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Journal of Nutrition. 2004 May; 134(5):1175-1180.The WHO recently conducted, within its Global Burden of Disease 2000 Study, a Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) to estimate the global health effect of low fruit and vegetable intake. This paper summarizes the methods used to obtain exposure data for the CRA and provides estimates of worldwide fruit and vegetable intakes. Intakes were derived from 26 national population-based surveys, complemented with food supply statistics. Estimates were stratified by 14 subregions, 8 age groups, and gender. Subregions were categorized on the bases of child mortality under age 5 y and 15- to 59-y-old male mortality (A: very low child and adult mortality; B: low child and adult mortality; C: low child, high adult mortality; D: high child and adult mortality; E: high child, very high adult mortality). Mean intakes were highest in Europe A [median = 449 g/(person • d)] and the Western Pacific Region A. They were lowest in America B [median = 192 g/(person • d)], and low in Europe C, the South East Asian Regions B and D, and Africa E. Children and elderly individuals generally had lower intakes than middle-aged adults. SDs varied considerably by region, gender, and age [overall median = 223 g/(person • d)]. Assessing exposure levels for the CRA had major methodological limitations, particularly due to the lack of nationally representative intake data. The results showed mean intakes generally lower than current recommendations, with large variations among subregions. If the burden of disease attributable to dietary factors is to be assessed more accurately, more countries will have to assess the dietary intake of their populations using comparable methods. (author's)
Nairobi, Kenya, IRIN, 2003 Jul 15. 4 p.Ahmedova maintained that today, Tajiks were eager to practise family planning methods. But according to the 2002 demographic survey conducted by UNFPA, only 45 percent of all married women in the country had used contraception at some stage, and only 31 percent were regularly using it. Modern methods, such as Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD), pills and condoms are most common, with only five percent of women using traditional methods. IUCD remains the most popular contraceptive method. (excerpt)
[The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985] Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985
Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique, 1985. 76 p.This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption. Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
Latin America: urban and rural population projections, 1970-2025. America Latina: proyecciones de poblacion urbana y rural, 1970-2025.
BOLETIN DEMOGRAFICO / DEMOGRAPHIC BULLETIN. 1999 Jan; (63):1-256.This bulletin issue was prepared by Guiomar Bay on the basis of the national population estimates and projections produced by Susana Schkolnik. Activities were coordinated by Juan Chackiel, Chief of the Demography Area of the Latin America and Caribbean Demographic Centre (CELADE)--Population Division. This issue covers information for Latin American and Caribbean countries and territories and is based on estimates and projections from the Population Division of the United Nations. The population figures for the calendar years 1995-2005 were obtained by interpolation using Karup-King multipliers. The projected populations were based on a "medium" or "recommended" fertility projection together with notes and projections of the total urban and rural population. The estimates and projections of the total population by sex and age group for each of the 20 countries for the period 1970-2025 were prepared mostly in conjunction with national institutions. The urban and rural population projections were in almost all cases prepared by CELADE because most of the countries have not yet prepared their own projections based on the most recent census data. A detailed list of information sources and a description of the methodology used for each country are also included.
Data processing for demographic censuses and surveys with special emphasis on methods applicable to developing country environments.
The Hague, Netherlands, Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], 1997. , 88 p. (NIDI Report No. 51)This report presents new and enhanced methodological and technological methods for improving quality and controlling costs in census taking and demographic surveys in developing countries. Chapter 1 is devoted to describing the computer environment for the processing of data. Chapter 2 discusses the planning, logistics, and management of surveys and censuses. Chapter 3 discusses data processing support for field activities, such as management of address lists and computerized mapping. Chapters 4 and 5 review office-based tasks such as coding and data entry, optical mark reading, optical character reading and image scanning, and data entry equipment requirements. Chapter 6 focuses on data editing with computers, imputation methods, and a master file for tabulation. Chapter 7 identifies tabulation methods. Chapter 8 describes the post-enumeration survey. Chapter 9 describes demographic data bases for micro and macro data and table-oriented and time-series data bases. Chapter 10 describes dissemination methods, such as printed reports, magnetic media, and on-line and batch on-demand aggregation. Chapter 11 describes potential uses of data from censuses and surveys. Chapter 12 describes requirements for physical infrastructure, data processing equipment, human resources, and technical information. Chapter 13 is a brief conclusion. The annex provides a list of noncommercial software for processing data. Perhaps the most important physical facilities are an adequate continuous electric power supply and related equipment (an internal battery for saving data before shutdown).
