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[Statement by Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Minister of coordination of the Ministry of Planning, Bolivia] Discurso pronunciado por S.E. el Lic. Rene Fernandez-Araoz, Vice-Ministro de Planeamiento de la Republica de Bolivia, en la Conferencia Internacional de Poblacion..
[Unpublished] 1984. Presented at the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 7 p.Latin America faces a series of problems and hurdles which condition the way in which the issue of population/development is approached. The most obvious problems are the required changes in the socioeconomic and political structures; the state of the social sciences in the population field; the fragmentation of efforts among scientists, academicians, technicians and politicians dealing with this area; and the lack of legitimacy accorded to this topic. The chief hurdle facing most countries in the region and Bolivia in particular, is that of wide social differences. This disparity will worsen unless profound social changes are carried out. Bolivia has spent 3 yeras developing a consistent population policy within a development framework. This country offers a peculiar demographic situation: while the average fertility rate is 6.5 children/woman, this is offset by a high infant mortality rate (213/1000 children between the ages of 0 and 2), and a net population loss from out-migration. Bolivia is therefore underpopulated at the same time that the poorest women have a high fertility rate. The country's population policy thus seeks to act not only on the key demographic variables, but also on those social and economic variables which determine its poverty and underdevelopment. To this end, a National Population Council is being established with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities and other entities. The speaker regrets the imposition of conditions on the funds granted by the UNFPA. These restrictions fall primarily on the poor and less-developed countries.
Revista de Prensa. 1978 Nov; 12-13.This article discusses changes occurring in population since the foundation of UNFPA in 1969. The birthrate has decreased by 15% in about 3 or 4 dozen countries that represent 2/3 of the developing world. Most changes have occurred in small countries. In the mid 70's the life expectancy rate increased from 42 to 54 years in the developing countries and from 65 to 71 years in the developed countries. Latin America has a life expectancy median of 62 yrs. Asia of 56, and Africa of 45 yrs. In the developing countries infant mortality continues to be the determinant factor of mortality. A decrease in mortality linked with improvements in health, educational services, women status, and a more equalitarian distribution of income has been reported. Nevertheless, malaria has again become an important sanitary problem particulary in Asia and Africa. In India, malaria cases increased from 40,000 in 1966 to 143,000 in 1976. Nutrition and health are also related to mortality. Presently, countries try to conserve gains from good years to prevent difficulties in poor years. It is estimated that during the next 2 decades cities will grow to magnitudes unknown to urbanists. In the year 2000 Tokyo may have 26 million inhabitants, Gran Cairo 16.3, Lagos 9.4, and Mexico 31.6. The number of young adults has increased form 488 million in 1955 to 740 million in 1975. It is expected that in developed countries the will increase from 548 million to 688 million in 1985. Strategies of internal and international migration, measures to open up jobs for the young, and budget increases in population programs in Nepal, Costa Rica, and Mexico in the 1970's are discussed. International cooperation to help developing countries to achieve their own goals in matters of population, thus consolidating the gains of the past years, is recommended.
[Population and the new international economic order] La poblacion y el neuvo orden economico internacional.
Medicina y Desarrollo. 1977 May; 13-16.The problem of population received little attention in the meetings on the New International Economic Order. Historically, governments have equated population increases with prosperity. Recently, governments have accepted the necessity to reduce population for the succcess of social and economic programs. This article points out the advances made by several countries in the areas of health, nutrition, education, contraception, legal aspects, planning, and research methods since 1972. The collaboration of different governments with UNFPA and their solicitation of help from this organization are regarded as further evidence of the advances made. Difficulties for the acceptance of family planning in developing countries such as social sanctions, lack of demographic data, and the role of UNFPA in the amelioration of these problems are discussed. Since population politics are seen as long-term strategical weapons, an intensification of persuasive methods in all countries and an increase in aid to underdeveloped countries are recommended.