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Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Genus. 2005 Jul-Dec; 61(3-4):167-184.This paper intends to comment on some of the connections between demographic patterns and poverty reduction that have been sufficiently tested, and are now widely accepted. The first section of it gives an overview of the different conceptions of poverty that are currently considered. The second deals with poverty measurement, and with the availability of data, both in developed and developing countries, pointing at some of their problems and limitations, particularly for their use in international comparisons and macro-economic analysis. The third describes briefly how theories relating demography and poverty have evolved from the time that this issue was aroused by Malthus, and reviews the current state of the art. In the following section, some aspects of the incidence of poverty on fertility and mortality are explored. The dynamics of the demographic changes and their effects on economic development are the subject of the fifth section. Finally, the last section is devoted to the controversial role that the massive migration inflows that are a trait of our times can play in the eradication of poverty. (excerpt)
Educational aspects of developmental programmes leading to lower fertility: the renewal of education as a population action programme.
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Interregional Workshop on Population Action Programmes, Manila, Philippines, November 15-25, 1972. 11 p. (ESA/P/AC.1/15)Population is not an isolated variable in the development process; it is one of the many socio-economic variables affecting developing countries in their efforts to attain a higher quality of life. Education must respond to the total socio-economic situation if it is to be expected to contribute to the promotion of change. In order to respond effectively, education must be integrally and relevantly renovated. This integral renovation implies innovation in educational planning and administration, and in curriculum contents and teaching and learning methodologies. Within this framework of renovation population-related issues become important components which must be included in educational activities because of their present and future effect on individuals and society. Population education will then be one of the obvious products of an integral and relevant educational response to the challenges proposed by the process of change. (excerpt)
[Cairo and the Catholic Church: A common language] El Cairo y la iglesia católica: Un lenguaje común.
Washington, D.C., Catholics for a Free Choice, 1999. 58 p.Every ten years since 1974, the United Nations has held a conference on population and development. Past conferences were held in Bucharest (1974) and Mexico City (1984). In 1994, 180 governments sent delegates to Cairo, Egypt, to attend the Third International Conference on Population and Development (called the "Cairo Conference" for short). The governments of the world agreed on a list of actions for the future in the form of the Program of Action. The document is 100 pages long and is divided into 16 chapters. The quantitative and qualitative goals agreed on are described from Chapters 3 to 16. Chapter 2 is of particular interest for Catholics and members of other faiths, which presents the ethical aspects of the vision of the Cairo Conference with regard to population and development. (excerpt)
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 67-71.The country statement of Azerbaijan related population growth of 15.7% to 7.3 million between 1982 and 1992. The population below working ages declined from 38.2% to 24.6%. Working age population increased by 2.6%. The aged increased by 1%. The total birth rate coefficient declined by 33.4% for women aged 20-34 years by 1992. Average family size declined from 5.1 to 4.8. Women's employment increased 14.5%. The sex ratio and selected age groups have been adversely affected due to the war with Armenia. State support of involuntary migrants and refugees is estimated at 600,000 persons. Child mortality declined and recently increased to 25.0, mainly due to acute pneumonia, sepsis, congenital defects, and birth injuries. There are shortages of hospital beds, pediatricians, medicinal drugs, and medical equipment. Marriage has declined only slightly from 10.5 to 9.8, and divorce increased slightly from 1.2 to 1.5. The marriage rate in all age groups has declined; this is attributed to poor economic prospects. Unemployed persons numbered 320,000, of whom 80% are females and 60% are young people. Demographic policy should be prepared to encourage average sized families and to support larger families. Mortality rates need to be reduced for infants, mothers, workers, and the aged. The entire health care system needs to be improved, including health and social services for the elderly. Quality of life improvements and social and economic development, particularly in areas with recent population accumulation or influx, must be addressed. The conditions for women must be improved to balance women's work with domestic roles and assuring reproductive health and rights. The government of Azerbaijan looks to the world for considerable assistance in attaining a higher quality of life in a market economy.
