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  1. 1

    Population and sustainable development.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]. Task Force on Population and Conservation for Sustainable Development

    Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1987. 63 p.

    A special Task Force Report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources focusing on population contains chapters on demographic trends, structural changes and future growth, population policies, family planning programs, relations between population, conservation and development, and recommendations. Unprecedented population growth in this century is such that most countries have people living who have seen their population triple, and Zimbabwe as an example of an African country has grown 8-fold in this period. Population growth is only 1 among many factors that aggravate conservation and development; others include decreasing food supply, inappropriate development patterns fostered by debt, trade imbalances, misguided aid, and even the food surpluses of the North. Current environmental crises will contribute to a predicted 33% loss in arable land by 2000. The report ends with 12 recommendations, e.g., corroboration by country-level population, conservation and development agencies by identifying relevant institutions and introducing coordinating mechanisms. Every couple should be provided with means to plan their family, an effort estimated to cost $6 billion more than the current $2 billion being spent. Women should be given the right of choice about pregnancy, education, and integration into socio-economic development.
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  2. 2

    [The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.

    Schmid J

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.

    This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
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  3. 3

    State of world population 1987.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: UNFPA: 1986 report, [by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1987. 6-31.

    The implications of population growth and prospects for the future are examined in a 1987 UNFPA report on the state of world population. Demographic patterns in developed and developing countries are compared, as well as life expectancy and mortality rates. Although most countries have passed the stage of maximum growth, Africa's growth rate continues to increase. Changes in world population size are accompanied by population distribution and agricultural productivity changes. On an individual level, the fate of Baby 5 Billion is examined based on population trajectories for a developing country (Kenya, country A), and a developed country of approximately the same size (Korea, country B). The report outlines the hazards that Baby 5 Billion would face in a developing country and explains the better opportunities available in country B. Baby 5 Billion is followed through adolescence and adulthood. Whether the attainment of 5 billion in population is a threat or a triumph is questioned. Several arguments propounding the beneficial social, economic, and environmental effects of unchecked population growth are refuted. In addition, evidence of the serious consequences of deforestation and species extinction is presented. The report concludes with an explanation of the developmental, health and economic benefits of vigorous population control policies, especially in developing countries.
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  4. 4

    Changing perspectives of population in Africa and international responses.

    Sai FT

    [Unpublished] 1987. 13, [3] p.

    Africa's colonial legacy is such that countries contain not only a multiplicity of nations and languages, but their governments operate on separate cultural and linguistic planes, remnants of colonial heritage, so that neighboring peoples often have closed borders. Another problem is poor demographic data, although some censuses, World Fertility Surveys, Demographic Sample Surveys and Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys have been done. About 470 million lived in the region in 1984, growing at 3% yearly, ranging from 1.9% in Burkina to 4.6% in Cote d'Ivoire. Unique in Africa, women are not only having 6 to 8.1 children, but they desire even larger families: Senegalese women have 6.7 children and want 8.8. This gloomy outlook is reflected in the recent history of family planning policy. Only Ghana, Kenya and Mauritius began family planning in the 1960s, and in Kenya the policy failed, since it was begun under colonial rule. 8 countries made up the African Regional Council for IPPF in 1971. At the Bucharest Population Conference in 1974, most African representatives, intellectuals and journalists held the rigid view that population was irrelevant for development. Delegates to the Kilimanjaro conference and the Second International Conference on Population, however, did espouse the importance of family planning for health and human rights. And the Inter-Parliamentary Union of Africa accepted the role of family planning in child survival and women's status. At the meeting in Mexico in 1984, 12 African nations joined the consensus of many developing countries that rapid population growth has adverse short-term implications on development. Another 11 countries allow family planning for health and human rights, and a few more accept it without stating a reason. Only 3 of 47 Sub-Saharan nations state pro-natalist policies, and none are actively against family planning.
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  5. 5

    Situation report on population in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 20-4.

    The level and growth rate of population in Bangladesh is seen as 1 of the nation's most critical problems, affecting nearly all sectors of development. Demographic data in Bangladesh is poor due to a lack of a functioning vital registration system or other reliable data collection systems. The most recent estimate of total population as of January 1, 1977, is 82 million. The average density is estimated at 531 persons/km (1974), with 90% of the population concentrated in the rural areas. The crude death rate remains high at 19/1000 population, with an infant mortality rate estimated at 150/1000 live births. The total fertility and annual growth rates are judged extremely high and are related to several factors of underdevelopment particular to Bangladesh. These include mothers' reluctance to postpone or space births because of a high incidence of infant deaths; a low level of literacy and employment of women; inadequate community health care facilities; and a lack of acceptable family planning services in rural areas. The effects and consequences of this demographic situation on all age groups in Bangladesh is apparent in all areas of development: economic growth, food production, and the delivery of health, education and social services. Although the level of contraceptive awareness is high, the extent of acceptance of contraceptive practice in the country is estimated at only 5% of eligible couples. Despite a heavy concentration of government efforts in its Population Control/Family Planning Division (PC/FP), success has been limited due to struggles between the government's Health and Population Division; frequent administrative reorganization; personnel problems; difficulties in transferring local funds; innovative program development rather than concentration on regular program activities; and the resistance of the population to family planning and limitation. A family planning component has been included in most foreign assistance schemes (IDA;USAID;UNFPA). Of concern to UNICEF is the slow implementation of the family planning side and the generally poor level of maternal and child health care which falls under the PC/FP Division, rather than the Health Division.
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