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New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Nov.  p.FGM/C is a fundamental violation of human rights. In the absence of any perceived medical necessity, it subjects girls and women to health risks and has life-threatening consequences. Among those rights violated are the right to the highest attainable standard of health and to bodily integrity. Furthermore, it could be argued that girls (under 18) cannot be said to give informed consent to such a potentially damaging practice as FGM/C. FGM/C is, further, an extreme example of discrimination based on sex. The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women defines discrimination as "any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field." Used as a way to control women's sexuality, FGM/C is a main manifestation of gender inequality and discrimination "related to the historical suppression and subjugation of women," denying girls and women the full enjoyment of their rights and liberties. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Feb. 32 p.The objective of this study is to present available empirical evidence obtained through household surveys in order to estimate levels of registration and to understand which factors are associated with children who obtain a birth certificate, and thus realize their right to a name and legal identity. The paper presents a global assessment of birth registration levels, differentials in birth registration rates according to socio-economic and demographic variables, proximate variables and caretaker knowledge, as well as a multivariate analysis. Statistical associations between indicators regarding health, education and poverty can reveal potential linkages in programming to promote the registration of children. By analysing levels of birth registration in the context of other health, education and poverty indicators, the study points to opportunities to integrate advocacy and behaviour change campaigns for birth registration with early childhood care and immunization. By linking birth registration to early childhood programmes, a legal hurdle can become a helpful referral to promote improved health, education and protection for disadvantaged children and their caretakers. (excerpt)
[Immunization coverage survey: empirical assessment of the cluster sampling method proposed by the World Health Organization] Inquérito de cobertura vacinal: avaliação empírica da técnica de amostragem por conglomerados proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública / Pan American Journal of Public Health. 2005; 17(3):184-190.Objective: To analyze the representation of the sample and the precision of estimates obtained using the conglomerate methodology (30 of 7) proposed by the World Health Organization via their application to inquiries of vaccination coverage realized in Diadema and São Caetano do Sul, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000. Methods: The representation of the samples was evaluated by comparing the tax-paying sector, sorted by their inquiries, to other sectors in two municipalities in terms of socio-demographic characteristrics (age structure of the population, schooling, proportion of families with women at the head, monthly income of the head of the family, and sanitation conditions). The precision of the estimates of coverage by the vaccines in the basic vaccination scheme (BCG; diphtheria, Pertussis and tetanus or DPT, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B; measles, mumps, and rubella or viral triplice) was analyzed through the measurements of the effect of the design and range of the confidence intervals. Precision was considered satisfactory when the effect of the design was less than 2.0 and the range of the confidence intervals was less than 10%. Results: In both municipalities, the comparison between the sorted and non-sorted sectors showed similar distributions for the socioeconomic and demographic variables. With regard to the precision of the estimates, the effect of the design was less than 2.0 for all the vaccines as much as in Diadema as in São Caetano do Sul. In Diadema, the confidence intervals were less than 10% for all vaccines, except viral triplice. In São Caetano do Sul, as the included children were a bit more than 10% for the vaccine against poliomyelitis (10.3%), for the vaccine against the hepatitis B virus (11.8%), for the vaccine against measles (10.4%), for the viral triplice (12.9%) and for the complete scheme (11.2%). Conclusion: The inquiry method of vaccination coverage proposed by the World Health Organization is capable of providing representative facts about the population since the methodological proceedings of selection are followed rigorously in the countryside. (author's)
Educational aspects of developmental programmes leading to lower fertility: the renewal of education as a population action programme.
