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ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, 1987. xi, 826 p. (Population Programmes and Projects, Volume 2.)This inventory of population projects in developing countries shows, at a glance, by country, internationally assisted projects funded, inaugurated, or being carried out by multilateral, bilateral, and other agencies and organizations during the reporting period (January 1985 to June 1986). Demographic estimates such as population by sex and by age group, age indicators, urban-rural population, and population density refer to the year end 1985; other estimates such as average annual change, rate of annual change, fertility, and mortality are 5-year averages for 1985-1990. The dollar value of projects or total country programs is given where figures are available. Chapter I provides information on country programs, and Chapter II deals with regional, interregional, and global programs. Chapter III lists sources, including published sources of information and and addresses for additional information and for keeping up-to-date on population activities. Each country profile includes a statement by Head of State of Government on their government's views regarding population, and views of the government on other population matters.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
New York, Pergamon, 1984. 240 p.This book, a sequel to "International Population Assistance: The First Decade," characterizes the work of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) with the developing countries up to 1984, relating these experiences to the issues before the 1984 International Conference on Population. The 1st chapter provides an overview of the significant developments in population up to the 1984 International Conference on Population. The next 7 chapters discuss the following main issues before the Conference and generally reflect the arrangement of the document to be brought before the Conference concerning recommendations for further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action: fertility, status of women and the family; morbidity and mortality; population distribution, internal and international migration; population growth and structure; promotion of knowledge and implementation of policies and programs; international cooperation and the role of UNFPA; and the year 2000 and beyond. Within each of these chapters, excerpts have been arranged in an analytic order, with the aim of facilitating the flow of arguments presented. Appendices contain the 5 "State of World Population Reports" issued from 1980-84 and 7 Rafael M. Salas statements which, primarily due to their focus on the population issues of particular importance to the major regions of the globe, are reproduced in their entirety. This volume reflects the process of population policymaking of the UNFPA with the developing countries in support of their population programs in the past 15 years. These policies were sanctioned and validated, both nationally by the countries themselves and globally by UN deliberative bodies and conferences. The experience of UNFPA in policy formulation indicates that an effective population policy must have its proper time perspective and must be scientifically determined in its component elements, normative and applicable at different levels, multisectoral in its emphasis, and measurable in its impact and consequenes.
Report of the Second African Population Conference: organized in co-operation with the United Nations Fund for Population Activities and the government of the United Republic of Tanzania (Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania, 9-13 January 1984)
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA], 1984. 20, ; 158, 29 p. (no. ST/ECA/POP/1)This two-volume work contains the proceedings of the Second African Population Conference, held in Arusha, Tanzania, in January 1984. Vol. 1 includes summaries of the inaugural address and of the discussions at earlier meetings, a summary of the country statements submitted, and the text of the Kilimanjaro Programme of Action for African Population and Self-Reliant Development. Vol. 2 includes papers on the demographic situation in Africa and future population trends; the relationship between population and development; spatial distribution; family health, welfare, and family planning; the role of women in development; UNFPA assistance programs in Africa; and priorities in population programs in Africa.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 59 p. (Report No. 53)An estimated 53.7 million people lived in Vietnam in 1980. The government wants to lower the rate of population growth as soon as possible. Its short-term goal, to lower the annual rate to 1.7% by 1986, is to be met through the national family planning program. The government wishes to get more married women in the reproductive age group to use contraception--from 20% at present to 50-65% by the year 2000. 2nd major population goal is resettle 10 million people from the northern to the southern part of the country by the end of the century. Efforts should be made to improve the vital registration system. Population research is concentrated in the State Planning Committee, the research arms of various ministries, and in Government research agencies. This research needs to be strengthened. Overseas training and study tours should be provided for strengthening staff capabilities. Assistance should be provided for the government's primary health care approach with emphasis on community participation. Urgently needed are essential drugs and contraceptives--especially condoms. A factory for testing and packing condoms should be built, once the quality of locally produced latex improves. The Mission recommends that a systematic manpower development analysis be undertaken to aid the government in determining training needs of health personnel; their curricula should include more population and family planning content, and motivational and communication techniques. An audiovisual (AV) center was established in Hanoi; however the information, education, and communication (IEC) program needs strenthening. Aid should also be given for low-cost media production in the AV subcenter being started in Ho Chi Minh City. Perservice training of primary and secondary teachers will include population education. Women's activities should be promoted.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 53 p. (Report No. 54)There is no comprehensive national population policy in Kiribati. Migration from the outer islands to urban South Tarawa is a problem. Overcrowding on the island will soon be severe. The National Development Plan aims at maintaining a balance between population and natural resources. The Mission proposes aid for population-related projects. The Central Planning Office coordinates the development activities. A National Population and Development Co-Ordinating Committee has been established. The government needs more staff to deal with overcrowding. The country's data base needs to be strengthened and upgraded. The Mission recommends that 1) another census be carried out in 1983; and 2) an inventory of research relating to Kiribati be maintained. The government has made efforts to provide an adequate health services network. The Mission recommends that a consultant be provided who specialized in health education and community participation. The family planning program has been diminishing in effectiveness. The Mission recommends support for: 1) a 3-year In-School Population Education Project; and 2) a project to focus on using communications programs to increase outer-island participation in population-related and development activites. The government has set up a Women's Interest Section to coordinate and develop policies and programs. The Mission recommends support for a 3-year project to aid the National Women's Federation. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities Youth Training Program should be supported. Protestants and Roman Catholics have promoted family life, health education and community-based activities.
Population and the future: from Bucharest (1974) to Mexico City (1984). Summary report: Second Annual Briefing, United Nations Fund for Population Activities for Non-Governmental Organizations in New York, 16 February 1983.
New York, United Nations, Non-Governmental Liaison Service, . 32 p.This Summary Report provides the substance of the February 16 Briefing, designed to inform nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) of population problems and progress worldwide, to provide information on the International Conference on Population 1984, and to discuss effective support of the Conference. It provides basic information and can be used as a background paper complementing preparations for the Conference and outlining the issues which will be addressed by the Conference itself. The report includes a discussion of the world population situation -- both problems and progress -- by Rafael Salas, Under Secregary General of the UN, and a review of issues and outcome of the 1984 International Conference on Population by Leon Tabah, Director, UN Population Division. It covers presentations on the major themes of fertility and the family; population distribution, migration, and development; population, resources, environment, and development; and mortality and health policy. The report also includes discussion of UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) policies and programs, the Congo's role, and existing challenges for NGOs. Noting that the global population is likely to reach 6.1 billion by the year 2000, Rafael Salas suggests that there is much room for productive collaboration between NGOs and governments. He suggests that the singular objective is to maintain the attention, focus, and commitment of developing and developed countries to the population program. Focusing on the International Conference on Population 1984, Leon Tabah relates that this conference should be the natural continuation of Bucharest but with less ideology and more improved implementation, a conference committed to action.