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  1. 1

    The impact of education on fertility patterns: an analytical survey of research findings.

    Allman J

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 1973 Jul 9. [123] p. (SHC/WS/297)

    The paper entitled "The Impact of Education on Fertility Patterns: An Analytical Survey of Research Findings" reviews findings on the relationship between education and fertility in developed and developing countries. It presents age-education-specific fertility data for selected countries and discusses problems in data collection and analysis. The use of models an statistical techniques in the analysis of the relationship between education and fertility is considered in the final section. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Hasta la vista, paradise.

    Deyal T

    Perspectives in Health. 2003; 8(2):26-29.

    More and more, nurses in the Caribbean have been packing their bags and heading for countries with less-than-perfect climates to get better pay and more respect. Now the region is looking for ways to keep them from leaving – and even to lure those abroad back home. (author's)
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  3. 3

    The role of health centres in the development of urban health systems: report of a WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Study Group on Primary Health Care in Urban Areas


    The WHO Study Group on Primary Health Care (PHC) in Urban Areas has written a report after examining the development of reference health centers in urban areas in various parts of the world. It considers such centers to be a potentially important way to improve urban health services. Reference health centers, with real roots in the community and good links to first level and referral level care, can address the problems of access to health care and intersectoral collaboration. Each center should be based on a general model, but its exact operation depends on local conditions and on a comprehensive situation analysis that considers social and financial factors and the level of organizational development. Each reference center should determine what needs to be done locally with local and national resources. Outside donors should only provide assistance for operational costs and a last resort. To plan services adequately, decision makers must define geographical catchment areas and travel times. These definitions must see to it that services integrate with each other vertically (with services at health post and hospital levels), and horizontally (with government, and nongovernmental, and community projects). A solid epidemiological understanding of major local health problems is essential for expanding PHC through reference health centers. This knowledge comes from an assessment of demographic, morbidity, mortality, and social data an evaluation of coverage of underserved and marginal groups. Reference health centers would be in an ideal position to gather and analyze these data. Innovative ways to obtain the resources for urban PHC are collection of user fees and close supportive links with universities and nongovernmental organizations. The Study Group looks at how reference health centers in Cali, Colombia; Manila, the Philippines; and Newark, New Jersey in the US, developed.
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  4. 4

    World Breastfeeding Week, August 1-7, 1992.

    World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action [WABA]

    HYGIE. 1992; 11(2):6-7.

    The World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action (WABA) based in Penang, Malaysia has selected August 1-7, 1992 to be World Breastfeeding Week worldwide. The US coordinator is in Flushing, New York. WABA is a group of organizations and individuals who communicate among themselves to identify ways to inform others that breast feeding is a right of all children and women. WABA aims to identify a week each year to promote breast feeding since many countries are experiencing a decrease in breast feeding. The 1992 theme for World Breastfeeding Week is the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. WABA, WHO, and UNICEF suggest various activities for community organizations, individuals, hospitals, and clinics to observe before and during the week. All groups could form a World Breastfeeding Week Committee. Hospitals could go a step further and form a Baby-Friendly Hospital Committee. They could evaluate their practices by completing the Self Appraisal Questionnaire. Hospitals could also implement all 10 steps to successful breast feeding so they can receive the Baby-Friendly Hospital designation during the celebration week. Health facility managers should tell staff about the International Code of the Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes and invite them to look for code violations in the facility and the community. Community groups or individuals could arrange for various competitions such as posters, breast-feeding slogans, and essays. The could also try to gain the support of retail store operators by encouraging them to implement the Code and set up a Baby-Friendly work environment for employees. They could invite children to take part in the week by doing a puppet show or participating in a coloring contest. Community organizations and individuals could encourage the local newspaper to do either an article about breast feeding or print a photo with an eye-catching caption.
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  5. 5

    CFPA 1987 annual report.

    Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation [CFPA]

    St. John's, Antigua, CFPA, 1987. 39 p.