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. vii, 46 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/127)Methods pertaining to the preparation of migration data for subnational population projections as of 1992 are explained. A brief review of sources of data for migration projections (censuses, surveys, and registration data) reveals that the requirements are base period estimates of the level or rate of migration between regions, estimates of the age and sex distribution of migrants, and any indicators that show likely future trends. In a discussion of the measurement of the volume of migration from census date, data on residence at a fixed prior time, estimates based on previous place of residence and duration of residence, and estimates of net migration of census survival/ratio methods are relevant. Estimates of the distribution of migrants by age and sex are explained based on different age and sex data: on place of residence at a fixed prior date, on place of previous residence and duration of residence, on age distributions from surveys, and from registers. Also explained is the use of model migration schedules when there is little or no information about age. Baseline migration projections for future estimates which are reasonable and account for variable rates of migration by region are discussed. The objectives desired are sometimes contradictory in that using a long time frame in order to average out random or abnormal fluctuations conflicts with continuing recent nonrandom or unusual changes so that emergent trends will be projected; objectives are also to use the most recent data available which account for shifts in migration patterns and to ensure convergence of migration rates toward equilibrium at some future point. Alternative strategies are provided as well as adjustments to provide consistent results. Adjustments involve the projection of numbers of migrants rather than rates, the use of out-migrant data on destination to adjust in-migration, and the scaling of in-migration to equal out-migration. Recommendations for data collection are presented. Internal migration data are best served by census data which asks the question about place of residence at a fixed prior time preceding the census and with a time interval designation that is of interest for projections. Single year of age and prior year questions and 5 years before are desired due to the need for short-range projections and planning. The 5-year prior place of residence question must be available by current region of residence and age and sex. Specific examples of multiregional projections are included.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 179.The government of Zimbabwe has taken into account the seriousness of population factors on socioeconomic development. The government has taken care to include various population programs in its National Development Plans. Independence for Zimbabwe heralded problems with insufficient demographic and socioeconomic data. The government in 1982, implemented its 1st census, followed by a national survey on Zimbabwean households. Present day population programs deal with data collection and provision of family planning and population awareness programs. Zimbabwe shares population problems similar to other developing countries: internal and external migration; high mortality and morbidity rates; and the low status of women. In response to these, the government has implemented various population programmes dealing with health care, family planning, and creating equity in all facets of society. The government of Zimbabwe recognizes and endorses the principles of national sovereignty and respect for the rights of individuals, as outlined in the World Population Plan of Action.
INDOCHINA ISSUES. 1988 Jan; (78):1-7.A campaign promoting "1 or at most 2 children" was launched officially in 1982 in Vietnam, a country which ranked 12th most populous in the world in 1987, with the 7th largest annual growth rate. Although major municipalities have registered less than 1.7% annual growth rates, in rural areas, particularly in the southern provinces, the growth rate ranges from 2.3-3.4%; 80% of the population resides in such locales. In April 1986, the Hanoi City People's Committee issued regulations designed to encourage the practice of birth control. Cash awards were offered to couples with only 1 child and payments for sterilization after the birth of a 2nd child. The birth of a 3rd child triggers higher maternity clinic charges, and an escalating scale of birth registration fees has been introduced to discourage failure to practice family planning. The most significant statistic to emerge from the birth control program is the gradual increase in the number of family planning acceptors over the past 5 years, slightly over 1 million couples estimated in 1981 to 4.5 million acceptors estimated for 1987. Between 1981-87 there was more than a doubling of acceptors for sterilization and IUD insertion. The IUD is used by 75% of couples practicing birth control, followed in popularity by the condom. Agencies in a UN triumvirate with special population concerns in Vietnam include the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and the World Health Organization (WHO). In the 3 years preceding 1987, several new UNICEF-supported public information projects were implemented, including the creation of an extensive maternal and child care network. This network was used to train cadres from the Women's Union as family planning motivators. In mid-1986, an experimental and innovative pilot project on "family life" or "parenting information" was initiated by UNICEF, UNFPA, and the Vietnamese Committee for the Protection of Mothers and the Newborn (CPMN). The desired growth rate of 1.1% by 2000 will have to rely on a variety of current program innovations. Surveys now being conducted in various regions of Vietnam reveal attitudinal problems in promoting smaller families. A survey of the members of 300 farming cooperatives in various areas of Vietnam in 1986 found that 60% of those questioned believed that the more children they had the better it would be for their family economy. Cooperative Vietnamese and UN efforts, particularly the innovative surveys and field research, represent valuable approaches, but considerable need remains for improvement in birth control knowledge and application and in the means to reduce child morbidity and mortality rates.
