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  1. 1
    300923

    AIDS epidemic update. Special report on HIV prevention. December 2005.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; World Health Organization [WHO]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2005 Dec. [96] p. (UNAIDS/05.19E)

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemics in recorded history. Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS epidemic claimed 3.1 million [2.8--3.6 million] lives in 2005; more than half a million (570 000) were children. The total number of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reached its highest level: an estimated 40.3 million [36.7--45.3 million] people are now living with HIV. Close to 5 million people were newly infected with the virus in 2005. There is ample evidence that HIV does yield to determined and concerted interventions. Sustained efforts in diverse settings have helped bring about decreases in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in many Western countries, among young people in Uganda, among sex workers and their clients in Thailand and Cambodia, and among injecting drug users in Spain and Brazil. Now there is new evidence that prevention programmes initiated some time ago are finally helping to bring down HIV prevalence in Kenya and Zimbabwe, as well as in urban Haiti. The number of people living with HIV has increased in all but one region in the past two years. In the Caribbean, the second-most affected region in the world, HIV prevalence overall showed no change in 2005, compared with 2003. (excerpt)
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  2. 2
    297238

    In 2005, AIDS epidemic reaches all-time high.

    Connections. 2006 Feb; [1] p.

    Nearly 5 million people worldwide were infected with HIV in 2005, marking the largest jump in new cases since the disease was first recognized in 1981, according to the AIDS Epidemic Update 2005 released by UNAIDS last December in conjunction with World AIDS Day. The virus claimed the lives of 3.1 million people in 2005, with more than half a million of these deaths occurring among children. Although sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia continue to remain the hardest hit areas, the report clearly indicates that the virus is continuing to spread at alarming rates within Eurasia, bringing the region to the brink of a full-blown epidemic. The number of people living with HIV in Eastern Europe and Central Asia reached 1.6 million in 2005, a 20-fold increase from 2003. Even more striking, AIDS claimed the lives of 62,000 people there last year-nearly double the mortality rate attributed to the virus 2003. (excerpt)
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  3. 3
    283996

    Economic analysis of HIV / AIDS. Background paper.

    Bonnel R

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, AIDS Campaign Team for Africa, 2000 Sep. 16 p.

    HIV/AIDS is a major development crisis. Not since the Black Death devastated medieval Europe has humankind observed infectious disease deaths on such a scale. Life expectancies, which rose steadily before the onset of the HIV epidemic, are decreasing in nearly all the 25 countries where the adult prevalence rate exceeds 5 percent. In the countries most heavily affected by HIV/AIDS, life expectancy is projected to fall to about 30 years by 2010– a level not seen since the beginning of the 20th century. Various factors related to poverty, inequality, gender inequality, sexually transmitted infections, social norms, political and social changes, including labor migration, conflicts and ethnic factions have facilitated the rapid spread of HIV. But what has enabled HIV/AIDS to undermine economic and social development is its unprecedented erosion of some of the main determinants of economic growth such as social capital, domestic savings and human capital. For these reasons, the HIV epidemic has been transformed from a health issue into a much wider issue impairing economic and social development. Because it prevents an increasing share of the population from participating in economic growth, the HIV/AIDS epidemic increases poverty. The result is a vicious circle whereby HIV/AIDS reduces economic growth and increases poverty, which in turn accelerates the spread of HIV. Preventing further spread of HIV/AIDS, in addition to providing care and support programs to those both affected and infected by this epidemic, requires early intervention and the mobilization of external resources. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and quantify the economic rationale that underlies such an effort. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    080031

    China. Long-term issues and options in the health transition.

    Bumgarner JR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xxvii, 133 p. (World Bank Country Study)

    In the early 1990s, the World Bank sent a team of specialists in demography, medicine, hospital administration, health policy, personnel, medical technology, and finance to China to examine the present health status of the population and to protect its future status. Before making any projections, however, they had to learn what demographic and epidemiologic factors would basically determine future health status. The main factors driving China's health transition included aging of the population; increased risk of developing chronic disease caused by changes in life style, dietary, environmental, and occupational risk factors; and changing morbidity and mortality patterns (i.e., shift from infectious to disabling and chronic diseases). The team mapped out specific strategies, which can indeed be achieved, to avert a health care crisis. The strategies revolved around a sustained effort of primary prevention of chronic diseases, especially circulatory diseases, which caused considerable premature mortality. The team illustrated how different formulas of total health expenditures would affect epidemiologic outcomes. The team learned that health care costs would probably increase due to unavoidable demographic trends (especially demographic aging), epidemiologic forces, and utilization and unit cost changes. Suggested primary prevention strategies alone would not be enough to control health expenditures to a level where feasible equity can be maintained. China must also greatly improve efficiency of hospital services, personnel, and technologies. The evaluation team concluded that the government needs to reassess policies for financing primary and preventive health services, the basis and conditions of insurance, and the role of prices and incentives in directing use and provision of services.
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  5. 5
    046823

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  6. 6
    199874

    [Papers presented at the First Study Director's Meeting on Comparative Study on Demographic-Economic Interrelationship for Selected ESCAP Countries, 29 October-2 November 1984, Bangkok, Thailand]

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    [Unpublished, 1984]. [82] p.

