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  1. 1

    Population and sustainable development.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]. Task Force on Population and Conservation for Sustainable Development

    Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1987. 63 p.

    A special Task Force Report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources focusing on population contains chapters on demographic trends, structural changes and future growth, population policies, family planning programs, relations between population, conservation and development, and recommendations. Unprecedented population growth in this century is such that most countries have people living who have seen their population triple, and Zimbabwe as an example of an African country has grown 8-fold in this period. Population growth is only 1 among many factors that aggravate conservation and development; others include decreasing food supply, inappropriate development patterns fostered by debt, trade imbalances, misguided aid, and even the food surpluses of the North. Current environmental crises will contribute to a predicted 33% loss in arable land by 2000. The report ends with 12 recommendations, e.g., corroboration by country-level population, conservation and development agencies by identifying relevant institutions and introducing coordinating mechanisms. Every couple should be provided with means to plan their family, an effort estimated to cost $6 billion more than the current $2 billion being spent. Women should be given the right of choice about pregnancy, education, and integration into socio-economic development.
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  2. 2

    Sustainable resource management in agriculture and rural development projects: a review of bank policies, procedures, and results.

    Barnes DF; Olivares J

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, Environment Dept., 1988 Jun. iv, 37, [6] p. (Environment Department Working Paper No. 5)

    The results of 115 agriculture and rural development projects approved by the World Bank between 1983 and 1986 are analyzed. Most projects emphasize improved production and income generation for farmers, but only about 50% mention resource problems in the project rationale. Sustainable resource management is a goal of some projects including social forestry, watershed protection, and irrigation and drainage. The projects with greater resource problems include those with large changes in land use or those located in sensitive or marginal environments including resettlement, livestock credit, and irrigation. The settlement projects in Brazil and Indonesia have extensive documentation and reviews of resource issues. The irrigation projects typically mention concern over sedimentation, siltation, salinization, and waterlogging. The Mahaweli scheme in Sri Lanka is an irrigation project that involves extensive land clearing, and many studies have been completed to determine the resource implications of the projects. Rural industry projects generally do not contain any analysis of the environmental impact that such changes might have for a region. Even for projects with a major goal of resource management, such as India Watershed Management, the project is justified on the basis of the increased production. A trend toward smallholder projects is apparent in World Bank-assisted agriculture and rural development projects. In India the social forestry project encouraged tree farming to prevent encroachment and overharvesting of forest reserves. Sustainable resource management implies a process of adapting to the continuing evolution of changes in human populations, technologies, and socioeconomic conditions. The World Bank has a very inconsistent record in effectively dealing with longterm resource management issues, as resource management issues are an implicit rather than an explicit component of most projects.
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  3. 3

    Methodological problems in evaluation of family planning impact of programmes that are integrated with other development sectors.

    Chandrasekaran C

    In: Studies to enhance the evaluation of family planning programmes by United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division [DIESA] New York, New York, United Nations, 1985. 108-110. (Population Studies No. 87 ST/ESA/SER.A/87)

    Governments of developing countries began to undertake family planning in the 1960s thanks to a sudden availability of funds for programs exaggerating an already existing cleavage between program and general demography professionals. Discussion at the World Population Conference (WPC) in Bucharest recognized social and economic factors as an important element in the use of family planning and attempted to encourage better cooperation between program evaluators and demographers. Separation of family planning effects from development effects has been difficult. The WPC's World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) reiterated that population and population policies were interrelated with and should not be considered substitutes for socioeconomic development policies. Increasingly, governments have been integrating family planning with education and health programs as recommended by the WPPA. Family planning being a relatively new venture, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework to justify assumptions that family planning and development are productively integrable and synergistic, determining demographic effects and their causal mechanisms, whether social or program related. A careful record of program inputs must be kept. Important issues in education, which generally speaking has an inverse effect on fertility, are: in which sex and age group of the population is education most effective for fertility control allowing for lag time; and what are the intervening effects--age at marriage, better knowledge, or change of attitudes? Some of the simplest integrated programs combine family planning with educational programs in schools, health programs, and agricultural programs. Thus teachers are trained to educate pupils in population problems; health workers educate family health consumers a logical diversity of function that is however limited by the scope of the health program. The benefits of small family size may be incorporated into rural development ideology. Critical evaluation will necessitate demonstration of integration's beneficial effects.
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