    In the 1920s 1/3 of the children in the Caribbean area died before age 5, and life expectancy was 35 years; today life expectancy is 70 years. In the early 1960s only 50,000 women used birth control; in the mid-1980s 500,000 do, but this is still only 1/2 of all reproductive age women. During 1987 the governments of St. Lucia, Dominica and Grenada adopted formal population policies; and the Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation (CFPA) called for the introduction of sex education in all Caribbean schools for the specific purpose of reducing the high teenage pregnancy rate of 120/1000. CFPA received funds from the US Agency for International Development and the United Nations Fund for Population Activities to assist in its annual multimedia IEC campaigns directed particularly at teenagers and young adults. CFPA worked with other nongovernmental organizations to conduct seminars on population and development and family life education in schools. In 1986-87 CFPA held a short story contest to heighten teenage awareness of family planning. The CFPA and its member countries observed the 3rd Annual Family Planning Day on November 21, 1987; and Stichting Lobi, the Family Planning Association of Suriname celebrated its 20th anniversary on February 29, 1988. CFPA affiliate countries made strides in 1987 in areas of sex education, including AIDS education, teenage pregnancy prevention, and outreach programs. The CFPA Annual Report concludes with financial statements, a list of member associations, and the names of CFPA officers.
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  6. 6

    Toward the well-being of the elderly.

    Pan American Health Organization

    Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)

    At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
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  7. 7

    Status of family planning activities and involvement of international agencies in the Caribbean region [chart].

    Pan American Health Organization

    [Unpublished] 1970. 1 p.

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  8. 8

    Haiti. Project paper. Family planning outreach.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. International Development Cooperation Agency

    [Unpublished] 1981 Aug 28. 222 p. (AID/LAC/P-085)

    The background, goals, projected activities and beneficiaries, financial requirements, and implementation plans for a Family Planning Outreach Project in Haiti are detailed. The project is intended to assist the Government of Haiti to establish a cost-effective national family planning program. Population growth continues to accelerate in Haiti, despite high infant and child mortality, significant emigration, and declining fertility. The government does not have an articulated population policy. Although family planning and maternal and child health services have been in existence since 1971, there is no effective access to these services. This project is viewed as a means of achieving a substantial and sustained reduction in family size and improving health status. It is also a means of strengthening the Haitian family so it can participate more directly in the national development process. The purpose of the project will be accomplished through the following activities: 1) improvement of the organization and management of the national family planning program; 2) improvement of the quality and quantity of maternal and child health and family planning services; 3) expansion of the participation of private and voluntary organizations, other governmental, and local community groups in service provision; 4) increase in the availability of contraceptives at reasonable prices through rural and urban commercial channels; and 5) formulation of appropriate population and family planning policies. By the end of the project, all government health facilities and 75% of private facilities will actively counsel and provide family planning services; integrated models of community health and family planning services will have been developed to serve 60% of the population; basic drugs and contraceptives will be available at reasonable subsidized prices throughout the country; and 25% of women ages 15-45 at risk of pregnancy will be continuing users of effective contraceptive methods. The project will be implemented by the existing infrastructure of private and public organizations, primarily by the Department of Public Health and Population and its Division of Family Hygiene. The US Agency for International Development (USAID) is providing US$9.615 million (54%) toward the estimated US$17.980 million cost of the 5-year project. An additional US$6.555 million (36%) will be provided by the Government of Haiti.
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  9. 9

    [Latin America. Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys. Proceedings. November 8-13, 1981] America Latina. Seminario Regional sobre las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos. Actas. Noviembre 8-13 de 1981.

