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  1. 1

    Tajikistan: focus on family planning.

    United Nations. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Integrated Regional Information Networks [IRIN]

    Nairobi, Kenya, IRIN, 2003 Jul 15. 4 p.

    Ahmedova maintained that today, Tajiks were eager to practise family planning methods. But according to the 2002 demographic survey conducted by UNFPA, only 45 percent of all married women in the country had used contraception at some stage, and only 31 percent were regularly using it. Modern methods, such as Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD), pills and condoms are most common, with only five percent of women using traditional methods. IUCD remains the most popular contraceptive method. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Vietnam's population growth: old struggle, new strategy.

    Fraser SE

    INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.

    A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
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  3. 3

    Availability and quality of mortality statistics in selected ESCAP countries.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok. [9] p.

    Since very few developing countries have complete vital registration, most base their mortality statistics on data from occasional demographic surveys and population censuses. Brass technics are used to estimate child mortality from data on children ever born and children still living by 5-year age groups of mothers. Many of the 1980 censuses included these questions. In view of the importance of vital statistics for development planning, the UN has recently listed data to be collected by a vital registration system. Because complete registration is so difficult to achieve, some countries--India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, for example--operate sample registration systems, which are mostly dual-method surveys, continuous registration systems coupled with periodic household surveys. Demographic survey data relies largely on indirect methods for estimating infant and child mortality. This type of survey underestimates childbearing at older ages and overestimates childbearing at younger ages. Tables 1 and 2 list information on mortality collected in the 1970 and 1980 censuses of countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region by whether information was collected on children born alive, children living, the date of birth of the last child, and whether that child is still living. Table 3 lists the UN recommendations on data to be collected in death registration.
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  4. 4

    Some lessons from the attempt to retrieve early KAP and fertility surveys.

    Hermalin AI; Entwisle B; Myers LG

    New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Sep. 5, [6] p. (Fertility Determinants Research Note No. 5)

    One of the notable features of population studies in the past 35 years has been the increasing reliance on sample surveys as the primary source of demographic data. Past surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of contraception in developing countries are important resources. These early KAP and fertility surveys, conducted 10 or more years ago, provide benchmarks for the study of how group differentials in behavior and attitudes evolve with time. Together with recent surveys, they help to monitor the pace and nature of the transition from 1 demographic regime to another within societies. Attempts to retrieve the earlier data produced constructive lessons and recommendations on how to safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 3 recommendations emerge that will help safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 1) Develop standards of documentation and maintenance, including how long questionnaires are to be retained, now much of the detail of sampling design should be saved, what constitutes an adequate description of interviewer characteristics and instruction. 2) Arrange for public access and the mechanisms to promote it. Funds should be budgeted for this purpose from the outset. Surveys that are still not generally available after a reasonable number of years lose much of their value and deprive the demographic community of a valuable resource. 3) Create structures to preserve and disseminate KAP and fertility surveys. The need for this is greatest for surveys not associated with large international programs. In all cases arrangements for longterm preservation must be made. Tables are included which describe 3rd world countries in which KAP or fertility surveys were conducted before 1981, and an inventory of pairs of surveys for potential use in conparative and over-time analysis.
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