New York, New York, International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region, 1985. xi, 102, 24 p. (IPPF/WHR Caribbean Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys)An analysis of Caribbean contraceptive prevalence surveys is the focus of this report by the IPPF, Western Hemisphere Region, through its Caribbean Population and Development project. This booklet reports on 1 aspect of the project--the analysis of contraceptive surveys conducted in St. Kitts-Nevis and Montserrat to determine levels of contraceptive use and assess the effectiveness of information, education, and delivery services. Chapter 1 outlines the background, economic, social, and family structures, and organization of family planning services in St. Kitts-Nevis. The methodology of the survey is explained. Chapter 2 provides a demographic analysis of fertility, parity, and unplanned pregnancy rates. The level of awareness of contraceptives and contraceptive outlets is presented in Chapter 3. Patterns of contraceptive use, with user and non-user profiles, preferred sources for contraceptive outlets, user satisfaction with methods and outlets, male involvement in family planning, and the timing of contraceptive use are the topics covered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 provides an overview of contraceptive use, family planning programs, and sense of self-worth in St. Kitts-Nevis. Social sources of resistance to contraceptive use and the contraceptive intentions of non-acceptors are characterized in Chapter 6. Chapter 7 offers a summary and conclusions of the study findings, and the 1984 contraceptive prevalence survey used in St. Kitts-Nevis is supplied in the appendix.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):44-62.40 years ago, one of the 1st tasks of the United Nations (UN) Population Division was a series of pilot studies demonstrating how governments could improve knowledge of demographic levels and trends using inadequate statistics: India, the Sudan, the Philippines, and Brazil demonstrated the application of survey research to fertility analysis. Similar studies illustrated the policy-making value of census data. William Brass suggested that maternity histories be used to assess fertility change. The Division participated in the 1st national family planning (FP) programs in India, and then helped develop a standard questionnaire to serve as the basis for internationally comparable knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys and sought to promote cross-national comparative research on fertility and FP. It also developed technics for estimating fertility in the absence of adequate birth statistics, including the reverse-survival method and ways of using stable population models. Model-based estimates of fertility have been made from World Fertility Survey data. The Division has provided data and studies to measure FP program success and to serve in improving service and acceptance rates, participating in evaluations of the administration of its national FP programs in India and Pakistan, and in research on cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness calculations for fertility reduction programs. A basic component was the measurement of the impact of FP programs on fertility: the Division carried out studies to evaluate alternative measurement methods, and prepared a manual. As fertility data quality improved, the Division prepared a review of knowledge on determinants of fertility, and hypothesized that a threshold must be crossed before development leads to fertility decline. The Division now produces periodic overviews of fertility conditions and trends, and studies on world levels and condtions of fertility, and has made findings on breast feeding effects, "unmet" FP needs, and the role of type of parental union, marital disruption, and education and occupation.
[Unpublished] 1984. Paper presented at the Meeting on Analysis of Trends and Patterns of Mortality in the ESCAP Region, 13-19 November 1984, Bangkok.  p.Since very few developing countries have complete vital registration, most base their mortality statistics on data from occasional demographic surveys and population censuses. Brass technics are used to estimate child mortality from data on children ever born and children still living by 5-year age groups of mothers. Many of the 1980 censuses included these questions. In view of the importance of vital statistics for development planning, the UN has recently listed data to be collected by a vital registration system. Because complete registration is so difficult to achieve, some countries--India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, for example--operate sample registration systems, which are mostly dual-method surveys, continuous registration systems coupled with periodic household surveys. Demographic survey data relies largely on indirect methods for estimating infant and child mortality. This type of survey underestimates childbearing at older ages and overestimates childbearing at younger ages. Tables 1 and 2 list information on mortality collected in the 1970 and 1980 censuses of countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region by whether information was collected on children born alive, children living, the date of birth of the last child, and whether that child is still living. Table 3 lists the UN recommendations on data to be collected in death registration.
