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  1. 1
    035565

    Social, economic, political, and demographic determinants of development-agency aid to Third World countries.

    Rosenfeld AI

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984. xvi, 563 p. (8501088)

    The following dissertation is a report of research on the determinants of economic assistance to the development efforts of 3rd world countries by 6 international agencies including the UN, the US, and the World Bank. With annual data for 109 countries, these agencies' grants and loans were related, by multiple regression, to several socioeconomic variables summarizing the modernization of the nations concerned. Grants and loans of these agencies were also regressed on measures of polity types and political instability in these same analyses. Most socioeconomic variable relationships to fundings of economic development by 2 World Bank branches and 2 UN specialized agencies were in support of a need-for-aid interpretation of these agencies' grant-loan policies. The similar relationships of loans from the 3rd World Bank branch to these economic variables usually supported a credit-worthiness or "good economic performance" emphasis in that World Bank branch's policy on loans. Need for aid and loan credit worthiness were equally important in determining US foreign economic assistance. Polity type and other control variables had small effects on development assistance by the 6 agencies studied. Several of the economic variables' relationships to these agencies' funding were significant, but small; few such relationships were very large. (author's)
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  2. 2
    199874

    [Papers presented at the First Study Director's Meeting on Comparative Study on Demographic-Economic Interrelationship for Selected ESCAP Countries, 29 October-2 November 1984, Bangkok, Thailand]

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished, 1984]. [82] p.

    This study group report 1) investigates quantitatively the process of population change and socioeconomic development to identify policy recommendations for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand and 2) examines the application of the "systems approach" and econometric technics for population and development planning. These country-specific studies will help to clarify the interrelationships between demographic and socioeconomic factors in the development process of each participating country and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region in general. The meeting 1) reviewed major demographic and economic issues in each participating country, 2) reviewed extant work on model building in each country, and 3) outlined a preliminary system design. Several economic-demographic models are discussed. The participants recommended that 1) the models focus of similar issues such as migration and income distribution and 2) countries should adopt, whenever possible, a similar modeling methodology. Participants agreed that models should be based, where possible, on a base-year Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). This poses no problems in Thailand or Malaysia as SAMs are already available for these countries. However, no SAM is currently available for the Philippines. Participants further recommended that the 3 models could be improved by greater collaboration among study directors during model formulation and estimation. Participants also expressed concern about the size of the computing budget and thought that models could be improved by an increased budget for computer time.
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  3. 3
    030879

    Mortality and health policy: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    In: Mortality and health policy. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Mortality and Health Policy, Rome, 30 May to 3 June 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 37-79. (International Conference on Population, 1984.; ST/ESA/SER.A/91)

    This paper reviews the major issues that have emerged in the analysis of mortality and health policy since the 1974 World Population Conference. The 1st part summarizes current mortality conditions in the major world regions and evaluates progress toward achieving the goals of the World Population Plan of Action. It is noted that the current mortality situation is characterized by continued wide disparities between the more developed and less developed regions, especially during the 1st year of life. The 2nd part focuses on the synergistic relationship between health and development, including social, economic, and health inequalities. It is asserted that mortality rates in developing countries are a function of the balance governments select between development strategies favoring capital accumulation and concentrated investments on the 1 hand and strategies oriented toward meeting basic needs and reducing inequalities in income and wealth. Data from developed countries suggest that economic development does not necessarily lead to steady gains in life expectancy. Some variations in mortality may reflect changes in family relationships, especially women's status, that are induced by social and economic development, however. The 3rd part of this paper analyzes the effect of health policies on mortality, including curative and preventive programs and primary health care. The lack of community participation is cited as a key factor in the weak performance of primary health care in many developing countries. In addition, there is strong evidence that the concepts and technologies of modern medicine must be adapted to existing systems of disease prevention and care to gain acceptability. The 4th section, on the implementation of health policies, discusses health care management, planning, and financing. It is noted that successful implementation of health policies is often hindered by scarcity, inadequate allocation, and inefficient utilization of health resources. Finally, more effective means to cope with rising costs of health care are needed.
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