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[Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
[Unpublished] 1989 Nov. 88 p. (A/E/BD/4/Sec. I)International population assistance defines the population aspects of development as the causes, conditions and consequences of changes in fertility, mortality and mobility as they affect developmental prospects and human welfare. Key elements in the policy-making process in the field of population are research, dissemination, policy formulation, policy planning, policy implementation and evaluation, policy analysis and data collection. The challenge is identifying where and how the population policy process needs are to be strengthened or modified to fit future needs. Political and substantive factors are the main causes for the lack of population policies in many developing countries; population assistance can begin to contribute to economic development by reaching the poorest classes of society; more focus has to be put on the interrelationship between gender roles and demographic behavior; more research is needed on the costs versus benefits of changing mortality, fertility and migration among the poor or will the focus remain on urban dwellers; more research and policy analysis are needed on the consequences of migration; there is the need for greater focus on integrating population with development and establishing appropriate institutional arrangements; data collection, tabulation and analysis will need to become more gender-specific and aimed at special target groups such as women, youth and the elderly. Data will need to be disaggregated for population subgroups and then integrated between different social and economic sectors. The availability of integrated statistics will be fundamental in the formulation and evaluation of programs for these special groups. When the policy development process is based on scientific data, research and analysis, there must be strong political commitment, institutional support, budgetary provision and a willingness to use the findings on an on-going basis.
[Unpublished] 1985. 78 p.A Population/Family Health Assessment was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Madagascar (GDRN) to review population and family planning activities and to make general recommendations for improvement, including the type of US Agency for International Development (USAID) population assistance that should be provided. Despite the fact that Madagascar's population of approximately 9 million is growing at a rate of 2.8% annually, meaning the population will double in less than 25 years, there is no official population policy. Yet, it is significant that the reduction of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity has been identified as an explicit goal in the health sector, and the country's actions long have reflected an attitude of acceptance and support of family planning. The private family planning association is recognized as a nongovernmental organization, which provides clinical and contraceptive services throughout Madagascar. The public health system offers no family planning services. Although the French law of 1920 forbidding the sale and use of contraceptives has not been rescinded, it is not enforced. The private family planning association now provides contraceptive services in 40 Ministry of Health facilities at the request of public health physicians, and the government has approved the participation of 35 medical and paramedical personnel in training courses as well as the installation of laparoscopic equipment in 8 medical facilities. Several other organizations provide child spacing services. Despite the efforts being made, the availability of contraceptive services remains limited, and contraceptive prevalence was estimated at 1% of women aged 15-49 in 1982. Several obstacles impede accessibility to contraceptive services and expansion of family planning programs, including a culture which favors large families, the strong influence of the Catholic Church, and a limited number of medical centers providing family planning services. Further, communication between the Office of Population and the Ministry of Health has not been the most favorable for the development of effective programs either area, but the recent naming of a physician to the position of Director of Population may facilitate closer collaboration. The recommendations made outline a general strategy for the initiation of population activities in the shortterm.
