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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 39 p. (Report No. 52)Samoa's major population problem is a high rate of natural population increase. The crude birth rate from 1971-1976 is estimated at 37.4/1000. The total fertility rate was estimated at 6.7 for the same period. Emigration has compensated for much of the natural population increase. The infant mortality rate is low; life expectancy is 64.3 years for females and 61 for males. A maternal and child health program with integrated child-spacing services is government supported. In 1979, 13% of all women of reproductive age used contraception. Samoa's 4th Five-Year National Devlopment Plan (1980-1984) includes a review of population trends. There is a need to develop a broad-based population policy. The Mission recommends that, to assist in the formulation and implementation of this policy, a high-level government office be appointed to coordinate population efforts, and a post of Population Coordinator created. Considerable data exist, although more information on specific development-related topics would be helpful. The Mission recommends that a survey unit should be set up. Service delivery of the maternal and child health and family planning activities should be improved. Traditional village social institutions should be included. The government plans to integrate population and family life education into the educational system through teacher training and curriculum development. Assistance in the produciton of materials would be helpful. The Mission recommends that women's activities be better coordinated.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 59 p. (Report No. 53)An estimated 53.7 million people lived in Vietnam in 1980. The government wants to lower the rate of population growth as soon as possible. Its short-term goal, to lower the annual rate to 1.7% by 1986, is to be met through the national family planning program. The government wishes to get more married women in the reproductive age group to use contraception--from 20% at present to 50-65% by the year 2000. 2nd major population goal is resettle 10 million people from the northern to the southern part of the country by the end of the century. Efforts should be made to improve the vital registration system. Population research is concentrated in the State Planning Committee, the research arms of various ministries, and in Government research agencies. This research needs to be strengthened. Overseas training and study tours should be provided for strengthening staff capabilities. Assistance should be provided for the government's primary health care approach with emphasis on community participation. Urgently needed are essential drugs and contraceptives--especially condoms. A factory for testing and packing condoms should be built, once the quality of locally produced latex improves. The Mission recommends that a systematic manpower development analysis be undertaken to aid the government in determining training needs of health personnel; their curricula should include more population and family planning content, and motivational and communication techniques. An audiovisual (AV) center was established in Hanoi; however the information, education, and communication (IEC) program needs strenthening. Aid should also be given for low-cost media production in the AV subcenter being started in Ho Chi Minh City. Perservice training of primary and secondary teachers will include population education. Women's activities should be promoted.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 53 p. (Report No. 54)There is no comprehensive national population policy in Kiribati. Migration from the outer islands to urban South Tarawa is a problem. Overcrowding on the island will soon be severe. The National Development Plan aims at maintaining a balance between population and natural resources. The Mission proposes aid for population-related projects. The Central Planning Office coordinates the development activities. A National Population and Development Co-Ordinating Committee has been established. The government needs more staff to deal with overcrowding. The country's data base needs to be strengthened and upgraded. The Mission recommends that 1) another census be carried out in 1983; and 2) an inventory of research relating to Kiribati be maintained. The government has made efforts to provide an adequate health services network. The Mission recommends that a consultant be provided who specialized in health education and community participation. The family planning program has been diminishing in effectiveness. The Mission recommends support for: 1) a 3-year In-School Population Education Project; and 2) a project to focus on using communications programs to increase outer-island participation in population-related and development activites. The government has set up a Women's Interest Section to coordinate and develop policies and programs. The Mission recommends support for a 3-year project to aid the National Women's Federation. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities Youth Training Program should be supported. Protestants and Roman Catholics have promoted family life, health education and community-based activities.
New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
The creative role of non-governmental organizations in the population field, statement made at the International Consultation of Non-Governmental Organizations on Population Issues, Geneva, Switzerland, 13 September 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 6 p. (Speech Series No. 96)Since the UNFPA became operational in 1969, it has worked with and funded more non-governmental organization (NGO) programs than any other agency in the UN system for a comparable period of time. 10-15% of UNFPA's annual budget is used to assist national and international population activities in family planning, information, education, training and communications programs, research studies and surveys. It was the pioneering efforts of NGO's which eventually led to the development of global awareness of population problems and later governmental programs were patterned on the extensive research and studies on population issues conducted by NGO's. In the past 10 years there have been a number of important demographic changes which will continue and which will cause problems in the future. These include the enormous increase in the number of older people; the rapid urbanization in developing countries; rural and small city migration to urban areas; and the international migration of workers. More attention needs to be paid to the positive implications of population growth. It is hoped that NGO's will actively participate in the coming World Population Conference.
Population trends and issues, statement made at the Meeting of the Netherlands Association of Demographers, The Hague, Netherlands, 14 September, 1983.