    Westinghouse Health Systems

    Columbia, Maryland, Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981. 65 p. (Las Encuestas de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos II)

    This report of the proceedings of the Regional Seminar on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPSs) in Latin America, held in Lima, Peru, in November 1981, includes the schedule of events; list of participants; opening discourses and presentations by the sponsors, Westinghouse Health Systems and the US Agency for International Development; country reports for Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico; and brief summaries of the work sessions on data evaluation, cooperation between the technical survey staff and the program administrators who will use the findings, survey planning, questionnaire design, fieldwork, the phases of CPS work, data processing, sampling, use of CPS data, graphic presentation of findings, and determination of unsatisfied demand for family planning services. Representatives of 17 countries and 8 international organizations attended the conference, whose main objectives were to introduce the CPS program to participants unfamiliar with it, contribute to improvement of future surveys by sharing experiences and introducing new techniques of investigation, discuss the application of CPS findings, and encourage dialogue between the technical personnel involved in conducting the surveys and the administrators of programs utilizing the results. The introduction to the CPS program by Westinghouse Health Systems covered the goals and objectives of the program, its organization and implementation, dissemination of results, basic characteristics of the survey, the status of CPS surveys in Latin America and a list of countries participating in the program, and a brief overview of contraceptive use by married women aged 15-44 by method in countries for which results were available. The country reports detailed experiences in survey design, fieldwork methodology, organization and administration of the surveys, and other aspects, as well as highlighting some of the principal findings.
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  10. 10

    [From family planning to reproductive health and beyond. Draft] De la planificacion familiar a la salud reproductiva y mas alla. Borrador para libro.

    Ramiro Beltran L

    [Unpublished] 1997 Mar. 155, [20] p.

    This work traces the evolving orientation of institutional family planning at the international level, from the beginning of the birth control movement in the US around 1915 to the recent consensus that family planning should be considered in the broader framework of reproductive health. The opening chapter discusses the origins of the antinatalist movement in the birth control, eugenics, and population control movements and the beginning of US government involvement in family planning. Family planning and its objectives are defined, and the growing view of family planning as a right is discussed in chapter 2. The pressures and achievements of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, which led to a broadening of the focus to encompass issues of development, are assessed. The impact of the environmental movement and the international decade of women, and the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and its consequences for family planning are discussed. The attitudes expressed at the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico City and the decline of US support for international family planning activities are then examined. Beginning around the mid-1980s, a series of shortcomings in family planning programs were noted at the same time that worldwide survey programs demonstrated impressive gains in family planning in developing countries. The gathering movement for reproductive health was embraced by foundations, and reflected in changes of emphasis in the most important international organizations. The focus on reproductive health prevailed at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, but doubts have arisen since then over the future of support for family planning and other reproductive health services.
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  11. 11

    On course for the 21st century? [Interview with Nafis Sadik].

    Rowley J

    PEOPLE AND THE PLANET. 1997; 6(1):10-1.

    Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, notes that in the wake of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), governments have been persuaded to abandon demographic targets and instead set specific social goals such as reductions in maternal, child, and infant mortality, and improvements in education, especially for girls. Progress is being made with regard to health and education, with all countries having set target dates for the enrollment of all children in school. The meaning of basic health services for all remains unclear. Progress is also being made against female genital mutilation and sexual violence, and improving women's status and the delivery of reproductive health care. Most countries could, however, do a lot more, and greater public support and resources are needed for programs. India, Brazil, Egypt, and Peru are cited as examples of countries which have begun to change policy following the ICPD. Developing countries and donors, with the exception of the US in 1996, have made efforts to increase their levels of spending on reproductive health services; the US has reduced its aid budget by 35%.
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  12. 12

    Healthy population ageing.

    Gutman GM

    WORLD HEALTH. 1997 Jul-Aug; 50(4):20-1.

    Population aging is a development issue for both developed and developing countries. Rapid population aging poses many concerns for governmental and nongovernmental organizations, including an increased demand for health care, specialized housing, social and recreational programs, and income support programs. Another major concern for developed countries is the increased prevalence and incidence of the chronic conditions which tend to accompany population aging. In many developing countries there is a need to manage both high rates of infectious disease, poverty, and unemployment among the young and increased rates of chronic disease among the old. The Brasilia Declaration on aging signed in July 1996 at the World Health Organization/Brazil government international conference on the issue reflects the conference delegates' desires to secure more healthy population aging.
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  13. 13

    [Population and reproduction] Poblacion y reproduccion.

