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The potential of national household survey programmes for monitoring and evaluating primary health care in developing countries. L'apport potentiel des enquetes nationales sur les menages a la surveillance et a l'evaluation des soins de sante primaires dans les pays en developpement.
World Health Statistics Quarterly. Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales. 1985; 38(1):38-64.National programs of household sample surveys, such as those being encouraged through the National Household Survey Capability Program (NHSCP), are a principal source of information on primary health care in developing countries. Being representative of the total population, the major population subgroups and geographic subdivisions, they permit calculation of health status and utilization of health services. Household surveys have an important role to play in monitoring and evaluating primary health care since they sample directly the intended beneficiaries, and so can be used to judge the extent to which programs are meeting expected goals. Caution is necessary, however, since methodological problems have been experienced for many evaluation surveys. National surveys are especially appropriate for measuring many indicators of progress towards national goals within a broad socioeconomic perspective. Future directions in making the optimum use of household surveys for health program purposes are indicated. The NHSCP is a major undertaking of the UN system including WHO to collaborate with developing countries to establish a continuing flow of integrated statistics on a recurrent basis to support the national development process and information priorities. It brings together the principal users and producers of data to plan and conduct surveys which respond to national needs and priorities. The NHSCP encourages countries to employ a permanent national field organization for data collection. Areas of discussion are: the potential for monitoring and evaluation, the household survey as a source of health indicators, the demand for household surveys of health, followed by a summary of the health and health-related topics covered by 6 national health and nutrition surveys conducted in several developing countries. The special themes of infant and child mortality, morbidity and nutritional surveillance are also considered. The experience of many developed countries has been very positive with the use of nonmedically organized health surveys. Although the sample survey can be used in many settings to obtain population-based data, it must be carefully designed and implemented according to scientific procedures in order for the results to be validly extrapolated to the population or subgroups of primary concern.
In: Sattar E, ed. Views from three continents. Papers presented at the 1982 ICOMP International Conference on Management of Population Programmes. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, International Committee on the Management of Population Programmes, 1983 Dec. 46-56. (Management Contributions to Population Programmes Vol. 3)The functions of the Malaysia National Family Planning Board (NFPB) are as follows: to form policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice to promote the health of mothers and children and family welfare; programming, directing, administering, and coordinating family planning activities in the country; training all persons involved in family planning extension work; conducting research on medical and biological methods relating to family planning; promoting studies and research into the interrelationship of social, cultural, economic, and population factors and changes and also promoting research concerning fertility and maternity patterns in Malaysia; and setting up a system of evaluation to assess periodically program effectiveness and progress towards attaining the national objectives. The objectives of the national family planning program are to enhance and supplement the government's efforts in improving family health and welfare; promoting social development by creating productive employment opportunities; reducing income disparities; enriching cultural values; and increasing land development and improving human settlements and proper management of the environment. These objectives serve as strategic guidelines for the implementation of an effective and well-coordinated national family planning program using the broadest concepts of family planning and incorporating issues on population. Use of a multisectoral, integrated approach was the predominant strategy between 1966-76, emphasizing the health, welfare, and well-being of the family with NFPB as coordinator of the multisectoral effort. Current strategies can be described as follows: integration of family planning and family life education services into the national social development program to provide people with alternatives for a better life and to improve women's socioeconomic status; support for related social programs and activities aimed at improving the quality of life, health, welfare, and activities relating to family development; integration of family life education and population education into both the formal and informal educational systems; provision of contraceptive services using a "cafeteria system" based on voluntary acceptance and use of medical, paramedical, and other specially trained personnel; provision of consultancy services to governmental and nongovernmental agencies regarding population and family planning issues and their relationship to development; and promotion and coordination of studies and research on biomedical, socioeconomic, and cultural aspects related to maternity and fertility patterns and their effect on overall socioeconomic development and on family development.