New York, N.Y., UNFPA, . 7 p. (Speech Series No. 97)If world population is to stabilize by the end of the next century, it will be necessary to strengthen and sustain the downward trend in fertility already begun in most developing countries. Whatever reductions have been achieved in the rate of population growth are the result of fertility declines accompanied by moderate reduction in mortality. Added to the challenge of high birth, mortality and growth rates in some parts of the developing world, a number of issues of equal importance have emerged since the United Nations World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974. There are, for example, issues relating to aging, international and local migration, including urbanization, and the interrelationships between population, resources, the environment and development. Most of these problems have national as well as international dimensions. The Government of the Netherlands has taken important steps to alleviate some of these problems. For example, it considers that social and economic policy should constantly take in requirements resulting from changes in the age structure of the population. The Government has been a major donor to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) since its inception and has contributed nearly US$105 million in 14 years.
[Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Pittsburgh, April 14-16. 35 p.In 1950 fertility levels in the developing countries were high. The crude birthrates (CBRs) were about 47 in Africa, 42 in the Americas, and 41 in Asia and the Pacific. In Asia and the Pacific, several countries are thought to have had fertility rates between 35-40/1000. In Latin America, Argentina, Cuba, and Uruguay the birthrates were less than 30/1000 and between 30-35/1000 in Chile and Jamaica. No country in Africa was reported to have had a rate below 40 with the sole exception of Gabon which is reported to have had a crude birthrate between 30-35/1000, not only in 1950 but this remained unchanged up to 1980. By 1965 there had been a little change in several countries but virtually no change at all in Africa. During the next 15 years the situation changed markedly in Asia and the Pacific with the crude birthrate decreasing by almost 1/4, from a little more than 39 to 30. There was a similar but slightly smaller decrease in Latin America, a decrease from 40-32, or about 20%. In Africa there was virtually no change. Many scholars and laypersons concerned about the rapid rate of population growth have expressed the view that population policies have been slow to develop. By 1980, 39 countries with a population of 2.6 billion or 78% of the population of all developing countries had adopted official policies to reduce the population growth rate. Many of these policies are without substance but a fairly large number of the countries have developed substantial population programs, as well as policies to reduce rates of population growth. There were an additional 33 countries with a total population of 554 million that had no demographic policy to reduce rates of population growth but nonetheless gave officcial support to family planning activities. Prior to 1960 only India had a population policy to reduce rates of population growth but during the 1960-64 period 4 additional countries in Asia and the Pacific adopted such policies, namely China, Korea, Pakistan, and Fiji. It was not until 1965 and after that African and Latin American countries adopted such policies. The annual number of family planning acceptors in large scale programs increased from a few tens of thousands around 1960 to about 2 1/2 million in 1965 and to approximately 25 million in 1980, excluding China, for which quantitative data are less readily available. In some countries contraceptive prevalence rates remain low after many years of a national family planning program, e.g., Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, and Bangladesh. Various macroeconomic studies, using countries as units, have found that both socioeconomic and population programs have important effects on fertility decline. UN projections (medium variant) to 2000-2005 assume a continuation of fertility decline in less developed countries (LDCs), including the start of decline in black Africa and Arab countries. Even if the UN projections are consistent with the realities of the years ahead, there is enormous population growth ahead.
Population and the future: from Bucharest (1974) to Mexico City (1984). Summary report: Second Annual Briefing, United Nations Fund for Population Activities for Non-Governmental Organizations in New York, 16 February 1983.
New York, United Nations, Non-Governmental Liaison Service, . 32 p.This Summary Report provides the substance of the February 16 Briefing, designed to inform nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of population problems and progress worldwide, to provide information on the International Conference on Population 1984, and to discuss effective support of the Conference. It provides basic information and can be used as a background paper complementing preparations for the Conference and outlining the issues which will be addressed by the Conference itself. The report includes a discussion of the world population situation -- both problems and progress -- by Rafael Salas, Under Secregary General of the UN, and a review of issues and outcome of the 1984 International Conference on Population by Leon Tabah, Director, UN Population Division. It covers presentations on the major themes of fertility and the family; population distribution, migration, and development; population, resources, environment, and development; and mortality and health policy. The report also includes discussion of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) policies and programs, the Congo's role, and existing challenges for NGOs. Noting that the global population is likely to reach 6.1 billion by the year 2000, Rafael Salas suggests that there is much room for productive collaboration between NGOs and governments. He suggests that the singular objective is to maintain the attention, focus, and commitment of developing and developed countries to the population program. Focusing on the International Conference on Population 1984, Leon Tabah relates that this conference should be the natural continuation of Bucharest but with less ideology and more improved implementation, a conference committed to action.