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Interregional Workshop on Population Action Programmes, Manila, Philippines, November 15-25, 1972. 11 p. (ESA/P/AC.1/15)Population is not an isolated variable in the development process; it is one of the many socio-economic variables affecting developing countries in their efforts to attain a higher quality of life. Education must respond to the total socio-economic situation if it is to be expected to contribute to the promotion of change. In order to respond effectively, education must be integrally and relevantly renovated. This integral renovation implies innovation in educational planning and administration, and in curriculum contents and teaching and learning methodologies. Within this framework of renovation population-related issues become important components which must be included in educational activities because of their present and future effect on individuals and society. Population education will then be one of the obvious products of an integral and relevant educational response to the challenges proposed by the process of change. (excerpt)
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2001 Nov; 7(6):956-965.The infant mortality rates for 1978 and 1998 of 16 Arab countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region were studied. The data were extracted from World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund sources. The impact of demographic, social, perinatal care and economic indicators on infant mortality rates in 1998 was studied using Spearman rank coefficient to detect significant correlations. All countries, except Iraq, showed a sharp decline in rates from 1978 to 1998. Infant mortality rates were directly related to population size, annual total births, low birth weight and maternal mortality ratios. Also, infant mortality rates were inversely related to literacy status of both sexes, annual gross national product per capita and access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation facilities. (author's)
Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
[Addis Ababa, Ethiopia], United Nations, Economic Commission for Africa, 1994 Dec. xvii, 77 p.This report provides socioeconomic statistical data for 53 African countries including totals by region, on vital statistics, demographic and socioeconomic indicators, and land use and food production. The data pertain to 1990 and 1993 on a regular basis and occasionally other decennial or quinquennial periods back to 1970. Demographic and social indicators include mid year population, female population, age and sex ratio, annual growth rates of total and urban population, age dependency ratio, total fertility and reproduction rates, crude birth and death rates, economic dependency ratio, economic activity by sex and sector, activity rates, survival indicators, infant mortality rate, health care indicators, access to social and health facilities, illiteracy, and school enrollment by level. Economic indicators include gross domestic product (GDP) by activity and expenditure; annual growth rates of GDP; land use and per capita land use; production of agriculture and forestry; agricultural products by broad groups; index number of food production; production and consumption of fertilizers; mineral sector production; value added in manufacturing; consumption of electricity; crude petroleum production; trade of solid fuels; imports and exports by structure, commodity group, and annual growth rates; balance of trade; share of value of world exports and imports; balance of payments; external debt; central government tax revenue; consumer price index; length of asphalt roads; motor vehicles; and shipping and air traffic.
Resource requirements for population and reproductive health programmes. Programme country profiles for population assistance: sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Pacific Islands, Latin America, the Caribbean.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1996. , 165 p. (E/500/1996)This compendium provides socioeconomic and demographic statistical profiles for developing countries in the major regions of the world, estimated annual financial resource requirements for population programs for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, and the stated population policy of each country. About 76% of the almost $5.6 billion available for global population and reproductive health services was provided by developing countries. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) adopted a formula for satisfying future population and family planning needs. Developing countries should contribute about $11.3 billion from domestic resources, an increase of $7 billion over 1995 figures. Donor nations should increase support by $4.4 billion. The needs for family planning are summarized by region. For example, sub-Saharan Africa includes 29 of the least developed countries in the world. The socioeconomic and demographic predictors among African countries indicate a poor quality of life and a lack of sustainable development. Most African countries need to expand services and improve quality in the delivery of reproductive health care. African countries are suffering from resource constraints that will make it difficult to meet their ICPD commitments. Most African countries will need external support on a concessional or grant basis. Countries in Eastern Europe and the Central Asian Republics are expected to have a continuation of slow population growth. The needs of North African, Asian, and South Pacific Island countries with 60% of global population include infrastructure, human resource development, and external support.