Male, Maldives, Ministry of Education, Non-Formal Education Unit, 1988 Nov. , 86 p.The population growth rate of Maldives is over 3.2% and is one of the highest in the region. The development rate is over 12% and the literacy rate is 93% for both males and females and there is a high participation rate for basic education. The government has launched a population education program with assistance from UNFPA and UNESCO. Through the educational process people will be equipped to make rational decisions on population problems of the future. The long range objective of this program is to make young adults aware of the inter- relationships of population and aspects of quality of life, and that population growth rate is an important factor affecting their lives as well as the socio-economic development of their family. The immediate objectives are to strengthen the educational development center, to contribute to life preparation of children, to enhance social living of adults and youth not in school, to develop the competence of over 500 teachers, and to convey population education messages to as many islanders as possible. The messages that will be included in the curriculum include family size and family welfare, delayed marriage, responsible parenthood, population and resources, and population related beliefs and values. The teaching process for addressing the moral dilemma includes introducing and confronting the dilemma, then establishing individual positions for action and establishment of the class response to the position of action. The next step is selecting an appropriate strategy and examining different individual reasons within the class group. Major methods used in this training include hierarchical, peer group, mobile training, self learned, correspondence, linked training, mass media, field operational seminars, and internships.
[Population and development in the Republic of Zaire: policies and programs] Population et developpement en Republique du Zaire: politiques et programmes.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the All-Africa Parliamentary Conference on Population and Development, Harare, Zimbabwe, May 12-16, 1986. 9 p.The 1st census of Zaire, in July 1984, indicated that the population of 30 million was growing at a rate of at least 2.3%/year. The crude birth rate was estimated at 46/1000 and was believed to be higher in urban areas than in rural because of better health and educational conditions. The crude death rate was estimated at 16/1000 and the infant mortality rate at 106/1000. 46.5% of the population is under 15. The population is projected to reach 34.5 million in 1990, with urban areas growing more rapidly than rural. Zaire is at the stage of demographic transition where the gap between fertility and mortality is very wide. The consequences for national development include massive migration and rural exodus, unemployment and underemployment, illness, low educational levels, rapid urbanization, and increasing poverty. In the past decade, Zaire has undertaken a number of activities intended to improve living conditions, but as yet there is no explicit official policy integrating population and development objectives. In 1983, the Executive Council of Zaire organized a mission to identify basic needs of the population, with the assistance of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). In 1985, the UNFPA developed a 5-year development plan. The UNFPA activities include demographic data collection, demographic policy and research, maternal-child health and family planning, population education, and women and development. In the area of data collection, the 1st census undertaken with UNFPA help has increased the availability of timely and reliable demographic data. The vital registration system is to be improved and a permanent population register to be developed to provide data on population movement. A National Population Committee is soon to be established to assist the Executive Council in defining a coherent population policy in harmony with the economic, social, and cultural conditions of Zaire. Demographic research will be conducted by the Demographic Department of the University of Kinshasa and the National Institute of Statistics. A primary health care policy has been defined to increase health coverage to 60% from the current level of 20%. Zaire has favored family planning services integrated with the primary health care system since 1979. At present 2 components of the Desirable Births" program are underway, the Desirable Births Service Project undertaken in 1983 and the Rural Health Project undertaken in 1982, both executed by the Department of Public Health with financing provided by US Agency for International Development. The RAPID (Resources for the Analysis of the Impact of Population on Development) program has been used since 1985 to inform politicians, technicians, and planners. Efforts have been underway since 1965 to include women in the development process, and a new family code is being studied which would give better protection to some rights of women and children.
Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 80 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences for secondary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origins, Development and Characteristics," presents the findings of archaeologists and anthropologists about the different periods of man's development. Man's mental development and population growth are also considered. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the physical and social environments of Sierra Leone, putting emphasis on the history of migrations into Sierra Leone and the effects of migration on population growth. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," deals with cultural traits related to marriage and family structure, different religions of the world, and traditional beliefs and population issues. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," covers population distribution and density and the effects of migration on resources. The unit also discusses land as a resource and the effects of the land tenure system, as well as farming systems, family size and the role of women in farming communities. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man", focuses on modern means of communication, especially mass media. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," discusses the identification of global issues, such as colonialism, the refugee problem, urbanization, and the population problems of towns and cities. The unit describes 4 organizations that have been formed in response to problems such as these: the UN, the Red Cross, the International Labor Organization, and the Co-operative for American Relief.
Health and health services in Judaea, Samaria and Gaza 1983-1984: a report by the Ministry of Health of Israel to the Thirty-Seventh world Health Assembly, Geneva, May 1984.