    Rosenbaum RF

    In: Jornadas Multidisciplinarias sobre el Aborto, 25 de febrero al lo de marzo, 1991. Salon de Honor del Ilustre Colegio Abogados de La Paz. [La Paz], Bolivia, Sociedad Boliviana de Ciencias Penales, 1991. 45-63.

    The problems created by excessive population growth at the global level and in Bolivia, and the response of the UN Population Fund are summarized. Today's world population of 5.3 billion is projected to reach 6.25 billion in 2000. In many areas, population growth has outstripped carrying capacity. Over 90% of the growth is in developing countries, where urban growth is particularly rapid. Because balance between human population and resources and environmental protection are key elements in quality of life and for sustainable development, population concerns should be a fundamental part of development strategies. The mandate of the UN Population Fund since 1973 has been to acquire and disseminate in developed and developing countries a knowledge of population problems and possible strategies to confront them, and to assist developing countries, at their request, to find appropriate solutions to their population problems. National population goals and objectives should include reducing average family sizes, reducing the proportion of women not using contraception, reducing early marriage and motherhood, and achieving a contraceptive prevalence of at least 56% of fertile-aged women in developing countries by the year 2000. Infant and maternal mortality rates should be lowered, average life expectancy should be increased to at least 62 years, and geographic distribution of the population improved. Bolivia, with its annual population growth rate of 2.2% and total fertility rate of 5.1, per capita income of $633/year, life expectancy of 58 years, and infant mortality rate of 102, is a priority country for the UN Population Fund. No coherent program of cooperation between the UN Population Fund and Bolivia has yet been developed, but 32 projects have been assisted in Bolivia since 1972 with a total investment of approximately US$105 million, of which 44.7% was destined for maternal-child health services and 29.0% for data collection.
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  14. 14

    Second Preparatory Committee of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. A review of major events and themes from the standpoint of a non-governmental organization involved in women's issues.

    Rahman A

    [Unpublished] [1993]. 8, [50] p.

    The US-based Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, a nongovernmental organization (NGO), participated in the two-week Second Preparatory Committee (PrepCom II) meeting for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo held in New York City in May 1993. Representatives from governments and 332 NGOs participated in the preparation of the Proposed Conceptual Framework of the Draft Recommendations of the Conference. NGOs participated by lobbying their respective governments. They organized themselves into groups on both a regional and issue basis. A controversy whirled around the importance of environmental concerns to policies of population and development and the role and structure of the family. The Vatican convinced Colombia and other South American nations to request a section entitled The Family, Its Role and Composition. Its concerns centered on sex education, care of the elderly, and AIDS within the family. Morocco also supported this section. The NGO Women's Caucus submitted papers containing specific language on provisions related to women's issues to governmental delegations. The US delegation, headed by Timothy Wirth, renewed its commitment to population issues and affirmed the centrality of women and their reproductive rights to the implementation of population policies. Political undercurrents at PrepCom II revolved around the North-South divide, reproductive health versus family planning, and human rights. In some instances, NGOs on both sides of the divide concurred on some issues. Some Southern NGOs took positions opposite their governments. Some NGOs wanted to expand discussions from family planning to reproductive health. Reproductive rights were the most popular human rights concept at PrepCom II.
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  15. 15

    New world order and West's war on population.

    Wilson A

    ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL WEEKLY. 1994 Aug 20; 29(34):2,201-4.