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . vi, 141 p.This program review and strategy development report for the South Pacific focuses on Fiji, the Cook Islands, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. A brief summary of geographic features and demography precedes the discussion of major regional issues and problems and current strategies for dealing with political commitment and other affairs. The needs assessment and recommendations are prepared by subject area and by specific country. The review of national population programs and the proposed general and sectoral strategies includes a discussion of administrative structures, development, maternal and child health, IEC (information, education, and communication), population education, women in development, roles of nongovernmental organizations, trends in technical cooperation, and the environment, family planning, and population policy formulation. The UN mission recommends that Leadership Orientation Programs be established for 1992-94 in all South Pacific countries. Conferences and exchanges between governments heads need to take place. National population councils should be formed and chaired by Prime Ministers. Law and social policy should reflect encouragement of the practice of family planning as a way of life and promotion of a higher marriage age. Registration of births and deaths needs to be improved. Family planning services, education, and training need to be expanded rapidly. Laws need to be strengthened in ways to benefit women and to protect reproductive rights, maternity leave, property rights for women, and child allowances. Laws must also permit the manufacture, importation, display, and sale of contraceptives. Population activities need to be centrally located. Training must allow for the continuance of personnel in population activities. Other considerations are the improvement in coordination of research needs throughout the region, in policy formulation skills, and in program implementation and evaluation skills. Serious deficiencies are found in the health information systems and regular contraceptive provision. Teenage pregnancy and prostitution are emerging issues. Women's leadership training is a top priority. The UN Population Fund should increase resources and promote integrated programs.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994 viii, 82 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 34)This report describes the present demographic and socioeconomic situation in Ethiopia; the national population program, policies, and supporting international agencies; and recommendations for a population and development strategy. The recommendations involve general proposals on population policy, service delivery, IEC (information, education, and communication), social mobilization, human resource development, resource mobilization and program coordination, sectoral strategies, data collection, training and research, maternal and child health, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, adolescent reproductive health, population IEC, women in development, and environmental and population issues. Currently, programs are implemented in fragmented and uncoordinated ways. The recommendation is to create mechanisms for an integrated approach and an institutional mechanism for mobilizing and coordinating external assistance, such as a UN Population Fund (UNFPA) catalytic role in organizing meetings between government, donor agencies, and nongovernmental groups. There is currently a low level of infrastructural and technological development. The government social development initiatives will be directed to economic recovery and reconstruction. Policy makers have been made aware of the importance of integrating population into development. UNFPA has given its support since 1973; its second country program for 1987-1992 met with obstacles such as political instability, lack of a comprehensive and explicit population policy, lack of a policy-making institution for population programs, insufficient data, lack of culturally-sensitive IEC, and lack of defined policy guidelines. The health infrastructure only meets the needs of about 50% of the population. Awareness of the interrelationships among women, population, and development is insufficient.
Manila, Philippines, WHO, Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 1994 Jun.  p.This document presents four configurations of tabulated socioeconomic and health data from the Regional Office for the Western Pacific of the World Health Organization. Part 1 considers each of the 35 countries in terms of the following indicators: area, population, annual population growth rate, age distribution, urban population, rate of annual natural increase of the population, crude birth rate, crude death rate, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, total fertility rate, socioeconomic indicators for the year 2000, per capital gross national product (GNP) at market prices, rate of growth of per capita GNP, percentage gross domestic product derived from manufacturing industries at constant factor cost, economically active population in primary sector, daily per capita calorie supply, daily per capita protein supply, adult literacy rate, health budget/expenditure, health manpower, 10 leading causes of communicable diseases morbidity, 10 leading causes of death, cases and deaths from 18 selected diseases, proportion of infants fully immunized and pregnant women immunized against tetanus, percent of population served with safe water, percent of population with adequate sanitary facilities, percent of low birth weight infants, and maternal mortality rate. Part 2 presents these same data organized by country or area. Part 3 tabulates data on global and regional indicators used to monitor/evaluate the strategies for "health for all" by the year 2000. These indicators fall under the following headings: mortality trends, nutritional status of children, safe water and basic sanitation, maternal and child care (including family planning), immunization, treatment for common diseases, primary health care coverage, national health policies and strategies, community involvement, international support for health system development, financial resources, human resources for health, trends in education, and economic trends. Part 4 reorganizes these data according to country or area.
Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):3-18.As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):1.On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
Combatting AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases in Africa: a review of the World Bank's agenda for action.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xiii, 34 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 181; Africa Technical Department Series)Awareness of the patterns of HIV infection and the scope of AIDS worldwide has increased since the Africa Region of the World Bank issued its agenda in 1988 for action on AIDS in Africa. The Bank has therefore reviewed and reconfigured its approach to adopt a more broad and aggressive agenda against the pandemic. Once thought to be confined to urban areas, HIV infection is spreading rurally, AIDS has become the leading cause of death among hospital patients in several African capitals, and total AIDS cases are expected to reach 2.5 million in 1992. Projections even indicate that the prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa may increase from 2 million in 1988, to 6 million in 1992, and 10 million by 1994. HIV is spreading through virtually all African countries at all socioeconomic levels. AIDS clearly ranks among the top 5 health problems in Africa's urban populations and exacerbates the risk of other endemic diseases. HIV infection and AIDS may therefore certainly be considered as significant threats to population health and socioeconomic development in Africa. Accordingly, the World Bank should take a greater role in supporting research and the prevention of HIV infection. Specifically, the Bank may support the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases and research into the relationship of HIV with other potential cofactors, core transmitter groups, and the importance of not exhausting available resources exclusively upon AIDS. The Bank is currently developing country-specific multisectoral AIDS strategies to prevent new HIV infection and mitigate consequence. Internal interdepartmental coordination within the Bank could be improved and a more aggressive tack could be taken on lending for the prevention of HIV. The Bank also feels that the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS should be reviewed and refined.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 40 p.The decade of the 1990's, the Fourth Development Decade, will be "critical" because of the world's demographic situation will determine the future for the 21st century in terms of population growth and the effect of growing populations in terms of damage to the environment. Despite the fact that government political support for population programs and activities rose from 97 countries in 1976 to 125 in 1988 (Africa rose from 16 in 1978 to 30 in 1988), the contraceptive prevalence rates in developing countries (excluding China) during the 1980's fell below 40%. Many countries encountered a "mix" of difficulties maintaining their family planning programs (FP) because of declining political support and the debt burden forcing governments to reduce investments in health and social welfare programs, including FP. By the year 2025 the UN expects 8,467 million people; 147 million (<5%) will be in the industrialized countries and 95% in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia. This report discusses human resource development during the Fourth Development Decade. FP and population programs must become integral components of countries' development process to achieve sustainable economic growth. 19 recommendations are offered on how to achieve sustained fertility declines. This UNFPA report includes the following sections: Introduction; Part 1 "The Challenges Ahead"; Part 2 "Keeping the Options Open"; Part 3 "Human Resource Development-A New Priority"; Conclusion and Recommendations.
Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation, 1987. v, 57,  p.The present survey of the international environment in which the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) operates shows many advances in family planning, in particular the strong commitment of most governments. But it also confirms that there is still an unmet need on a very large scale and in many countries the gap between knowledge and practice of family planning is striking evidence of the absence of services and of adequate motivation. The resurgence of opposition to family planning and the declining investment in contraceptive research are significant negative trends. A positive development of great importance to IPPF is the strong endorsement of the role of non-governmental organizations, and this represents a special challenge in the years ahead. Family planning associations (FPAs) retain, but could strengthen, their important role as advocates of family planning at the national level, now needed more than ever to counter new forms of opposition. Donors while anxious for FPAs to remain at the cutting edge, are in the main content with the contributions FPAs make as consumer-oriented, voluntary movements for family planning. The importance of IPPF for information, inspiration, and support is now more widely recognized among FPAs. IPPF's general principles include 1) human rights,2) a strong non-governmental role, 3) a voluntary movement, 4) autonomy and responsibility, 5) voluntary and informed choice, 6) advocacy, 7) improved service delivery, 8) increasing demand and practice, 9) meeting the needs of young people, 10) male involvement in family planning, 11) combining family planning with other development activities, 12) management training and program evaluation, 13) resource development at a local level, and 14) long-term planning.
Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
POPULI. 1986; 13(1):5-14.Within the next 50 years, the predominantly rural character of developing countries will shift as a result of rapid world urbanization. In 1970 the total urban population of the more developed world regions was almost 30 million more than in the less developed regions; however, by the year 2000 the urban population of developing countries will be close to double that in developed countries. A growing proportion of the urban population will be concentrated in the biggest cities. At the same time, the rural population in developing countries is expected to increase as well, making it difficult to reduce the flow of migrants to urban centers. Although urban fertility in developing countries tends to be lower than rural fertility, it is still at least twice as high as in developed countries. The benefits of urbanization tend to be distributed unevenly on the basis of social class, resulting in a pattern of skewed income and standard of living. Social conditions in squatter settlments and urban slums are a threat to physical and mental health, and the educational system has not been able to keep up with the growth of the school-aged population in urban areas. The problems posed by urbanization should be viewed as challenges to social structures and scientific technologies to adapt with concern for human values. It is suggested than 4 premises about the urbanization process should guide urban planners: 1) urban life is essential to the social nature of the modern world; 2) urban and rural populations should not be conceptualized in terms of diametrically opposed interest groups; 3) national policies will have an impact on urban areas, just as developments in the cities will impact on national development; and 4) the great cities of the world interact with each other, exchanging both trade and populations. The United Nations Family Planning Association stresses the need for 3 fundamental objectives: economic efficiency, social equity, and population balance.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1986 Aug. x, 102 p.This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the magnitude and underlying causes of Africa's rapid population growth and suggests a framework to help African leaders design policies to address this problem. The report has 3 themes. The 1st theme is that rapid population growth in Africa is slowing economic development and reducing the possibility of raising living standards. Africa's population growth rate, the highest in the world, has accelerated from an average of 2.8%/year in 1970-82 to 3.1%/year in 1985. Population growth is expected to continue to rise for at least another 5-10 years. In addition to undermining economic growth and per capita income growth, the population explosion implies higher child and maternal morbidity and mortality, further degradation of the natural environment, constraints on expanding education and health care services, and falling wages. A comprehensive population policy in African countries must include efforts both to slow this growth and to cope with its consequences. A 2nd theme is one of cautious hope arising from recent indications of a change in ideas and behavior regarding fertility. More and more African governments are expressing alarm about population growth and are supporting family planning measures. Improvements in women's status, especially in female education, are occurring and can be expected to have a fertility reducing effect. Increased availability and accessibility of family planning services could raise Africa's contraceptive prevalence rate from its current level of 3-4% to 25% in the next decade. The 3rd theme is that strategic reorientation of the direction and nature of government involvement in the area of population policy is required. Although governments should not seek to be the only provider of family planning services, they must take the lead in generating a climate of legitimacy for family planning. An increase in external assistance will be necessary if family planning is to become a realistic option for Africans.