Jerusalem, Israel, Ministry of Health, 1984 Mar. 195 p.Health conditions and health services in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza during the 1967-83 period are discussed. Health-related activities and changes in the social and economic environment are assessed and their impact on health is evaluated. Specific activities performed during the current year are outlined. The following are specific facets of the health care system that are the focus of many current projects in these districts; the development of a comprehensive network of primary care programs and centers for preventive and curative services has been given high priority and is continuing; renovation and expansion of hospital facilities, along with improved staffing, equipment, and supplies for basic and specialty health services increase local capabilities for increasingly sophisticated health care, and consequently there is a decreasing need to send patients requiring specialized care to supraregional referral hospitals, except for highly specialized services; inadequacies in the preexisting reporting system have necessitated a continuting process of development for the gathering and publication of general and specific statistical and demographic data; stress has been placed on provision of safe drinking water, development of sewage and solid waste collection and disposal systems, as well as food control and other environmental sanitation activities; major progress has been made in the establishment of a funding system that elicits the participation and financial support of the health care consumer through volunary health insurance, covering large proportions of the population in the few years since its inception; the continuing building room in residential housing along with the continuous development of essential community sanitation infrastructure services are important factors in improved living and health conditions for the people; and the health system's growth must continue to be accompanied by planning, evaluation, and research atall levels. Specific topics covered include: demography and vital statistics; socioeconomic conditions; morbidity and mortality; hospital services; maternal and child health; nutrition; health education; expanded program immunization; environmental health; mental health; problems of special groups; health insurance; community and voluntary agency participation; international agencies; manpower and training; and planning and evaluation. Over the past 17 years, Judea, Samaria, and Gaza have been areas of rapid population growth and atthe same time of rapid socioeconomic development. In addition there have been basic changes in the social and health environment. As measured by socioeconomic indicators, much progress has been achieved for and by the people. As measured by health status evaluation indicators, the people benefit from an incresing quantity and quality of primary care and specialty services. The expansion of the public health infrastructure, combined with growing access to and utilization of personal preventive services, has been a key contributor to this process.
Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
New York, New York, UNFPA, . vi, 141 p.This program review and strategy development report for the South Pacific focuses on Fiji, the Cook Islands, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. A brief summary of geographic features and demography precedes the discussion of major regional issues and problems and current strategies for dealing with political commitment and other affairs. The needs assessment and recommendations are prepared by subject area and by specific country. The review of national population programs and the proposed general and sectoral strategies includes a discussion of administrative structures, development, maternal and child health, IEC (information, education, and communication), population education, women in development, roles of nongovernmental organizations, trends in technical cooperation, and the environment, family planning, and population policy formulation. The UN mission recommends that Leadership Orientation Programs be established for 1992-94 in all South Pacific countries. Conferences and exchanges between governments heads need to take place. National population councils should be formed and chaired by Prime Ministers. Law and social policy should reflect encouragement of the practice of family planning as a way of life and promotion of a higher marriage age. Registration of births and deaths needs to be improved. Family planning services, education, and training need to be expanded rapidly. Laws need to be strengthened in ways to benefit women and to protect reproductive rights, maternity leave, property rights for women, and child allowances. Laws must also permit the manufacture, importation, display, and sale of contraceptives. Population activities need to be centrally located. Training must allow for the continuance of personnel in population activities. Other considerations are the improvement in coordination of research needs throughout the region, in policy formulation skills, and in program implementation and evaluation skills. Serious deficiencies are found in the health information systems and regular contraceptive provision. Teenage pregnancy and prostitution are emerging issues. Women's leadership training is a top priority. The UN Population Fund should increase resources and promote integrated programs.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. xiii, 730 p. (Population Programmes and Projects Vol. 2)This inventory contains information about externally-assisted population projects and programs in developing countries which were funded, initiated, or implemented by international organizations in 1993. The description of individual country programs begins with demographic facts, which were gleaned, in general, from the UN Population Division's "World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revisions. For the most part, the demographic data apply to 1990. In addition to Population Division data, facts are provided for each country on agricultural population density (per hectare of arable land) and the gross national product per capita. Country descriptions continue with a table of population policy indicators (population growth, fertility level, contraceptive usage, mortality, spatial distribution, internal migration, immigration, and emigration). Projects are then listed for each country according to the source of assistance: multilateral, from the UN system; bilateral, which involves direct assistance from individual governments or their agencies; regional, which includes all organizations located and operational only within a specific geographic area; and nongovernmental or other, such as universities, research or training institutes, and corporations. Assistance is defined to include grants, loans, technical and operational support, training, and provision of equipment and supplies. Listings of research projects are based on an assessment of the value of the information for the donor community and the governments of developing countries. Dollar values are indicated, when possible. Information for regional (involving assistance to several countries within a given region under one program), interregional (activities in specific countries located in more than one geographical region), and global (not limited to specific countries, groups of countries, or regions) programs is organized similarly, but no population policy indicators are given. The inventory ends with a list of addresses and an index.
