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In: World Health Organization. Manual of the international statistical classification of diseases, injuries, and causes of death. Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 761-8.This presentation defines live birth, fetal death, causes of death, underlying causes of death, birthweight and low birthweigth, gestational age, preterm, term, postterm, and maternal mortality. It makes recommendations regarding the following: responsibility for medical certification of cause of death; form of medical certificate of cause of death; confidentiality of medical information; selection of the cause for mortality tabulation; use of the International Classification of Diseases; perinatal mortality statistics; maternal mortality statistics, statistical tables; and tabulation of causes of death. Medical certification of cause of death should normally be the responsibility of the attending phsician. In the statistical use of the medical certificate of cause of death and other medical records, administrative procedures should provide such safeguards as are necessary to preserve the confidential nature of the information given by the position. It is recommended that national perinatal statistics should include all fetuses and infants delivered weight at least 500 gm (or, when birthweight is unavailable, the corresponding gestational age--22 weeks--or body length (25 cm crown heel), whether alive or dead). The maternal mortality rate, the direct obstetric death rate, and the indirect obstetric death rate should be expressed as rates per 1000 livebirths. The degree of detail in cross classification by cause, sex, age, and area of territory will depend partly on the purpose and range of the statistics and partly on the practical limits as regards the size of the tables. The patterns listed, designed to promote international comparability, consist of standard ways of expressing various characteristics.
New York, New York, UNICEF, . 42 p.In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.