In: Asia. Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys Regional Workshop. Proceedings. [Columbia, Maryland], Westinghouse Health Systems, 1981 Feb. 4-7. (Contraceptive Prevalence Studies 2)This paper presents the views of the Agency for International Development (AID) on Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys, focusing on why the agency supports them, what the agency wants to get out of them, and how they fit into the AID program. Both the developing countries and the donor community needed data bases that serve several purposes. There was a clear need for data on what was happening in countries with active family planning programs. Fairly substantial resources were being programmed into efforts to slow population growth, and it was important to ensure that these resources were used effectively and efficiently. There were also obvious time pressures. The longer the delay before slowing population growth, the more serious the problem would become. Clearly, timely data were needed. To respond to the varied data needs, early in its history AID's Population Office initiated a broad program of support for data collection, including censuses, surveys, civil registration systems, and family planning program statistics. There was also support for efforts to ensure that these data were evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted to facilitate their use. In 1971, AID along with the UN and the International Statistical Institute, began to develop what became the World Fertility Survey (WFS). The effort was launched more as a research than an administrative tool. During the course of developing the WFS, there was much reluctance on the part of many demographers and social scientists to clarify the link between fertility change and family planning action programs. In 1976, WFS carried out some field trials on a series of questions on perceived family planning availability and accessibility and thereafter developed a set of questions on availability, which were added to the core questionnaire. When the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) project was initiated with Westinghouse, AID asked that availability information be collected for all methods requiring a source. These data have been very valuable as a means of gaining insight into the role of availability in contraceptive use. The CPS was specifically designed to collect a limited set of highly program-relevant data quickly and to make these data available to program administrators and policy makers. First, CPS has been an important data source for documenting trends in contraceptive knowledge and use. Second, since many of the WFS, as well as the CPS, have included questions on perceived availability of family planning, it is possible to examine trends in availability. Regarding how the CPS might be improved, the CPS Workshop provides a good opportunity for an exchange of ideas. A description of the Workshop objectives are outlined.
New York, New York, Population Council, 1985 Sep. 5,  p. (Fertility Determinants Research Note No. 5)One of the notable features of population studies in the past 35 years has been the increasing reliance on sample surveys as the primary source of demographic data. Past surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of contraception in developing countries are important resources. These early KAP and fertility surveys, conducted 10 or more years ago, provide benchmarks for the study of how group differentials in behavior and attitudes evolve with time. Together with recent surveys, they help to monitor the pace and nature of the transition from 1 demographic regime to another within societies. Attempts to retrieve the earlier data produced constructive lessons and recommendations on how to safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 3 recommendations emerge that will help safeguard current and future surveys and promote their use. 1) Develop standards of documentation and maintenance, including how long questionnaires are to be retained, now much of the detail of sampling design should be saved, what constitutes an adequate description of interviewer characteristics and instruction. 2) Arrange for public access and the mechanisms to promote it. Funds should be budgeted for this purpose from the outset. Surveys that are still not generally available after a reasonable number of years lose much of their value and deprive the demographic community of a valuable resource. 3) Create structures to preserve and disseminate KAP and fertility surveys. The need for this is greatest for surveys not associated with large international programs. In all cases arrangements for longterm preservation must be made. Tables are included which describe 3rd world countries in which KAP or fertility surveys were conducted before 1981, and an inventory of pairs of surveys for potential use in conparative and over-time analysis.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1981. 148 p. (LSMS working paper, no. 16)Add to my documents.
[Unpublished] . Presented at the Second African Population Conference, Arusha, Tanzania, January 9-13, 1984. 3 p.Liberia's population characteristics and dynamics are briefly decribed, the current status of population data collection is noted, and the government's population policies and programs are summarized. National censuses were conducted in 1962 and 1974 with assistance from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and a 3rd census is planned for February 1984. National population growth surveys were conducted in 1969 and 1972, and demographic growth surveys were undertaken in 1978 and 1979. An administrative structure for registering births and deaths was recently created, however, most births occurring outside of hospitals and clinics will not be covered. In 1973, a demographic unit was established at the University of Liberia to develop the manpower needed to upgrade population data collection procedures. According to data collected in the 1974 censuses and subsequent surveys, the birthrate is 48.6, the death rate is 17.3, and the gross reproductive rate is 3.2. the total fertility rate is 6.7, and the infant mortality rate is 110.4. Life expectancy at birth is 49.1 for males and 52.5 for females. there are 97.3 males/100 females. The proprotion of the male population under 15 years of age is 47.9%, and the respective proportion for females is 46.9%. The total population is 1.8 million. Although Liberia does not have a population policy, the government recently established a National Population Committee to formulate a national policy and to coordinate population acitivities. 3.5% of Liberia's women of childbearing age currently use family planning services provided either by the International Planned Parenthood Federation or by the government with the assistance of UNFPA and the US Agency for International Development.