987 Jun. [6] p.

    To increase knowledge and proper use of low-dose oral contraceptives and increase availability of affordable contraception for low-income populations in the Dominican Republic, Profamilia (an IPPF affiliate) launched a communications/promotional campaign for Microgynon aimed at men and women under age 35. While strengthening Profamilia's marketing and organizational capabilities so that the program could be maintained without donor subsidies, the Profamilia name was used to communicate the idea of quality at low price. The message that Microgynon is a safe, effective, easily used, temporary method of birth control was relayed through a television commercial aired in 1986; through press releases; on display posters, stickers, matchbooks, memo pads, and bag inserts distributed to pharmacies; by educational/promotional meetings with the medical community; and by orientation sessions with pharmacy employees. Schering Dominica's sales network placed Microgynon in 83% of pharmacies in the Dominican Republic. It was priced significantly below comparable products. Of 500 randomly selected residents, 68% remembered seeing the television commercial. In interviews with 252 Microgynon purchasers, 65% said that they had started using Microgynon after the television advertising campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching the target group of women.
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  5. 5
    810165

    Birth control in the year 2001.

    Djerassi C

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 1981 Mar; 37(3):24-8.

    Focus in this discussion is on the following questions: what should birth control be like both globally and in the United States in the year 2001; what could it be; what will it be; and why. The specific birth control methods used in the year 2001 will most likely be practically indistinguishable from the methods available at this time. Birth control in the future should address itself to the various unmet needs which differ from country to country and even from person to person. What is needed in the year 2001 is a contraceptive supermarket, that is, availability on a global scale of a repertoire of birth control devices and methods from which both men and women may choose, taking into consideration health factors and their own cultural, religious, and moral preferences. If a man today wants to carry part of the contraceptive responsibility, he will find a sparsely stocked contraceptive supermarket -- condoms, coitus interruptus, and vasectomy. Only women in monogamous sexual relationships are likely to depend on men to practice contraception. The primary justification for the development of a better-stocked contraceptive supermarket is that there is no universally "perfect" contraceptive and never will be. A male pill is feasible but would probably take 15-20 years from laboratory discovery to practical application even if major efforts are put into such a program, and current efforts are minimal. The most promising approach would be a once-a-month pill for women in both advanced and less developed countries. More feasible might be the development of a convenient and completely reliable method of ovulation prediction.
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  6. 6
    266341

    Injectable contraception.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, England, IPPF, April 1983. 9 p. (IPPF Fact Sheet)

    Discusses the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) position on the use of injectable contraceptives. The 2 currently available injectable contraceptives are depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), which is marketed under the name Depo-Provera, and norethisterone acetate (NET-EN), sold as Noristerat or Norigest. Injectable contraceptives are highly effective, convenient, and have a long-acting effect which is an advantage. DMPA has been approved for contraceptive use in more than 80 developing and developed countries, and NEP-EN, a recent introduction, in 40 countries. After the contraceptive has been approved for domestic use, it is supplied by IPPF to those countries which request it. Injectables are also provided for contraceptive use by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The current positions of the WHO and the IPPF are covered, as well as the positions of Britain, Sweden, and the United States. Criticisms of the injectable contraceptives and IPPF's position regarding these are also discussed. After taking the criticisms into account, IPPF concludes that there is not sufficient reason to change its current position on injectable contraceptives. It will continue to keep all methods under close and continuous review.
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