New Delhi, India, Department of Family Welfare, 1994. , 61 p.The country report prepared by India for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development opens by noting that India's population has increased from 361.1 million in 1951 to 846.3 million in 1991. In describing the demographic context of this, the largest democracy in the world, information is given on the growth rate, the sex ratio, the age structure, marital status, demographic transition, internal migration, urbanization, the economically active population and the industrial structure, literacy and education, data collection and analysis, and the outlook for the future. The second section of the report discusses India's population policy, planning, and programmatic framework. Topics covered include the national perception of population issues, the evolution of the population policy, the national family welfare program (infrastructure and services; maternal and child health; information, education, and communication; and achievements), the relationship of women to population and development, the relationship of population issues and sectoral activities, the environment, adolescents and youth, and AIDS. The third section presents operational aspects of family welfare program implementation and covers political and national support, the implementation strategy, the new action plan, program achievements and constraints, monitoring and evaluation, and financial aspects. The national action plan for the future is the topic of the fourth chapter and is discussed in terms of emerging and priority concerns, the role and relevance of the World Population Plan of Action and other international instruments, international migration, science and technology, and economic stabilization, structural reforms, and international financial support. After a 24-point summary, demographic information is appended in 17 tables and charts.
Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):3-18.As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):1.On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
Dobbs Ferry, New York, Oceana Publications, 1976.  p.4 volumes of text are dedicated to the discussion of rapid world population growth, especially in the developing countries, since the second World War and the role of UN organizations in checking this growth. This fourth volume of the series discusses the World Population Year with central attention given to the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania; purposes and the constitution of the World Population Fund as well as the global program of activities listed in UNFPA's 1973 report; purposes and programs of the World Population Year; and presents main documents prepared for delegate use at the Bucharest Conference, a summary report of the conference, and a selection of current annotated book lists and other bibliography related to subject matter of all volumes. Subtopics covered relating to the World Population Conference include: the provisional agenda and organization of work; recent population trends and future prospects; population change and economic and social development; a draft World Population plan of action; report of symposia on population and development, family, resources and environment, and population and human rights; population policy and the family; world fertility trends; population and education; health and family planning; use of models as instruments in formulating population policies; action taken at Bucharest; and Bucharest in retrospect. IPPF publications, random bibliographies of publications and visual materials, current publications and visual materials, current publications in population/family planning, and selected references to the social science literature on population policy are among selected bibliographical references.
Bangkok, Thailand, ESCAP, Population Division, 1991.  p.The 1991 Population Data Sheet produced by the UN Economic and social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) provides a large chart by country and region for Asia and the Pacific for the following variables: mid-1991 population, average annual growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, male life expectancy at birth, female life expectancy at birth, % aged 0-14 years, % aged 65 and over, dependency ratios, density, % urban, and population projection at 2010. 3 charts also display urban and rural population trends between 1980 and 2025, the crude birth and death rates and rate of natural increase by region, and dependency ratios for 27 countries.
ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Jun; 3(2):7-11.George Walmsley, UNFPA country director for the Philippines, discusses demographic and economic conditions in the Philippines, and present plans to revitalize the national population program after 20 years of only modest achievements. The Philippines is a rapidly growing country with much poverty, unemployment and underemployment, uneven population distribution, and a large, highly dependent segment of children and youths under age 15. Initial thrusts of the population program were in favor of fertility reduction, ultimately changing to adopt a perspective more attuned to promoting overall family welfare. Concurrent with this change also came a shift from a clinic-based to community-based approach. Fertility declines have nonetheless grown weaker over the past 8-10 years. A large gap exists between family planning knowledge and practice, with contraceptive prevalence rates declining from 45% in 1986 to 36% in 1988. Behind this lackluster performance are a lack of consistent political support, discontinuities in program implementation, a lack of coordination among participating agencies, and obstacles to program implementation at the field level. The present government considers the revitalization of this program a priority concern. Mr. Walmsley discusses UNFPA's definition of a priority country, and what that means for the Philippines in terms of resources nd future activities. He further responds to questions about the expected effect of the Catholic church upon program implementation and success, non-governmental organization involvement, the role of information and information systems in the program, the relationship between population, environment and sustainable development, and the status of women and its effect on population.
Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.
ZIMBABWE JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS. 1988 Jan; 2(1):81-100.Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1990. 40 p.The decade of the 1990's, the Fourth Development Decade, will be "critical" because of the world's demographic situation will determine the future for the 21st century in terms of population growth and the effect of growing populations in terms of damage to the environment. Despite the fact that government political support for population programs and activities rose from 97 countries in 1976 to 125 in 1988 (Africa rose from 16 in 1978 to 30 in 1988), the contraceptive prevalence rates in developing countries (excluding China) during the 1980's fell below 40%. Many countries encountered a "mix" of difficulties maintaining their family planning programs (FP) because of declining political support and the debt burden forcing governments to reduce investments in health and social welfare programs, including FP. By the year 2025 the UN expects 8,467 million people; 147 million (<5%) will be in the industrialized countries and 95% in the developing countries of Africa, Latin America and Asia. This report discusses human resource development during the Fourth Development Decade. FP and population programs must become integral components of countries' development process to achieve sustainable economic growth. 19 recommendations are offered on how to achieve sustained fertility declines. This UNFPA report includes the following sections: Introduction; Part 1 "The Challenges Ahead"; Part 2 "Keeping the Options Open"; Part 3 "Human Resource Development-A New Priority"; Conclusion and Recommendations.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, 1989. vii, 52 p. (Population Policy Paper No. 21; ST/ESA/SER.R/89)Since 1973, the Mexican government has been included in other development programs. At the macro-level, there is the assumption that linkages exist between population, development, resources, and environment. At the micro-level, there is the assumption that, given the interconnection between socioeconomic and demographic variables, population programs can only be demographic in nature, and that socioeconomic programs can reinforce the impact of population programs if they properly take into account the processes of policy formulation and implementation. The important factors for controlling both fertility and mortality trends include improved and universal education, changes in perceptions and attitudes toward family formation, and greater access to health and family planning information and services. Significant progress in controlling both fertility and mortality is not credited to any single population program but to the fact that levels of income, nutrition, education, employment, and housing have improved, and also to more adequate access to and use of health services and family planning clinics. Mexico's recent policy to curb rapid population growth appears to offer many positive indications, although the experience may not be directly transferable to other countries. The Mexican approach to promoting family planning and population awareness has been highly centralized and initiated from the highest levels of administration. 2 characteristics of the health sector have contributed to program success: 1) several institutions that were delivering services were well equipped to take on additional responsibilities and 2) the responsiveness of doctors employed by public institutions. The Mexican experience thus serves as an example of the speed and efficacy with which public opinion and governmental infrastructure can be mobilized and extended given the political will to do so. The present administration is now attempting to decentralize the nation's vast system of public administration. In general, population policy faces the great challenges of 1) moving in the direction of specifically targeted groups, 2) achieving changes in spatial distribution, and 3) absorbing new members of the labor force.
Bamako, Mali, CERPOD, 1989. 20 p.The 9 countries in the Sahel that are members of the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) are Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. This booklet describes the historical and socio economic background of the CILSS countries and discusses the actual demographic situation, the dismal development problems that the region faces partly due to colonial policies and more recently to the World Bank's structural adjustment policies. A major constraint is that the economy has not developed fast enough to keep up with the rapidly growing population, especially since 46% of all Sahelians are under age 15. The population for the Sahel is estimated at 40 million making-up 7% of Africa's total population; the total fertility rate is 6.5; the growth rate is 3% and doubling the 23 years; the crude birth rate is 47.3/1000; life expectancy is 48.5 and the crude death rate is 17.4/1000; life expectancy is 49, 3 years the average in Africa of 52; infant mortality in 1988 was 143/1000 compared to the world-wide average of 75/1000; child mortality exceeds the infant mortality rate. The population of the Sahel is mostly rural with only Senegal having 40% of its population living in major cities. The least urban countries are Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger where the urban populations represent less that 1.4 of the total. However, if the present trends continue the capitals of the Sahelian countries will continue to grow and expand because of migration from the rural areas. In 1989 the Council of Ministers of CILSS adopted "the N'Djamena Plan of Action on Population and Development in the Sahel" recommending that countries adopt population policies that integrate development issues. In 1988 Senegal was the 1st and only country to adopt an explicit population policy.