    This study group report 1) investigates quantitatively the process of population change and socioeconomic development to identify policy recommendations for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand and 2) examines the application of the "systems approach" and econometric technics for population and development planning. These country-specific studies will help to clarify the interrelationships between demographic and socioeconomic factors in the development process of each participating country and the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region in general. The meeting 1) reviewed major demographic and economic issues in each participating country, 2) reviewed extant work on model building in each country, and 3) outlined a preliminary system design. Several economic-demographic models are discussed. The participants recommended that 1) the models focus of similar issues such as migration and income distribution and 2) countries should adopt, whenever possible, a similar modeling methodology. Participants agreed that models should be based, where possible, on a base-year Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). This poses no problems in Thailand or Malaysia as SAMs are already available for these countries. However, no SAM is currently available for the Philippines. Participants further recommended that the 3 models could be improved by greater collaboration among study directors during model formulation and estimation. Participants also expressed concern about the size of the computing budget and thought that models could be improved by an increased budget for computer time.
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  7. 7
    268449

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the strengthening of the civil registration and vital statistics system in Sierra Leone: project SIL/79/P03.

    Kannisto V; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. x, 28 p.

    While Sierra Leone has a long tradition in registering births and deaths, dating back to the mid-1880s, registration has remained low. In order to improve registration coverage, the original project formulated in 1979 by the government included 3 immediate objectives; the strengthening of the civil registration system in a model area, the experimentation with field organization procedures most suitable for the registration system in the country, and the production of estimates of demographic variables in the model area and in the rest of the country. In the Tripartite Project Review held in 1981, 2 additional objectives were added to the project; the unification of the civil registration laws, including the provision of a uniform and universal legislation for the entire country, and the reorganization and training of the registration hierarchy. While the strategy to use a model area for the development was a sound one, without the law being enacted, new forms and registers could not be printed and thus few of the planned activities could take place. Of the 5 immediate objectives of the project, only one has been achieved--the passage of the Act of 1983 which provides the legal framework for registration to take place nationwide under the new system. Little progress has been made in the achievement of the 4 remaining objectives. The Evaluation Mission made recommendations concerning the need to reformulate the extension document early in 1985, taking into account the results of the Evaluation Mission, the concentration of government action on registration in the non-model areas, and thereafter the gradual expansion of registration to adjacent areas where more complete coverage is possible.
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  8. 8
    268209

    Population Commission: report on the twenty-second session, 18-20 January 1984.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Council

    New York, New York, United Nations 1984. 45 p. (Official Records, 1984, Supplement No. 2 E/1984/12 E./CN. 9/1984/9)

    The report of the 22nd session of the United Nations Population Commission includes the opening statements by the Under Secretary General for International Economic and Social Affairs, the Under Secretary General for Technical Cooperation for Development, the Director of the Population Division, and the Assistant Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities. These are followed by a description of the actions taken by the United Nations to implement the recommendations of the World Population Conference, 1974. A report on the progress of ongoing work in the field of population summarized for the following categories: 1) world demographic analysis; 2) demographic projections; 3) population policies; 4) population and development; 5) monitoring of population trends and policies; 6) factors affecting patterns of reproduction; 7) dissemination of population information; 8) technical cooperation; and 9) demograpahic statistics. Programs of work in the field of population for the biennium 1984-1985 and medium-term plan for the period 1984-1989 are provided for each of the 9 preceding categories as well as a consideration of draft proposals and a report on the continuity of work. The report concludes with the organization, attendance, and agenda of the session.
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  9. 9
    267109

    UNFPA operations--report to the general assembly, statement made at the 33rd session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, 6 Nov 1978.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1978]. 13 p.

