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  1. 1

    An overview of the policies and management of the HIV / AIDS epidemic in Thailand and Singapore.

    Panadam HR

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1992. viii, 138 p. (Order No. 1350571)

    AIDS/HIV infection is pandemic. In Singapore and Thailand, however, the incidence of HIV infection has grown at an especially alarming rate due to the countries' status of being internationally recognized tourist destinations and the high prevalence of prostitution. The demographics, socioeconomics, health care systems, and geographical location also influence the course of the disease in the countries. This paper reviews the policies, management, current determinants, and distribution of HIV infection and AIDS in Singapore and Thailand. Projections for the future and prospects for prevention and control are offered. Different sections define AIDS; give the historical background of AIDS and origin of the virus; describe modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS and geographic patterns of AIDS; discuss the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in Asia, the management of HIV/AIDS, the social impact of HIV/AIDS, future trends and projections of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and effective policies and strategies in the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mortality and morbidity projections and the potential to manage the epidemic seem particularly grim for Thailand, although Singapore's regimental and authoritarian approach may prove more promising. Policy makers in these countries must get moving to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The possibility of involving the World Health organization for technical assistance should be considered.
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  2. 2

    State of world population 1987.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.

    The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
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  3. 3

    Changing perspectives of population in Africa and international responses.

    Sai FT

    [Unpublished] 1987. 13, [3] p.

    Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
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