Manila, Philippines, Asian Development Bank, Economics Office, 1987 May. 28 p. (Economics Office Report Series No. 40)Even though population growth rates continue to decline in developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank, they will experience absolute population increases larger than those in the past. More importantly, the labor force continues to grow and absolute increases will be greater than any other time in history. Family planning education and access to contraceptives have contributed to the decline in population growth rates, but nothing can presently be done to decrease the rates of increase of the labor force because the people have already been born. Since most of the DMSs' populations are growing at 2% or more/year, much needed economic growth is delayed. For example, for any country with a growing population to maintain the amount of capital/person, it must spread capital. Yet the faster the population grows the lesser the chances for increasing that amount. The Bank's short to medium term development policy should include loans for projects that will generate employment using capital widening and deepening and that develop rural areas, such as employment in small industries, to prevent urban migration. Other projects that engulf this policy are those concerning primary, secondary and adult education; health; food supply; and housing and infrastructure. The long term development policy must bolster population programs in DMCs so as to reduce the growth of the economically active segment of the population in the 21st century. In addition, the Bank should address fertility issues as more and more women join the work force. The Bank can play a major role in Asian development by considering the indirect demographic and human resource impacts of each project.
In: Population perspectives. Statements by world leaders. Second edition, [compiled by] United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]. New York, New York, UNFPA, 1985. 106-7.As a result of malaria eradication, general progress in medical science, and free government health services, Mauritius's population grew dramatically in the postwar decades. In addition to this alarming trend in population growth, Mauritius also faced a high population density ratio and a mono-culture economy based on sugar. Initial attempts to offer institutionalized family planning services met with opposition from some religious groups. By 1965, however, the climate was more favorable and the Government moved to provide subsidies to 2 private voluntary organizations that offered family planning services. In the 1965-72 period, the Government of Mauritius took a more aggressive role in population activities by significantly increasing the number of family planning service delivery points and expanding the infrastructure for population control. As a result of these measures, the total fertility rate dropped to 3.42 in 1972 compared with 5.86 in 1962. In the 1972-82 period, even further gains were made and the fertility rate fell to 2.39. Continuous declines have also been recorded in the infant mortality rate, which now (1983) stands at 26/1000 live births. Nonetheless, there is a need to continue to curb population growth to ensure the availability of natural resources. Through measures such as family planning, health, education, communication, and information programs, the Government population policy seeks to lower the gross reproduction rate from 1.18 in 1982 to 1.12 by 1987. Multisector, integrated development is being stressed given recognition that nondemographic factors such as education, better housing, welfare services, policies to modernize agriculture, and economic diversification are essential to improvements in the population's standard of living.
An examination of the population structure of Liberia within the framework of the Kilimanjaro and Mexico City Recommendations on Population and Development: policy implications and mechanism.
In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, . 111-36.The age and sex composition and distribution of the population of Liberia as affected by fertility, mortality, morbidity, migration, and development are examined within the framework of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action and recommendations of the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City. The data used are projections (1984-85) published in the 2nd Socio-Economic Development Plan, 1980. The population of Liberia is increasing at the rate of 3.5% and will double in 23.1 years. 60% of the population is under 20 and 2% over 75. Projected life expectancy is 55.5 years for women and 53.4 years for men. The population is characterized by high age dependency; 47.1% of the people are under 15 and 2.9% are over 64, so that half of the population consists of dependent age groups, primarily the school-age children (6-11 years). If these children are to enter the labor force, it is estimated that 19,500 jobs will have to be created to employ them. Moreover, fertility remains at its constant high level (3.5%), so, as mortality declines, the economic problem becomes acute. Furthermore, high fertility is accompanied by high infant and maternal mortality. High infant mortality causes couples in rural areas to have more children. These interdependent circumstances point up the need for family planning, more adequate health care delivery systems, and increasing the number of schools to eradicate illiteracy, which is currently at 80%. Integrated planning and development strategies and appropriate allotment of funds must become part of the government's policy if the Kilimanjaro and Mexico City recommendations are to be implemented.