    The aim of US-promoted population policies is maintaining and securing the economic and political dominance of capitalist states. Governments of developed countries blame overpopulation in developing countries for destroying the planet and those of developing countries blame overconsumption, waste, and industrial pollution in the capitalist countries to be responsible. Developed countries and the UN profess that population control is in the interests of development and for the sake of women's rights. Many women's groups protest planned and already existing population policies and bear witness to the suffering women from developing countries experience, raising the question of choice of these policies. Sexism served as the smokescreen behind which US strategies of population control were implemented. The concept of sustainable development is also used to advance population policies in developing countries. Developed countries use this concept to maintain the status quo, agricultural countries as such, cash crop economies, dependency on food, foreign aid, and loans and to continue their exploitation in developing countries. USAID, UNFPA, and the World Bank are the major moneylenders for population control. The US targets Africa for population control because it produces 90-100% of four minerals vital to US industry. The new phase of capitalist development has shifted the state's role from its function as a nation state to facilitator of global capital. Population control policy, national security laws, and anti-trade union laws are used to create a docile and immobile pool of labor. The World Bank, the IMF, and the WTO, through their structural adjustment policies, provide the infrastructure to implement population policies and targets. Population policies focusing on targets take control away from women. People in developing countries will not accept these population policies until they have control of their lives. They need assurance of child survival and to be in a position to plan their future. The population control lobby now uses deception to thwart resistance.
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  16. 16

    [Plan International Guatemala] Plan Internacional Guatemala.

    Castillo E

    HABLEMOS DE VITAMIN A. 1994 Aug-Nov; 3(2):5.

    Plan International is a nonsectarian, nonprofit international organization that provides assistance to needy children, their families, and their communities through ninety-eight local offices in twenty-seven developing countries. Donors from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Holland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States sponsor children in the countries. Communication between the child and the sponsor is a vital element of Plan International. Sponsored children always remain with their families, which are fortified by health, educational, community development, and income-generating programs. Plan projects are designed to assure community participation, long-term sustainability, and tangible results. Plan International is a consulting member of UNICEF and is recognized by UNESCO. Plan International was created in 1937 to provide food, housing, and educational services to children victimized by the Spanish Civil War. During World War II the program provided assistance in England to expatriate children from throughout Europe. After the war, the organization extended its assistance to children in several other European countries and for a short time to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and China. As Europe recovered from the war, Plan International gradually withdrew from these countries and began new programs in developing countries. In Guatemala, Plan International began work in Amatitlan in 1979 and in Villa Nueva in 1990. It promotes measures to prevent diarrhea, respiratory disorders, and nutritional problems, and to encourage growth monitoring and vitamin A supplementation. The Child Survival Project provides vitamin A to children under five in educational visits made twice yearly through the community health committees, with participation of health volunteers and promoters and Ministry of Health and Social Security Institute personnel. Home visits are made to provide health information, Mebendozole, ferrous sulfate, and vitamin A.
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  17. 17

    Janet Brown: on global environmental issues, the people are leading and the leaders are following.

    Lerner SD

    In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 229-36.

    A senior associate with the World Resources Institute believes that it is more worthwhile to strengthen the UN Environment Program than to create a new international environmental organization. Another possibility would be to convert the UN Trusteeship Council's purpose from administering UN territories to dealing with environmental issues. The Council has an equal number of developing countries and developed countries and no country has veto power. She also favors ad hoc groups dealing with very specific issues, e.g., International Panel on Climate Change. We need an international debt management authority which purchases outstanding debt at real market prices to finance policies and programs that alleviate poverty and protect the environmental issues should lie with 1 organization. She dismisses suggestions that the Group of Seven industrialized nations serve as a group to propose international initiatives because developing countries would not accept the G-7 process plus the G-7 countries do not even agree on environmental issues. Citizens push US politicians to address environmental issues rather than the politicians leading on environmental issues. Some members of the US Congress have taken the initiative, however, including Senators Gore and Mikulski from Tennessee and Maryland, respectively. The President must have a vision for a transition to sustainable development, which he does not. In the 1973-74 oil crisis, industry took it upon itself to become more energy efficient and still had real growth in the gross national product, illustrating that the costs required to become more sustainable are not as great as many people claim. Sustainable agriculture would reduce the demand for fossil fuels, on which fertilizers and pesticides are based. It would require making institutional changes. USAID should change dramatically the system it uses to distribute foreign aid money and to dedicate considerably more money to the environment and development.
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  18. 18

    Jessica Tuchman Mathews: the case for reinventing technology to promote sustainable development.

