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Revista de Saude Publica / Journal of Public Health. 2006 Apr; 40 Suppl:5-8.Recognizing the HIV/AIDS pandemic as an unprecedented worldwide emergency and one of the greatest challenges to life and the enjoyment of human rights, the United nations called on member states to reflect on this matter. In June 2001, around 20 years after the first AIDS cases were recorded, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV and AIDS (UNGASS HIV/AIDS) was held in New York. The Session culminated in the drafting of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS: a document that reflected the consensus between 189 countries, including Brazil, and stated some essential principles for an effective response to the epidemic. The Declaration recognized that economic, racial, ethnic, generational and gender inequalities, among others, were factors that boosted vulnerability and, whether acting separately or in synergy, favored HIV infection and the onset and evolution of AIDS. The Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS has become transformed into a tool for reaffirming the urgency and necessity of promoting the solidarity that the epidemic demands. It aims towards better management of the actions and resources destined for controlling HIV and AIDS and towards social control over public HIV/AIDS policies. (excerpt)
Combatting AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases in Africa: a review of the World Bank's agenda for action.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xiii, 34 p. (World Bank Discussion Papers 181; Africa Technical Department Series)Awareness of the patterns of HIV infection and the scope of AIDS worldwide has increased since the Africa Region of the World Bank issued its agenda in 1988 for action on AIDS in Africa. The Bank has therefore reviewed and reconfigured its approach to adopt a more broad and aggressive agenda against the pandemic. Once thought to be confined to urban areas, HIV infection is spreading rurally, AIDS has become the leading cause of death among hospital patients in several African capitals, and total AIDS cases are expected to reach 2.5 million in 1992. Projections even indicate that the prevalence of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa may increase from 2 million in 1988, to 6 million in 1992, and 10 million by 1994. HIV is spreading through virtually all African countries at all socioeconomic levels. AIDS clearly ranks among the top 5 health problems in Africa's urban populations and exacerbates the risk of other endemic diseases. HIV infection and AIDS may therefore certainly be considered as significant threats to population health and socioeconomic development in Africa. Accordingly, the World Bank should take a greater role in supporting research and the prevention of HIV infection. Specifically, the Bank may support the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases and research into the relationship of HIV with other potential cofactors, core transmitter groups, and the importance of not exhausting available resources exclusively upon AIDS. The Bank is currently developing country-specific multisectoral AIDS strategies to prevent new HIV infection and mitigate consequence. Internal interdepartmental coordination within the Bank could be improved and a more aggressive tack could be taken on lending for the prevention of HIV. The Bank also feels that the World Health Organization's Global program on AIDS should be reviewed and refined.