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Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children.
In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 44-6. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)Extrapolation modelling of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic suggests a cumulative total of 1 million cases of AIDS worldwide in adults by 1991. Although major increases in child mortality rates are anticipated in areas with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women, few projections have been made specifically for women and children. If HIV-infected women and their children are to be allocated adequate resources in terms of their health and social service needs, this deficit must be addressed. In severely affected areas, such as Central Africa, AIDS in women and children can be expected to consume more economic resources than any other disease. Even in developed countries, direct medical car costs for children with AIDS are higher than those for adult AIDS patients. In general, research must prioritize projections of the numbers and trends of HIV infections and AIDS cases in women and children as well as disease-related costs. Attention must also be given to the indirect costs associated with AIDS in women in developing countries. Women's contribution to Third World economies is often equal to that of their male counterparts due to women's role as food producers and homemakers. Evaluations of the costs of HIV infection in women and children should be conducted within the context of the prevalence and costs of other diseases also in need of resource allocation.
Statement of the International Movement ATD Fourth World, an NGO in consultative status category ii with ECOSOC.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note prepared for the International Conference on Population, held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 4 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/15)This appeal on behalf of the world's poorest families seeks: the destruction of misery in order to build peace and ensure dignity; fair distribution of resources; guarantees of freedom and the right to self-determination for all, especially the poorest; the widest possible choices for all in family planning; and regular public evaluation of demographic policies and programs, especially for the most deprived.
International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations. Jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989.
[Unpublished] 1991. , 64 p.The International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with the French Government. Co-sponsors included the United Nations organizations UNDP, UNICEF, and UNESCO, along with the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the Council of Europe. Following assorted introductory addresses, statements by chairmen of the conference's technical working groups are presented in the paper. Working group discussion topics include virology; immunology; epidemiology; clinical management; HIV and pregnancy; diagnoses; implications for health, education, community, and social welfare systems; and economic and demographic impact. Chairman statements include an introduction, discussion of the state of current knowledge, research priorities, implications for policies and programs, and recommendations. The Paris Declaration on Women, Children and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome concluded the conference.
In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
Lancet. 1990 Oct 13; 336(8720):936.This article rebuts Dr. King's statement in the Lancet that a precondition to lowering birth rates is reducing child death rates in developing countries. UNICEF's position since the 1980's has been that child spacing through family planning (FP) is a direct way of lowering child mortality and an indirect way of lowering fertility but FP is not a precondition to reducing child mortality. UNICEF has stressed in its Child Summit publication that the synergy between child survival interventions and FP can help accelerate population stabilization rather than either of them working alone. UNICEF has stressed that by encouraging female literacy, MCH/FP and breastfeeding that the misconception of child mortality increasing population growth rates can be curtailed. It is more reasonable to argue that when women are empowered and have better control over their livers, they will choose FP to space their children, than to state that FP methods alone are a necessary and sufficient condition for lowering fertility. A major point made at the World Summit of Children in September 1990 was the need to reinforce child survival and FP "to reduce morality and fertility rates and contribute more to lowering rates of population growth than either type of activity alone." With the know-how and technology now available, UNICEF finds it ethically and morally necessary for countries to pursue child survival and FP at the same time. The cost of such investments are low compared to military expenditures but require vision and commitment from political leaders.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 534 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements ST/ESA/SER.A/90)Contained in this volume are the report (Part I) and the selected papers (Part II) of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development which review past trends and their likely future course in each of the 4 areas, taking into account not only evolving concepts but also the need to consider population, resources, environment and development as a unified structure. Trends noted in the population factor include world population growth and the differences between rates in the developed and developing countries; the decline in the proportion of the population who are very young and the concomitant increase in the average age of the population. Discussed within the resource factor are the labor force, the problem of increasing capital shortage, expenditures on armaments, trends in the supply and productivity of arable land, erosion and degradation of topsoil and energy sources. Many of the problems identified overlap with the environment factor, which centers on the problem of pollution. The group on the development factor was influenced by a pervasiv sense of "crisis" in current economic trends. Concern was also expressed regarding the qualitative aspects of current development trends, defined as the perverse effects of having adopted inappropriate styles of development. Part II begins with a general overview of recent levels and trends in the 4 areas along with the concepts of carrying capacity and optimum population. Other papers discuss the impact of trends in resources, environment and development on demographic prospects; long-term effects of global population growth on the international system; economic considerations in the choice of alternative paths to a stationary population and the need for integration of demographic factors in development planning. The various papers on the resources and environment factor focus on resources as a barrier to population growth; the effects of population growth on renewable resources; food production and population growth in Africa; the frailty of the balance between the 4 areas and the need for a holistic approach on a scale useful for regional planning. Also addressed are: social development; population and international economic relations; development, lifestyles, population and environment in Latin America; issues of population growth, inequality and poverty; health, population and development trends; education requirements and trends in female literacy; the challenge posed by the aging of populations; and population and development in the ECE region.
