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  1. 1

    Demographic indicators in selected South-East Asian countries: an overview.

    [Unpublished] [1997]. [21] p.

    The South-East Asia region is one of the most diverse and populous in the world. At midyear 1990, the total population of the world was estimated to be 5.3 billion people, of which 1.3 billion (24.6%) lived in the eleven countries of the South- East Asia region. During the next ten years it is expected to grow by 256.6 million, thus making up 25.3% of the world total (Health situation in south-east Asia 1991). The World Health Organization, WHO which is a pioneer organization working in the field of health. In May 1997 in the Thirtieth World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA 30.43 in which it decided that the main social target of government and of WHO in the coming decades should be the attainment by all the people of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life. This is popularly known as ‘health for all by the year 2000 ‘. What does ‘health for all’ mean? It means simply the realization of WHO’s objective of the ‘the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health” and that as a minimum all people in all countries should have at least such a level of health that they are capable of working productively and of participating actively in the social life of the community in which they live. To attain such a level of health every individual should have access to primary health care and through it to all levels of a comprehensive health system. While the communities might be expected to have a similar general understanding of the meaning of health for all as outlined above, each country will interpret this meaning in the light of its social and economic characteristics, health status and morbidity patterns of its population, and state of development of its health system. In 1978 an International conference on Primary Health Care was held in Alma-Ata, USSR. This conference, which declared that primary health care is the key to attaining health for all, it emphasized that health development is essential for social and economic development, that the means for attaining them are intimately linked, and the action to improve the health and socioeconomic situation should be regarded as mutually supportive rather than competitive. The Declaration of Alma-Ata urged all government to formulate national policies, stategies and plans of action to launch and sustain primary health care as part of a comprehensive national health system and in coordination with other sectors. In the 1979, the Thirty-second World Health Assembly launched the Global Strategy for health for all when it adopted resolution WHA32.30.The Global Strategy indicates the broad lines of action to be taken I the health sector and in related social and economic sectors. It provided global targets to be considered by member states, taking into account their own socioeconomic and health situation and bearing in mind that all countries are aiming at the same targets for the year 2000. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 44-6. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    Extrapolation modelling of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic suggests a cumulative total of 1 million cases of AIDS worldwide in adults by 1991. Although major increases in child mortality rates are anticipated in areas with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women, few projections have been made specifically for women and children. If HIV-infected women and their children are to be allocated adequate resources in terms of their health and social service needs, this deficit must be addressed. In severely affected areas, such as Central Africa, AIDS in women and children can be expected to consume more economic resources than any other disease. Even in developed countries, direct medical car costs for children with AIDS are higher than those for adult AIDS patients. In general, research must prioritize projections of the numbers and trends of HIV infections and AIDS cases in women and children as well as disease-related costs. Attention must also be given to the indirect costs associated with AIDS in women in developing countries. Women's contribution to Third World economies is often equal to that of their male counterparts due to women's role as food producers and homemakers. Evaluations of the costs of HIV infection in women and children should be conducted within the context of the prevalence and costs of other diseases also in need of resource allocation.
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  3. 3

    Population growth can prevent the development that would slow population growth.

    Keyfitz N

    In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.

    The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
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