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Development. 1993; (1):6-7.The Executive Summary of the meeting of UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), held in 1991, highlights development priorities, population movements, sovereignty, special groups such as women and children, and long term solutions for a balanced pattern of development. The North South Roundtable was organized as part of the commemoration of the 40th anniversary of UNHCR. The theme was movements of people and challenges for policy makers. The roundtable group was comprised of 35 people from a variety of international, national, educational, and special interest organizations. There was a review of 1) mass movements (problems and prospects), 2) emergencies and displacements (solutions), and 3) global opportunities and international migration and the achievement of a more balanced world economy. The development priorities in the 20th century are coping with the growing inequality between living standards of the northern industrialized countries and the southern developing countries. This disequilibrium creates a pressure for migration, which is made worse by the displacements resulting from war and civil unrest. The 1990s, as a decade of displacement, will reflect increasingly greater mass movements of people. The possibility for peace-keeping and peace-making efforts is greater as a result of the end of the Cold War. New international policies should promote voluntary repatriation and integration, encourage prevention and preparedness for emergencies, deal with less visible human emergencies, reach all displaced people, and encourage a more coherent approach to migration. National governments must "acquiesce" to international organizations which are involved in humanitarian efforts. Effective expenditure can help dependents repatriate. Women and children, as special groups which comprise 75-80% of refugees and displaced persons, should be given special attention. A consensus was reached on human development as a primary focus. The World Summit for Children and the International Development Strategy for the Fourth Development Decade agreed on specific goals. Foreign aid should be directed to removing the gaps that exist in welfare and living standards. Migration needs to be discussed globally. The role of UNHCR in stimulating dialogue was identified. Better coordination of international action is needed. Nongovernmental organizations must be engaged in cooperative effort.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.