POPULI. 1987; 14(1):39-47.This reevaluation of the demographic transition theory of Notestein (1945) presents a view of developing countries trapped in the 2nd stage and unable to achieve the economic and social gains counted upon to reduce births. Among the half of the world's countries that have not yet reached the demographic transition, 5 regions have growth rates of 2.2% or more yearly, or 20-fold per century, a are unable to prevent declining living standards and deteriorating ecological life-support systems. These are Southeast Asia (except Japan, China, and possibly Thailand and Indonesia), Latin America, the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and Africa. In these countries, death rates will begin to rise, reversing the process of demographic transition. Examples of this phenomenon include 7 countries in West Africa with deteriorating agricultural and fuelwood yields, such that a World Bank study concluded that desertification is inevitable without a technological breakthrough. The elements of the life-support system, food, water, fuelwood and forests, are interrelated, and their failure will create "ecological refugees." When economic resources of jobs and income are added to biological resources, conflict and social instability will further hamper implementation of sound population policies. For the 1st time, governments are faced with the task of reducing birth rates as living conditions deteriorate, a challenge requiring new approaches. There are examples, such as China, where broad-based, inexpensive health care systems and well-designed family planning programs have encouraged small families without widespread economic gains. The most needed ingredient is leadership.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 7 p.The Second African Conference on Population and Development, held early in 1984, marked a decisive stage in African thinking about population. During the 12 years between the 1972 and 1984 conferences, African nations learned in detail about their demographic situation and confronted the ever-increasing costs of development and their lack of physical and administrative infrastructure. In the midst of these and other concerns came the drought, which for over a decade in some parts of the continent has reduced rainfall, dried up rivers, lakes, and wells, and forced millions into flight. It is in this context that population became an African issue. African countries on the whole are not densely populated nor do they yet have very large concentrations in cities. Yet, population emerges as more than a matter of numbers, and there are features which give governments cause for concern. First, the population of most African countries, and of the continent as a whole, is growing rapidly and could double itself in under 25 years. Second, mortality among mothers and children is very high. Third, life expectancy generally is lower in African than in other developing countries. Fourth, urbanization is sufficiently rapid to put more than half of Africa in cities by 2020 and 1/3 of the urban population in giant cities of over 4 million people. The 1984 conference recognized these and other uncomfortable facts and their implications for the future, and agreed that attention to population was an essential part of African development strategy. Strategy is considered in terms of the 4 issues mentioned. First, high rates of growth are not in themselves a problem, but they mean a very high proportion of dependent children in the population. About 45% of Africa's population is under age 14 and will remain at this level until the early years of the 21st century. Meeting the needs of so many children and young adults taxes the ability of every African nation, regardless of how rapidly its economy may expand. Understanding this, a growing number of African leaders call for slower growth in order to achieve a balance in the future between population and the resources available for development. Reducing mortality requires innovation. Among the new approaches to health care are the use of traditional medicine and practitioners in conjunction with modern science and the mobilization of community groups for preventive care and self-help. Health care and better nutrition also are keys to improvement in life expectancy and call for ingenuity and innovation on the part of African governments and communities. Part of the solution to the impending urban crisis must be attention to the viability of the rural sector. The role of the UN Fund for Population Activities in addressing the identified issues is reviewed.
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
[Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.
Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the strengthening of the civil registration and vital statistics system in Sierra Leone: project SIL/79/P03.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. x, 28 p.While Sierra Leone has a long tradition in registering births and deaths, dating back to the mid-1880s, registration has remained low. In order to improve registration coverage, the original project formulated in 1979 by the government included 3 immediate objectives; the strengthening of the civil registration system in a model area, the experimentation with field organization procedures most suitable for the registration system in the country, and the production of estimates of demographic variables in the model area and in the rest of the country. In the Tripartite Project Review held in 1981, 2 additional objectives were added to the project; the unification of the civil registration laws, including the provision of a uniform and universal legislation for the entire country, and the reorganization and training of the registration hierarchy. While the strategy to use a model area for the development was a sound one, without the law being enacted, new forms and registers could not be printed and thus few of the planned activities could take place. Of the 5 immediate objectives of the project, only one has been achieved--the passage of the Act of 1983 which provides the legal framework for registration to take place nationwide under the new system. Little progress has been made in the achievement of the 4 remaining objectives. The Evaluation Mission made recommendations concerning the need to reformulate the extension document early in 1985, taking into account the results of the Evaluation Mission, the concentration of government action on registration in the non-model areas, and thereafter the gradual expansion of registration to adjacent areas where more complete coverage is possible.
