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  1. 1
    049923

    Vietnam's population growth: old struggle, new strategy.

    Fraser SE

    INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.

    A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
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  2. 2
    266048

    Population and development: a progress report on ILO research on population, labour, employment and income distribution. 4th ed.

    International Labour Office [ILO]. World Employment Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, April, 1982. 98 p.

    Discusses the work of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) policies on labor employment and income distribution. It aims to further study the interrelationships between demographic change and employment, and incomes and poverty, with a view to contributing to policy design, analysis and choice. The economic-demographic relationship is viewed as being of primary importance in its effect on social systems. The program plans to identify the causes and consequences of temporary migration by means of a detailed sample survey. This project discusses women's productive activities and demographic issues. The former includes all activities which contribute to economic well being, whether or not they are market-oriented, and the latter includes fertility, mortality, and migration. It also attempts to analyze the variety of processes through which population and poverty are related. Other issues discussed are fertility, the economic roles of children, and aspects of household behavior. Current research projects of the ILO are listed.
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  3. 3
    266354

    Comoros Federal Islamic Republic: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 41 p. (Report No. 48)

    The population of the islands of the Comoros Federal Islamic Republic is extremely poor. An explicit demographic policy does not exist, however there is concern about high fertility, and the level of emigration. The government hopes to improve access to primary health care, and develop programs to combat major diseases. It gives special attention to maternal and child health care including child-spacing. The 1980 Census should help overcome the problem of a lack of basic demographic data. A demographic survey should take place after the census. A civil registration system should be created. Malaria and malnutrition are health problems. A study of home deliveries, a significant cause of maternal mortality, should be made. Methods of transporting people to hospitals should be improved. National epidemiological studies and research should be ongoing projects. Since women have not been integrated into the development effort, the Mission recommends that: 1) a study be taken on the roles and functions of the country's women; 2) a small grant to the Comorian Union of Women should be given; and 3) studies in the areas of population and health education should possibly be financed.
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