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 1983 May; 467:62-77.Large Scale refugee flows, typically koccurring in developing countries, inspire the formation of transnational networks that pose new issues of policy Making, direction, execution, and legitimacy. Institutional responses to the presence of refugees, often in the poorest and least well-administered areas on earth, comprise reactions at the local, national, and transnational levels, including both intergovernmental and voluntary organizations. These responses produce ad hoc organizational entities to deal with unanticipated difficulties. Even after news of a refugee flow is spread, governments can still adopt an isolating policy but more likely will be forced to turn to such transnational networks for help. In a widely felt political disturbance, the positions of the great powers will have a substantial conditioning effect on the handling of refugees. Whatever the pattern of response, refugees tend to involve the asylum state in transnational networks in order to cope with local repercussions as well as care of those in flight. Later, the emphasis may well shift from emergency to diplomatic networks is shifting and unpredictable, conditioned by specific circumstances. Nevertheless, the High Commissioner for Refugees and other intergovenmental bodies serve as natural nuclei for expansion. More integrated modes of organization currently are of doubtful utility. (author's)
Technical co-operation in population programmes in Africa since the 1974 World Population Conference.
[Unpublished] 1983 Sep. 16. 5 p. (E/ECA/POP/7 International Conference on Population, 1984; Papers)This paper reviews the technical assistance provided to African countries since the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania by the United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD) in the fields of demographic training, data evaluation and analysis, and incorporation of population factors in development planning. The paper focuses on the substantive aspects of the technical cooperation provided to African countries in these areas from 1974 to 1983. The cooperation was provided essentially in response to the expressed needs and requests of member states for developing their national capabilities to undertake data analysis and evaluation and to use the results to formulate appropriate population policies and implement them as part of national development programs. The ultimate goal is to improve national capacities in these fields so that countries may achieve self reliance in handling their population programs. Almost without exception, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been the source of funding for DTCD executed population projects. In the area of demographic training, the training needs, especially from the priority countries in Africa, have yet to be fully met and in all countries there still remains the need for short term training in special demographic expertise and an exchange of interregional experiences. In the area of demographic evaluation and analysis, greater support is required for evaluation and analysis of relevant demographic phenomena, e.g. internal and international migration and the utilization of demographic software packages. Technical cooperation is needed in the areas of population and development so that emerging phenomena (e.g. population growth, especially in urban areas) can be dealt with by evolving suitable population policies and implanting these within overall national development plans. The world financial crisis has hindered the increasing trend in technical cooperation in demographic training, analysis and overall population policies and it is hoped that this situation will improve.
REVIEWS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 1983 May-Jun; 5(3):452-9.This summary of the worldwide impact of measles discusses epidemiology, reported incidence, clinical severity, community attitudes toward measles, and the impact of immunization programs on measles. Measles, 1 of the most ubiquitous and persistent of human viruses, occurs regularly everywhere in the world except in very remote and isolated areas. Strains of measles virus from different counties are indistinguishable, and serum antibodies from diverse population have identical specificity. Yet, the epidemic pattern, average age at infection, and mortality vary considerably from 1 area to another and provide a contrasting picture between the developing and the developed countries. In the populous areas of the world, measles causes epidemics every 2-5 years, but in the rapidly expanding urban conglomerations in the developing world, the continuous immigration from the rural population provides a constant influx of susceptible individuals and, in turn, a sustained occurrence of measles and unclear epidemic curves. In the economically advanced nations, measles epidemics are closely tied to the school year, building up to a peak in the late spring and ceasing abruptly after the summer recess begins. Maternal antibody usually confers protection against measles to infants during the 1st few months of life. The total number of cases of measles reported to WHO for 1980 is 2.9 million. Considering that in the developing world alone almost 100 million infants are born yearly, that less than 20% of them are immunized against measles, and that various studies indicate that almost all nonimmunized children get measles, less than 3 million cases of measles in 1980 is a gross underestimate. There was adecrease in the global number of reported cases of measles during the 1979-80 period due primarily to the reduction in the number of cases in the African continent and, to a lesser extent, in Europe. It is premature to conclude that such a reported decline is real and that it reflects the beginning of a longterm trend. The contrast between the developed and the developing worlds is most marked in relation to the severity and outcome of measles. Case fatality rates of more than 20% have been reported from West Africa. It has been estimated that 900,000 deaths occur yearly in the developing world because of measles, but data available to WHO indicate that the global case fatality rate in the developing world approaches 2% (in contrast to 2/10,000 cases in the US), and the actal mortality may be greater than 1.5 million deaths per year. The advent of WHO's Expanded Program on Immunization has brought about an awareness of the measles problem. Whenever and wherever measles vaccine has been used effectively on a large scale, a marked reduction in the number of cases has been recorded.