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  1. 1

    Statement by the chairman of the Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Technical Working Group on the Demographic and Economic Impact of HIV Infection / AIDS in Women and Children

    In: International Conference on the Implications of AIDS for Mothers and Children: technical statements and selected presentations jointly organized by the Government of France and the World Health Organization, Paris, 27-30 November 1989. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Global Programme on AIDS, 1989. 44-6. (WHO/GPA/DIR/89.12)

    Extrapolation modelling of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic suggests a cumulative total of 1 million cases of AIDS worldwide in adults by 1991. Although major increases in child mortality rates are anticipated in areas with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women, few projections have been made specifically for women and children. If HIV-infected women and their children are to be allocated adequate resources in terms of their health and social service needs, this deficit must be addressed. In severely affected areas, such as Central Africa, AIDS in women and children can be expected to consume more economic resources than any other disease. Even in developed countries, direct medical car costs for children with AIDS are higher than those for adult AIDS patients. In general, research must prioritize projections of the numbers and trends of HIV infections and AIDS cases in women and children as well as disease-related costs. Attention must also be given to the indirect costs associated with AIDS in women in developing countries. Women's contribution to Third World economies is often equal to that of their male counterparts due to women's role as food producers and homemakers. Evaluations of the costs of HIV infection in women and children should be conducted within the context of the prevalence and costs of other diseases also in need of resource allocation.
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  2. 2

    The United Nations on the impact of HIV / AIDS on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]


    The UN Program on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization jointly monitor the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. The agencies' most recent survey tracking the spread of the pandemic, published in June 1998, estimates that by the beginning of 1998, 30.6 million people were infected with HIV, including 12.1 million women and 1.1 million children under age 15 years, and that 11.7 million had already died from AIDS. An estimated 5.8 million people were newly infected with HIV in 1997, and 2.3 million people died during the year from AIDS. An estimated 8.2 million children under age 15 years since the beginning of the epidemic lost either their mother or both parents to AIDS. 21 million of the 30.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS reside in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, approximately 83% of the world's AIDS deaths have been in sub-Saharan Africa. Newly available sophisticated estimates of the impact of the epidemic upon adult mortality in some of the most severely affected sub-Saharan African countries are presented.
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  3. 3

    Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    Sibanda AE

    ZIMBABWE JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS. 1988 Jan; 2(1):81-100.

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.
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  4. 4

    Ageing populations. The social policy implications.

    Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD]

    Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)

    This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
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  5. 5

    AID investment of $1 billion in family planning/population is resulting in sharp birthrate declines.

    International Family Planning Perspectives and Digest. 1978 Winter; 4(4):127-128.

    This article is derived from testimony by Reimert T. Ravenholt, Director of the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID) Office of Population before the Select Committee on Population in the U.S. House of Representatives. The testimony dealt with the disbursement of the $1 billion in AID funds for the promotion of family planning in underdeveloped countries. A table gives the total, broken down into the various categories of aid: $345 million for international agencies, $261 million in bilateral assistance, $162 million for contraceptives, $102 million for demographic and fertility research, $55 million for improvement of contraceptive technology, $34 million for administration, $49 million for support of institutions training 3d World people for research in population related fields. The article also reports on the success in slowing population growth in many of the countries to which AID funds have been sent, particularly in Colombia, Thailand, Korea and Indonesia. Dr. Ravenholt stated that he feels the AID's investment has been instrumental in lowering birthrates, and that continued tenacity and effort will result in more successes.
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