The use of indicators of financial resources in the health sector. L'emploi des indicateurs de ressources financieres dans le secteur de la sante.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1984; 37(4):450-62.This article provides an overview of the application of financial resource indicators in health. The focus is on indicators at the country level, although in certain instances related sub-national indicators are considered as well. 1st the different categories of financial resource indicators are described. The international experience in data collection, and problems of data availability and comparability are reviewed. Although the points addressed are relevant to all countries, the discussion is most applicable to the developing world where health information is limited. Particular attention is given to the design adn use of financial resource indicators in monitoring progress towards the goal of health for all. Finally, the steps that may be taken to increase the contribution of financial resource indicators to the health development process are discussed. Viewed economically, the health sector consists of production and consumption of services which have relatively direct influence on population health status. The different types of resources may be linked to their respective prices to show the financial flows that operate within the health system. The sources and uses of funds are identified. 3 types of financial resource indicators can be identified: health within the national economy, the provision of funds from primary sources and the functional and programmatic uses of funds. The 1st type is concerned with the aggregate availability of funds within the national economy and the fraction of those funds which are allocated to health. The 2nd component relates to the origins of the funds which make up the total health expenditure, under the broad headings of public, private and external sources of health finance. The 3rd type refers to the variety of used to which funds from these sources are put (expressed in terms of function e.g. salaries), program type (e.g. primary health care), or activity (e.g. health education).
Report of the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to Colombia's Maternal, Child Health and Population Dynamic's Programme, 1974-1978.
New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, July 1981. 181 p.This report for UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) on Colombia's Maternal and Child Health and Population Dynamics (MCH/PD) program was prepared by an independent team of consultants which spent 3 weeks in Colombia in February 1980 reviewing documents, interviewing key personnel and observing program services. The report consists of 8 chapters. The 1st describes the terms of references of the evaluation mission. The 2nd chapter provides background information on Colombia and identifies some of the principal environmental factors that affect the program. Chapter 3 describes the organizational context within which the program operates. The chapter also includes a discussion of the UNFPA funding and monitoring mechanism and how that affects program planning and operations. Chapter 4 is a description of the program planning process; goals, strategies and objectives, and of the UNFPA and government inputs to the program between 1974-1978, the period under review. A large part of the report is devoted to describing and assessing each program activity. Chapter 5 consists of descriptions of management information; maternal care; infant, child and adolescent care; family planning; supervision; training; community education; and research and evalutation studies. Chapter 6 is an analysis of the program's impact on: maternal morbidity and mortality; infant morbidity and mortality; and fertility. Chapter 7 summarizes the Mission's conclusions and lists its recommendations. The final chapter deals with the Mission's position in relation to the 1980-1983 proposal. Appendices provide statistical data on medical activities, contraceptive distribution and use, content of training courses, target population, total expenditures, and norms for care, as well as organizational charts, individuals interviewed, and UNFPA assistance to other agencies in Colombia. (author's modified)