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 32 p. (COM/72/CONF.32-A/3)This paper describes the nature and current status of family planning communication research, focusing on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys; proposing some types of needed research; and analyzing the common problems of inadequate research utilization. The discussion's theme is that communication research offers the potential for providing eventual solutions to some of the problems currently impeding family planning programs in less developed countries. In the past, with few exceptions, family planning communication research has been unimaginative, repetitious, and irrelevant. Communication research provides a feedback function to program administrators about various inputs to the family planning program. This type of research also can provide a "feedforward" function by allowing sources of communication messages to better know their audiences and hence how to reach them more effectively. Communication research is itself a special kind of communication, providing a linkage between client audiences and agency officials. 1 of the best of the KAP studies and 1 which had a particularly laudatory effect of later research in family planning communication is the Taichung Study of Twaiwan Study in the early 1960s. The Taichung study data showed the importance of interpersonal channels and the 2 step flow of communication. It should be noted that the Taiwan Study was a field experiment rather than a survey. A typical field experiment begun in 1970 in Isfahan Province, Iran consisted of the following experimental treatments: an intensive mass media communication campaign that promote a family planning slogan "2 or 3 children is better; the loop and pill are safe;" the recruitment of various types of nonfamily planning change agents and aides recruited to promote family planning with their clients; and home visits by family planning field workers in a rural and an urban district of about 20,000 population. The main measures of the communication treatment efforts are changes in knowledge, attitude, and practice, which were measured by surveys prior to and after the campaigns. Most important are changes in rate of adoption, which seem to have increased by about 64%. In addition to the Isfahan Project numerous field experiments on family planning communication have been conducted in Jamaica, India, Korea, and Thailand since the Taichung Study in the early 1960s. Several conclusions, such as the following, may be generally considered from these experiments: home visits to clients by paraprofessional field workers are 1 of the most effective communication strategies to secure the adoption of family planning methods; and mass media alone can create widespread awareness and knowledge of a family planning innovation. KAP studies have all the methodological problems of any other type of survey research as well as some special problems that arise from the taboo nature of family planning. Yet, in the few cases where adequate evidence is available, KAP studies do not fare too badily on reliability, especially in an aggregate sense.
New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1975, Apr. 50 p. (HAI/70/PO1)A mission was sent to Haiti to evaluate the progress of the census project. Results were: 1) the preparatory work of the census, including mapping, sample selection, household listing, and questionnaire design, was done satisfactorily, and 2) the data collection operation was carried out with a well trained staff but the information on economic characteristics and migration may be less reliable than the basic demographic data on age and sex. The following recommendations were made: 1) that technical and financial support be given to the Haitian government for the establishment within the IHS of a separate unit for demographic analysis and research, 2) in order to ensure full participation by all government departments and private agencies interested in population analysis and research, a coordinating council should be established, 3) the UNFPA should provide limited financial assistance to the Haitian government to construct a building to house the Demographic Analysis and Research Unit, 4) consideration should be given to the organization of a national symposium with appropriate input from the various departments and agencies of the government on the utilization of census data in their respective fields of specialization, 5) a brief summary report should be prepared for distribution, 6) a report on the methodology employed in the demographic survey program should be prepared for limited distribuiton within the government and the UN, 7) the next Haitian census should include a complete count of the population, 8) in future operations the agricultural data should not be collected at the same time as population and housing data, and 9) the Haiti census and survey project should be extended through December 1975.
In: World Population Growth and Response, 1965-1975: a Decade of Global Action, Wash., D.C. Population Reference Bureau, April 1976, pp. 197-263Add to my documents.
Population and development: a progress report on ILO research on population, labour, employment and income distribution. 4th ed.
Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, April, 1982. 98 p.Discusses the work of the International Labour Organization's (ILO) policies on labor employment and income distribution. It aims to further study the interrelationships between demographic change and employment, and incomes and poverty, with a view to contributing to policy design, analysis and choice. The economic-demographic relationship is viewed as being of primary importance in its effect on social systems. The program plans to identify the causes and consequences of temporary migration by means of a detailed sample survey. This project discusses women's productive activities and demographic issues. The former includes all activities which contribute to economic well being, whether or not they are market-oriented, and the latter includes fertility, mortality, and migration. It also attempts to analyze the variety of processes through which population and poverty are related. Other issues discussed are fertility, the economic roles of children, and aspects of household behavior. Current research projects of the ILO are listed.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 41 p. (Report No. 48)The population of the islands of the Comoros Federal Islamic Republic is extremely poor. An explicit demographic policy does not exist, however there is concern about high fertility, and the level of emigration. The government hopes to improve access to primary health care, and develop programs to combat major diseases. It gives special attention to maternal and child health care including child-spacing. The 1980 Census should help overcome the problem of a lack of basic demographic data. A demographic survey should take place after the census. A civil registration system should be created. Malaria and malnutrition are health problems. A study of home deliveries, a significant cause of maternal mortality, should be made. Methods of transporting people to hospitals should be improved. National epidemiological studies and research should be ongoing projects. Since women have not been integrated into the development effort, the Mission recommends that: 1) a study be taken on the roles and functions of the country's women; 2) a small grant to the Comorian Union of Women should be given; and 3) studies in the areas of population and health education should possibly be financed.