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  1. 1

    Approaching STDs and AIDS on a global scale. Interview with Peter Piot, Associate Director, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Global Programme on AIDS (GPA), World Health Organisation (WHO).

    AIDS BULLETIN. 1993 Jul; 2(2):4-5.

    Dr. Piot became involved with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS (GPA) through his early involvement as Chairman of the WHO Steering Committee on the Epidemiology of AIDS. He responds to questions about the HIV pandemic. Although researchers realized early on that HIV could be transmitted sexually and suspected that condom use could confer protection against HIV infection as it does against other STDs such as gonorrhea and syphilis, only minimal light was shed to the public on the association of HIV with STDs. The delay in clearly pointing out the association stemmed from professionals' lack of desire to further stigmatize HIV/AIDS by designating it as a STD. Furthermore, many Western hematologists had little interest in STDs, and STD control in many countries tended to be coercive. Regarding the risk of HIV infection, Dr. Piot notes that the presence of a genital ulcer caused by syphilis, chancroid, or herpes increases one's risk 10-20-fold; risk increases 3- to 4-fold where gonorrhea or chlamydia are present. Acknowledging the association between STDs and the risk of contracting HIV and understanding the need to control STDs for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, the WHO's STD program was brought under the auspices of and integrated with the GPA. People, and especially women, who may present at STD clinics for treatment are prime candidates for much needed help in avoiding HIV infection; Dr. Piot notes that unlike men, many women do not realize they are infected with an STD until complications develop. Dr. Piot's recent appointment at GPA means the WHO will increase its focus upon the prevention and treatment of STDs. The WHO favors an integrated program approach. Additionally, the GPA plans to develop a short-list of recommended drugs for treating STDs and hopes to develop ways for developing countries to buy them affordably with help from UNICEF and the World Bank. Finally, Dr. Piot explains that, with some exceptions, the prevalence of STDs is lower in developed countries and, therefore, less of a prevention priority.
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  2. 2

    Biotechnology and the Third World: caveat emptor.

    Dembo D; Dias C; Morehouse W

    Development: Seeds of Change. 1987; (4):11-8.

    3 basic categories of institutions in research and development (R&D) of biotechnology include universities, small biotechnology R&D venture capital financed firms, and transnational corporations in the US and other more developed countries (MDCs). Almost 24 transnationals, which predominantly manufacture pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals, lead the biotechnology industry by contracting research arrangements with universities or venture capital financed firms or by establishing their own R&D, manufacturing, and marketing activities in biotechnology. On the other hand, in less developed countries (LDCs), the private sector plays no role or a relatively small role in biotechnology. National level government programs are developing biotechnology capabilities in some LDCs, however. In MDCs, the move towards privatization of biotechnology, especially with the ability to patent technologies, restricts the free flow of research information, thereby inhibiting the diversity and pace of technological innovation, widening the technological gap between MDCs and LDCs, and thus maintaining LDCs' dependence on MDCs. The leading role of transnational corporations in biotechnology R&D causes skewed research priorities that the corporations determine based on their own global strategies. These research priorities are determined by potential profit, and not by the needs of the LDCs. Even though products of biotechnology have the capability to improve the lives of many in the world, they displace more traditional products of LDCs. For example, sugar will soon be displaced by immobilized enzyme technology produced high fructose, therefore affecting the economies and poor of sugar exporting nations. LDCs must act now so as not to fall behind in the biotechnology revolution, such as establishing their relevance at the grass roots level.
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  3. 3

    A case-control study of ectopic pregnancy in developed and developing countries.

    Gray H

    In: Intrauterine contraception: advances and future prospects, edited by Gerald I. Zatuchni, Alfredo Goldsmith, and John J. Sciarra. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Harper and Row, 1985. 354-64. (PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation)

    Little data is available from developing countries on the incidence of ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and abortion. To address this problem, the World Health Organization conducted a multinational case-control study between 1978 and 1980 of factors associated with ectopic pregnancy in 12 centers, 8 in developing countries and 4 in developed countries. Results suggest that risk factors are similar in women from developing and developed countries. The only exceptions were increased risks of ectopic pregnancy associated with spontaneous abortion or smoking in developing but not developed country centers. This may reflect misreporting of illegal induced abortion or postabortion complications, and behavioral differences between smoking and nonsmoking women in developing countries. All methods of contraception prevent pregnancy and so provide protection against ectopic pregnancy. This protective effect is least with the IUD, however, and accidental conceptions during IUD use or after sterilization carry an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. With the IUD, this probably reflects both differential protection against intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancy and an increased risk of IUD-related PID resulting in tubal damage. The risk of ectopic pregnancy is also increased in women with a previous history of PID or a prior pregnancy. However, cesarean section was found to reduce the risk of ectopic gestations in all comparison groups.
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