New York, UNFPA, 1985 Mar. viii, 68 p. (Report No. 70)The UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) is in the process of an extensive programming exercise intended to respond to the needs for population assistance in a priority group of developing countries. This report presents the findings of the Mission that visited Burma from May 9-25, 1984. The report includes dat a highlights; a summary and recommendations for population assistance; the national setting; population policies and population and development planning; data collection, analysis, and demographic training and research;maternal and child health, including child spacing; population education in the in-school and out-of school sectors; women, population, and development; and external assistance -- multilateral assistance, bilateral assistance, and assistance from nongovernmental organizations. In Burma overpopulation is not a concern. Population activities are directed, rather, toward the improvement of health standards. The main thrust of government efforts is to reduce infant mortality and morbidity, promote child spacing, improve medical services in rural areas, and generally raise standards of public health. In drafting its recommendations, whether referring to current programs and activities or to new areas of concern, the Mission was guided by the government's policies and objectives in the field of population. Recommendations include: senior planning officials should visit population and development planning offices in other countries to observe program organization and implementation; continued support should be given to ensure the successful completion of the tabulation and analysis of the 1983 Population Census; the People's Health Plan II (1982-86) should be strengthened through the training of health personnel at all levels, in in-school, in-service, and out-of-country programs; and the need exists to establish a program of orientation to train administrators, trainers/educators, and key field staff of the Department of Health and the Department of Cooperatives in various aspects of population communication work.
[Statement by Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Minister of coordination of the Ministry of Planning, Bolivia] Discurso pronunciado por S.E. el Lic. Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Ministro de Planeamiento de la Republica de Bolivia, en la Conferencia Internacional de Poblacion..
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 7 p.Latin America faces a series of problems and hurdles which condition the way in which the issue of population/development is approached. The most obvious problems are the required changes in the socioeconomic and political structures; the state of the social sciences in the population field; the fragmentation of efforts among scientists, academicians, technicians and politicians dealing with this area; and the lack of legitimacy accorded to this topic. The chief hurdle facing most countries in the region and Bolivia in particular, is that of wide social differences. This disparity will worsen unless profound social changes are carried out. Bolivia has spent 3 yeras developing a consistent population policy within a development framework. This country offers a peculiar demographic situation: while the average fertility rate is 6.5 children/woman, this is offset by a high infant mortality rate (213/1000 children between the ages of 0 and 2), and a net population loss from out-migration. Bolivia is therefore underpopulated at the same time that the poorest women have a high fertility rate. The country's population policy thus seeks to act not only on the key demographic variables, but also on those social and economic variables which determine its poverty and underdevelopment. To this end, a National Population Council is being established with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities and other entities. The speaker regrets the imposition of conditions on the funds granted by the UNFPA. These restrictions fall primarily on the poor and less-developed countries.
New York, Pergamon, 1984. 240 p.This book, a sequel to "International Population Assistance: The First Decade," characterizes the work of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) with the developing countries up to 1984, relating these experiences to the issues before the 1984 International Conference on Population. The 1st chapter provides an overview of the significant developments in population up to the 1984 International Conference on Population. The next 7 chapters discuss the following main issues before the Conference and generally reflect the arrangement of the document to be brought before the Conference concerning recommendations for further implementation of the World Population Plan of Action: fertility, status of women and the family; morbidity and mortality; population distribution, internal and international migration; population growth and structure; promotion of knowledge and implementation of policies and programs; international cooperation and the role of UNFPA; and the year 2000 and beyond. Within each of these chapters, excerpts have been arranged in an analytic order, with the aim of facilitating the flow of arguments presented. Appendices contain the 5 "State of World Population Reports" issued from 1980-84 and 7 Rafael M. Salas statements which, primarily due to their focus on the population issues of particular importance to the major regions of the globe, are reproduced in their entirety. This volume reflects the process of population policymaking of the UNFPA with the developing countries in support of their population programs in the past 15 years. These policies were sanctioned and validated, both nationally by the countries themselves and globally by UN deliberative bodies and conferences. The experience of UNFPA in policy formulation indicates that an effective population policy must have its proper time perspective and must be scientifically determined in its component elements, normative and applicable at different levels, multisectoral in its emphasis, and measurable in its impact and consequenes.