    Lerner SD

    In: Earth summit. Conversations with architects of an ecologically sustainable future, by Steve Lerner. Bolinas, California, Commonweal, 1991. 25-38.

    The public debate on the environment leading to the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil has been restricted to global climate change instead of global change. The Summit should be part of an ongoing process and not a framework convention followed by protocols. Separate conventions for biodiversity and deforestation are likely to emerge, even though one convention integrating both biodiversity and deforestation is needed. Many environmental and development issues overlap, suggesting a need for an international group to coordinate these issues. Negotiating separate conventions for the various issues is costly for developing countries. Rapid population growth contributes to environmental degradation, but no coordinated effort exists to reduce it. The US continues to not support the UN Population Fund which, along with threats of US boycotts and disapproval, curbs initiatives to reduce population. At present population and economic growth rates, an environmental disaster will likely happen in the early 2000s. Developing countries, which also contribute greatly to global warming, will not take actions if industrialized nations do not initiate reductions of greenhouse gases. Developed countries emit the most greenhouse gases, have been responsible for most past emissions, and have the means to initiate reductions. Of industrialized nations, the US stands alone in setting targets to reduce carbon dioxide. Unlike some European nations, the US does not have an energy policy. The US abandoned public transportation for the automobile while Europe has a strong public transportation system. The World Bank has improved greatly in addressing global environmental issues, but only 1% of its energy lending is for energy efficiency. The Bank knows that projects implemented by nongovernmental organizations are more successful than those implemented by governments, yet it continues to lend money to governments. Humans need to redesign existing linear systems to be like nature's circular systems in which by-products are starting products for another reaction.
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  19. 19

    World lung health: a concept that should become a reality [editorial]

    Murray JF; Enarson DA


    In May 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts, in the US, American Thoracic Society, the American Lung Association, and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease hosted the World Conference on Lung Health. At the end of the conference, participants adopted several resolutions calling on WHO and governmental and nongovernmental organizations to take specific actions to prevent and control lung diseases. The Conference adopted 7 resolutions pertaining to tuberculosis (TB) and AIDS, such as governments must ensure high quality care for TB and AIDS patients and strengthen TB and AIDS prevention programs. Since acute respiratory infections (ATIs), the leading cause of death in children, cause considerable suffering and death in children, the Conference asked WHO and government and nongovernment organizations to increase funding for provision, cold storage, and distribution of vaccines in developing countries, and for training care workers, and for programs to help parents recognize the signs and symptoms requiring medical attention. Other ARI-related resolutions included education about the risk and prevention of indoor air pollution and increased funding for research to develop heat-stable vaccines. Resolutions related to air pollution and health embraced tighter controls of emission of air pollutants, development of policies to protect indoor air, and more research into the hazards of indoor and outdoor air pollution. More research and gathering of accurate data on deaths and illness due to asthma were among resolutions related to asthma. Resolutions on smoking included a call for the end of all governmental support for the tobacco industry, including the import and export of tobacco products, and of all advertisements and promotions of tobacco products; for nonsmoking policies in all public places, especially health care facilities and schools; and for health workers to be societal role models by not smoking.
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  20. 20

    World population projections, 1989-90 edition: short-and long-term estimates.

    Bulatao RA; Bos E; Stephens PW; Vu MT

    Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. lxxiii, 421 p.

