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  1. 1

    Case studies in population policy: Mexico.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs

    New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1989. vii, 52 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 21; ST/ESA/SER.R/89)

    Since 1973, the Mexican government has been included in other development programs. At the macro-level, there is the assumption that linkages exist between population, development, resources, and environment. At the micro-level, there is the assumption that, given the interconnection between socioeconomic and demographic variables, population programs can only be demographic in nature, and that socioeconomic programs can reinforce the impact of population programs if they properly take into account the processes of policy formulation and implementation. The important factors for controlling both fertility and mortality trends include improved and universal education, changes in perceptions and attitudes toward family formation, and greater access to health and family planning information and services. Significant progress in controlling both fertility and mortality is not credited to any single population program but to the fact that levels of income, nutrition, education, employment, and housing have improved, and also to more adequate access to and use of health services and family planning clinics. Mexico's recent policy to curb rapid population growth appears to offer many positive indications, although the experience may not be directly transferable to other countries. The Mexican approach to promoting family planning and population awareness has been highly centralized and initiated from the highest levels of administration. 2 characteristics of the health sector have contributed to program success: 1) several institutions that were delivering services were well equipped to take on additional responsibilities and 2) the responsiveness of doctors employed by public institutions. The Mexican experience thus serves as an example of the speed and efficacy with which public opinion and governmental infrastructure can be mobilized and extended given the political will to do so. The present administration is now attempting to decentralize the nation's vast system of public administration. In general, population policy faces the great challenges of 1) moving in the direction of specifically targeted groups, 2) achieving changes in spatial distribution, and 3) absorbing new members of the labor force.
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  2. 2

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the strengthening of the civil registration and vital statistics system in Sierra Leone: project SIL/79/P03.

    Kannisto V; Mehta DC; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1984 Dec. x, 28 p.

    While Sierra Leone has a long tradition in registering births and deaths, dating back to the mid-1880s, registration has remained low. In order to improve registration coverage, the original project formulated in 1979 by the government included 3 immediate objectives; the strengthening of the civil registration system in a model area, the experimentation with field organization procedures most suitable for the registration system in the country, and the production of estimates of demographic variables in the model area and in the rest of the country. In the Tripartite Project Review held in 1981, 2 additional objectives were added to the project; the unification of the civil registration laws, including the provision of a uniform and universal legislation for the entire country, and the reorganization and training of the registration hierarchy. While the strategy to use a model area for the development was a sound one, without the law being enacted, new forms and registers could not be printed and thus few of the planned activities could take place. Of the 5 immediate objectives of the project, only one has been achieved--the passage of the Act of 1983 which provides the legal framework for registration to take place nationwide under the new system. Little progress has been made in the achievement of the 4 remaining objectives. The Evaluation Mission made recommendations concerning the need to reformulate the extension document early in 1985, taking into account the results of the Evaluation Mission, the concentration of government action on registration in the non-model areas, and thereafter the gradual expansion of registration to adjacent areas where more complete coverage is possible.
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  3. 3

    Situation report on population in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 20-4.

    The level and growth rate of population in Bangladesh is seen as 1 of the nation's most critical problems, affecting nearly all sectors of development. Demographic data in Bangladesh is poor due to a lack of a functioning vital registration system or other reliable data collection systems. The most recent estimate of total population as of January 1, 1977, is 82 million. The average density is estimated at 531 persons/km (1974), with 90% of the population concentrated in the rural areas. The crude death rate remains high at 19/1000 population, with an infant mortality rate estimated at 150/1000 live births. The total fertility and annual growth rates are judged extremely high and are related to several factors of underdevelopment particular to Bangladesh. These include mothers' reluctance to postpone or space births because of a high incidence of infant deaths; a low level of literacy and employment of women; inadequate community health care facilities; and a lack of acceptable family planning services in rural areas. The effects and consequences of this demographic situation on all age groups in Bangladesh is apparent in all areas of development: economic growth, food production, and the delivery of health, education and social services. Although the level of contraceptive awareness is high, the extent of acceptance of contraceptive practice in the country is estimated at only 5% of eligible couples. Despite a heavy concentration of government efforts in its Population Control/Family Planning Division (PC/FP), success has been limited due to struggles between the government's Health and Population Division; frequent administrative reorganization; personnel problems; difficulties in transferring local funds; innovative program development rather than concentration on regular program activities; and the resistance of the population to family planning and limitation. A family planning component has been included in most foreign assistance schemes (IDA;USAID;UNFPA). Of concern to UNICEF is the slow implementation of the family planning side and the generally poor level of maternal and child health care which falls under the PC/FP Division, rather than the Health Division.
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