    In his report to the United Nations General Assembly concerning UNFPA operations, Mr. R. Salas cites the growth of UNFPA from a small US$3 million trust fund with 12 projects of limited scope, to a Fund of the General Assembly with cumulative resources of over US$500 million supporting over 1900 projects in 114 countries throughout the world. The Fund has been a pioneer within the U.N. development system in supporting programs directly aimed at increasing opportunities for greater women's participation in population and development at all levels--as policy makers, program planners and community workers. Due to the publication of a set of guidelines on women, population and development, requests for assistance in projects directly relating to women have grown. Mr. Salas describes the decline in fertility in various parts of the developing world. Birth rates have also declined in many developing countries, on the average of approximately 15%. Expectation of life at birth has been a feature showing impressive gains. Infant mortality, as well as overall death rates in developing countries, have fallen substantially in the recent past. On the negative side, the imbalance between growing human numbers and accessible resources remains. 85-90% of the 1.5 to 2 billion estimated increase in the world's population before the year 2000 is expected to occur in developing countries. Another population related concern is the growing problem of aging of the population caused by the decline of fertility and the prolongation of life expectancy. The need to integrate population factors in development planning is recognized today by almost all developing countries. In assisting governments which show an increasing desire to make their population policies more comprehensive, UNFPA seeks to encourage in-depth exploration of the interaction between population factors and development.
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  10. 10
    267060

    [Positive balance in the ten years of the UNFPA] Balance positivo en los 10 anos del FNUAP.

    Salas RM

    Revista de Prensa. 1978 Nov; 12-13.

    This article discusses changes occurring in population since the foundation of UNFPA in 1969. The birthrate has decreased by 15% in about 3 or 4 dozen countries that represent 2/3 of the developing world. Most changes have occurred in small countries. In the mid 70's the life expectancy rate increased from 42 to 54 years in the developing countries and from 65 to 71 years in the developed countries. Latin America has a life expectancy median of 62 yrs. Asia of 56, and Africa of 45 yrs. In the developing countries infant mortality continues to be the determinant factor of mortality. A decrease in mortality linked with improvements in health, educational services, women status, and a more equalitarian distribution of income has been reported. Nevertheless, malaria has again become an important sanitary problem particulary in Asia and Africa. In India, malaria cases increased from 40,000 in 1966 to 143,000 in 1976. Nutrition and health are also related to mortality. Presently, countries try to conserve gains from good years to prevent difficulties in poor years. It is estimated that during the next 2 decades cities will grow to magnitudes unknown to urbanists. In the year 2000 Tokyo may have 26 million inhabitants, Gran Cairo 16.3, Lagos 9.4, and Mexico 31.6. The number of young adults has increased form 488 million in 1955 to 740 million in 1975. It is expected that in developed countries the will increase from 548 million to 688 million in 1985. Strategies of internal and international migration, measures to open up jobs for the young, and budget increases in population programs in Nepal, Costa Rica, and Mexico in the 1970's are discussed. International cooperation to help developing countries to achieve their own goals in matters of population, thus consolidating the gains of the past years, is recommended.
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  11. 11
    267059

    [Population and the new international economic order] La poblacion y el neuvo orden economico internacional.

    Salas RM

    Medicina y Desarrollo. 1977 May; 13-16.

    The problem of population received little attention in the meetings on the New International Economic Order. Historically, governments have equated population increases with prosperity. Recently, governments have accepted the necessity to reduce population for the succcess of social and economic programs. This article points out the advances made by several countries in the areas of health, nutrition, education, contraception, legal aspects, planning, and research methods since 1972. The collaboration of different governments with UNFPA and their solicitation of help from this organization are regarded as further evidence of the advances made. Difficulties for the acceptance of family planning in developing countries such as social sanctions, lack of demographic data, and the role of UNFPA in the amelioration of these problems are discussed. Since population politics are seen as long-term strategical weapons, an intensification of persuasive methods in all countries and an increase in aid to underdeveloped countries are recommended.
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  12. 12
    267154

    Population trends and issues, statement made at the Meeting of the Netherlands Association of Demographers, The Hague, Netherlands, 14 September, 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 7 p. (Speech Series No. 97)

    If world population is to stabilize by the end of the next century, it will be necessary to strengthen and sustain the downward trend in fertility already begun in most developing countries. Whatever reductions have been achieved in the rate of population growth are the result of fertility declines accompanied by moderate reduction in mortality. Added to the challenge of high birth, mortality and growth rates in some parts of the developing world, a number of issues of equal importance have emerged since the United Nations World Population Conference held in Bucharest in 1974. There are, for example, issues relating to aging, international and local migration, including urbanization, and the interrelationships between population, resources, the environment and development. Most of these problems have national as well as international dimensions. The Government of the Netherlands has taken important steps to alleviate some of these problems. For example, it considers that social and economic policy should constantly take in requirements resulting from changes in the age structure of the population. The Government has been a major donor to the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) since its inception and has contributed nearly US$105 million in 14 years.
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