    The World Bank's Population and Human Resources Department regularly publishes a set of world population projections based on its data files. This 1989-90 report has projections for the world and for regions, income groups of countries, and 187 countries. World Bank staff made projections to the point where populations reach stability. In almost all cases, they made only 1 projection. Projection tables for 1985-2030 exist for each country's population. Each country also has tables on birth rate, death rate, net migration, natural increase, population growth, total fertility rate, life expectancy, infant mortality rate, and dependency ratio. The report shows that from 1985-90 population growth was 1.74%, and projected 1990 world population size was 5.3 billion. By 2025, 84.1% of the world's population will be living in developing countries. 58% of the population now lives in Asia. The population of Africa is growing faster than that of Asia, however, (3 vs. 1.9%). By 2000, the population of Africa will be second only to that of Asia, yet in 1989-1990, it is behind that of Asia, Europe and the USSR, and the Americas. The current dependency ratio (67) is expected to decline to 53 by 2025. The highest current dependency ratio belongs to Kenya (120). In developed countries with aging populations, the dependency ratio will rise from 50-58. China will most likely to continue to be the most populous country for about 200 years. India will continue to contribute more to population growth than any other country in the world. Yet the Federal Republic of Germany loses 100,000 people yearly. Total fertility rates are the greatest in Rwanda, the Yemen Arab Republic, Kenya, Malawi, and the Ivory Coast (all >7.2). Afghanistan and 3 western African countries have the shortest life expectancies (about 40 years). These trends illustrate the need to alter population growth.
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  21. 21

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  22. 22

    A reassessment of the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning services. Proceedings of a seminar presented under the Population Council's Robert H. Ebert Program on Critical Issues in Reproductive Health and Population, February 12-13, 1990, the Population Council, New York, New York.

    Rooks J; Winikoff B

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1990. x, 185 p.

    Conference proceedings on reassessing the concept of reproductive risk in maternity care and family planning (FP) services cover the following topics: assessment of the history of the concept of reproductive risk, the epidemiology of screening, the implementation of the risk approach in maternity care in Western countries and in poorer countries and in FP, the possible effects on the health care system, costs, and risk benefit calculations. Other risk approaches and ethical considerations are discussed. The conclusions pertain to costs and allocation of resources, information and outreach, objectives, predictive ability, and risk assessment in FP. Recommendations are made. Appendixes include a discussion of issues involved in developing a reproductive risk assessment instrument and scoring system, and the WHO risk approach in maternal and child health and FP. The results show that the application of risk assessment warrants caution and usefulness in service delivery is questionable. The weaknesses and negative effects need further investigation. Risk-based systems tend toward skewed resource allocation. Equal access to care, freedom of choice, and personal autonomy are jeopardized. Risk assessment can accurately predict for a group, but not for individuals. Risk assessment cannot be refined as it is an instrument directed toward probabilities. The risk approach must be evaluated within a functioning health care system. Screening has been important in developed countries, but integration into developing country health care systems may be appropriate only when basic health care is in place and in urban and periurban communities. Recommendations are 1) to prevent problems and detect rather than predict actual complications when no effective maternity care is available; to provide effective care to all women, not just those at high risk; and to provide transportation to adequate facilities for women with complications. 2) All persons attending births should be trained to handle emergencies. 3) Risk assessment has no value unless basic reproductive health services are in place. Cost benefit analysis precludes implementation. Alternative strategies are available to increase contact of women with the health care system, to improve public education strategies, to improve the quality of traditional birth attendants, and to improve the quality of existing services. Women's ideas about what is "risk" and the cost and benefits of a risk-based system to women needs to be solicited. All bad outcomes are not preventable. Copies of this document can be obtained from The Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, NY, NY 10017. Tel: (212) 339-0625, e-mail
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  23. 23

    Budget priorities, national security, and Third World development.

    Moore SW

    In: Urban and rural development in Third World countries: problems of population in developing nations, edited by Valentine James. Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland, 1991. 297-314.

