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[And after Cairo? It is now that the difficulties begin] Le Caire, et apres? C'est maintenant que les difficultes commencent.
EQUILIBRES ET POPULATIONS. 1994 Oct; (4):8.The international community and the UN should be congratulated for adopting a strategy and a very clear action plan at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The process leading up to and during the conference allowed all member nations, even the most conservative members, to communicate their interest in problems associated with population and development and their approaches to solving the problems. The members reached consensus and adopted the program of action. Conference delegates finalized the program of action by concentrating on a global vision of population policy. They recognized the need for unrestricted access to high quality family planning services and the right of women. The document calls for improved reproductive health in developing countries. Specifically, it pronounces the need for improved sanitary conditions during childbirth, access to safe abortion where it is legal, and successive steps to reduce sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Implementation of the program of action poses some difficulties, however. Will the most developed countries provide the necessary financial resources to meet the needs of family planning and reproductive health? Many such countries have promised to contribute US$ 17 billion to meet these needs in developing countries. The US plans to contribute US$ 600 million in 1995. Japan will contribute US$ 3 billion over the next 7 years, 33% of which will go to family planning. Germany plans to give US$ 2 billion over the same period. The European Union plans to give US$ 400 million each year. Other countries also plan to contribute (UK and Belgium). We must make sure that the words adopted in Cairo become reality for the men and women of the planet.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Division of Family Health, Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, 1992. 74 p. (Safe Motherhood; WHO/MSM/92.4)Women in Africa face a lifetime risk of maternal mortality 500 times greater than that of women in developed countries. This lifetime risk is also considerably higher for women in other developing regions compared to that for those in developed countries. Many health professionals believe that antenatal care in developing countries decreases the likelihood of women dying pregnancy and childbearing as well as significant maternal morbidity, yet no one has systematically assessed its potential to actually improve maternal health. The WHO Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme plans to support research to examine antenatal care's potential. It has reviewed the effectiveness of antenatal interventions compared to poor maternal health in developing countries. The review reveals that good quality data are scarce and that health providers have not accurately tested many interventions. For example, the US, UK, and Sweden have all achieved low case fatality rates for eclampsia using a different anticonvulsant therapy for severe preeclampsia (magnesium sulfate; diazepam or other benzodiazepines; and hydralazine with at least chlorpromazine, pethidine, diazepam, and chlormethiazole, respectively), but few trails have compared the different treatments. This review begins with an overall look at antenatal care programs. It then examines interventions of the leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity (hemorrhage and anemia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and puerperal sepsis and genitourinary). The most effective interventions are those that deal with chronic conditions rather than acute conditions which arise near delivery. The review concludes with a table of effective antenatal interventions and tables of research questions about potentially effective antenatal interventions against various maternal conditions.