Social, economic, political, and demographic determinants of development-agency aid to Third World countries.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms International, 1984. xvi, 563 p. (8501088)The following dissertation is a report of research on the determinants of economic assistance to the development efforts of 3rd world countries by 6 international agencies including the UN, the US, and the World Bank. With annual data for 109 countries, these agencies' grants and loans were related, by multiple regression, to several socioeconomic variables summarizing the modernization of the nations concerned. Grants and loans of these agencies were also regressed on measures of polity types and political instability in these same analyses. Most socioeconomic variable relationships to fundings of economic development by 2 World Bank branches and 2 UN specialized agencies were in support of a need-for-aid interpretation of these agencies' grant-loan policies. The similar relationships of loans from the 3rd World Bank branch to these economic variables usually supported a credit-worthiness or "good economic performance" emphasis in that World Bank branch's policy on loans. Need for aid and loan credit worthiness were equally important in determining US foreign economic assistance. Polity type and other control variables had small effects on development assistance by the 6 agencies studied. Several of the economic variables' relationships to these agencies' funding were significant, but small; few such relationships were very large. (author's)
Demography India. 1984 Jan-Dec; 13(1-2):153-67.The threshold hypothesis shares with transition theory the basic assumption that a decline in fertility is interrelated with a decline in mortality and change in the social, economic, and cultural conditions of the population. However, threshold theory fails to formulate a causal chain between fertility and the other variables and its application at the aggregate country level is limited by intracountry heterogeneity in cultural and social variables. Problematic is the fixing of the timing for a country of a decline in fertility to be inferred from the fact that some indicators of development have reached the threshold zone while others have not. This paper attempts to develope a combined index for socioeconomic development on the basis of data from 12 countries of the ESCAP region of South East Asia. Variables included were life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate, adult female literacy, percentages of females economically active, GNP per capita, and percentage urban population. In 1970, 3 of the countries analyzed had a crude birth rate below 25, 6 countries had a rate between 25-40, and 3 had a rate above 40. The lowest value of the index recorded for countries of low fertility (crude birth rate below 25) and the highest value recorded for countries of high fertility (above 40) are taken as the threshold zones for the overall index. The number of countries in the threshold range increased from 5 in 1970 to 8 in 1975. With the increase in the index value, a reduction in the fertility level was noted. In contrast, where socioeconomic development was slow, fertility showed little change. Policy makers could use this system to assess which indicator could be pushed through to raise the overall index of development so as to effect a decline in fertility.
[Ivory Coast: report of the Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance] Cote d'Ivoire: rapport de Mission sur l'Evaluation des Besoins d'Aide en Matiere de Population.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1984 Sep. viii, 57 p. (Report No. 69)Conclusions and recommendations are presented of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) Mission which visited the Ivory Coast from February 20-March 15, 1983 to assess population assistance needs. Ivory Coast officials believe that the population, estimated at 8,034,000 in 1980, is insufficient given the country's economic needs. Its very rapid rate of growth is estimated at over 4.5%/year, of which 1.5% is due to foreign immigration. 42% of the population is urban. The country has undergone exceptional economic growth in the past 2 decades, and the per capita income is now estimated at over $US1000 annually. Social development does not seem to have kept pace, however, and the mortality rate of 15.4/1000 is that of a country with only 1/2 the per capital income. The 1981-85 Ivory Coast Plan proposes a change from a growth economy to a society in which individual and collective welfare is the supreme goal. Up to date data on the size, structure, and dynamics of the population will be needed to aid in preparation of the 1986-90 and 1991-95 plans. A 2nd national population census is planned for 1985. Until the present, rapid population growth had been considered a boon, but problems are arising of massive rural exodus, high rates of urban unemployment coupled with manpower shortages in agriculture, and growing demographic pressure on health, educational, and social infrastructures, especially in the cities. The government has maintained its pronatalist stance, and government health programs have been directed only to mortality and maternal and child health. The need to control fertility and to use birth spacing as a tool to combat maternal and infant mortality is being increasingly felt, and a private family welfare association was able to form in 1979. A policy of maternal and child health encouraging spacing to improve family welfare would probably be welcomed in the Ivory Coast. The Mission recommended that a population policy be formulated which would correspond to the national demographic reality and development objectives. Basic demographic data collection should focus on the 1985 general census, which should have high priority. The civil registration system should be reorganized. A planned migration survey should cover the whole year to take into acconnt seasonal variations, but preparations should not begin until the census is completed. A multiple objective survey could be undertaken in 1988 to determine the nature and scope of interrelationships between demographic variables and economic and sociocultural variables, and a survey of infant mortality on a small sample could be done in 1989. The planned manpower and employment survey should be completed. Population research should receive high government priority. In regard to maternal and child health, the government should take an official position on the problem of birth spacing as a means of combatting maternal and infant deaths. IEC activities should be expanded, and efforts should be made to encourage the participation of women in development.