    National security must be broadened to include national cultural survival in tandem with resource availability or scarcity, and tensions between developed and developing countries must be reduced. Budget priorities must accommodate a sense of fairness, humanness, and justice. Politics reflect priorities and values for scarce resources for US society and for the world. The needs of the Third World are described, followed by a presentation of a developmentalist alternative and a case study of Brazil and Central America. Attempts have been made to secure stability and harmony through unilateral armament, bilateral and multilateral treaty arrangements, and a European balance of power strategy. None of these strategies has been particularly successful. The UN Charter also provides for collective security arrangements and unilateral and regional defense systems. 9 objective and subjective criteria for a viable collective security system are listed. The US has never agreed on a definition of aggression or that it is totally undesirable. 157 nations are part of the UN, while others are still denied membership on ideological grounds. Confidence in the system and its members is lacking and nations have been unwilling to subordinate national behavior to UN standards. Collective security in the political world has not been realized. Nuclear deterrence has been used by the US since the 1950 for national security. Aristotle recognized that economic well-being is related to peace, and gross inequalities are related to conflict. The needs of developing countries are the reduction of poverty and of the gap between rich and poor nations. Poor nations are susceptible to corruption, capital flight, and increasing military expenditures. The US strategy has been to support corruptible repressive regimes. Budget priorities need to be reevaluated. An alternative developmentalist strategy would improve conditions to halt the spread of hostile ideologies and socioeconomic instability.
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  24. 24

    Reflections on the Earth Summit and international conferences.

    Qadeer MA

    Development. 1993; (1):66-7.

    In the recent past, conferences served as a means to exchange, discuss, and clarify ideas. They sometimes were called to develop a common policy after reconciling dissimilar positions. Yet, many recent international conferences, especially UN-sponsored conferences have been held for show and ceremony. They serve to promote agencies and individuals and as substitutes for action. Nongovernmental organizations also advocate international meetings to further their cause. These conferences entail great financial and social costs, as was the case for the UN Conference on the Environment (Earth Summit) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. 30,000 persons, including 114 heads of state and world leaders, attended the Earth Summit. Their travel costs alone equaled at least 30 million dollars. The entire conference probably cost a few hundred million dollars. Besides, many rounds of national, regional, and international consultations occurred worldwide to prepare for the conference, keeping many public officials and environmental advocates busy for about 1 year in drafting treaties and resolutions. Attendance at these rounds required considerable travel costs. Despite these costs and extravaganza, the treaties did not reduce emissions of greenhouses gases or help poor countries to preserve forests and species. Even the Secretary General of the Conference felt that the Conference did not change any of the underlying conditions causing the global environmental crisis. Developing countries viewed the Conference as an opportunity to request more aid and to bail out from the debt crisis. Developed countries see the environment as new grounds to steer and control developing countries. Environmental advocates in developed countries and UN agencies hope to introduce global regulations. Developing countries fear the growing internationalism (new colonialism). Yet these fear are dismissed at international conferences. In conclusion, these conferences preempt social learning and inhibit public accountability of officials and leaders, especially in developing countries.
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  25. 25

    The global partnership for environment and development. A guide to Agenda 21.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNCED, Secretariat, 1992 Apr. [4], 116 p. (E.92.I.15)

    The UN Conference on Environmental and Development Preparatory Committee (UNCED) agreed on an action plan of global partnership for sustainable development and environmental protection entitled Agenda 21 to be adopted at the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The priority actions are a call for action to achieve a prospering, just, and habitable world. These actions also promote a fertile, shared, and clean planet via extensive and responsible public participation at local, national, and global levels. Since most environmental problems originate with the failures and inadequacies of the current development process, the 1st action centers around revitalizing growth with sustainability including international policies to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and integration of environment and development in decision making. The 2nd action is achieving sustainable living by attacking poverty, changing consumption patterns, and recognizing and acting on the links between population dynamics and sustainability, and providing basic health needs to preserve human health. The 3rd action addresses human settlements including urban water supplies, solid wastes management, and urban pollution and health. The 4th and 7th action plans incorporate the most subtopics. The 4th action plan calls for efficient resource use ranging from land resource planning and management to sustainable agriculture and rural development. The 7th plan is a call for individuals and groups to participate and be responsible for sustainable development. The major identified groups are women, children and youth, indigenous people, nongovernmental organizations, farmers, local authorities, trade unions, business and industry, and the scientific and technological community. The 5th plan addresses global and regional resources including protection of the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, and sustainable use of living marine resources. The 6th plan deals with management of toxic and hazardous chemicals and radioactive wastes.
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