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  1. 1
    046823

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  2. 2
    043126

    Madagascar: population and family health assessment, May 13-31, 1985.

    Ferguson-Bisson D; LeComte J; Kennedy B

    [Unpublished] 1985. 78 p.

    A Population/Family Health Assessment was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Madagascar (GDRN) to review population and family planning activities and to make general recommendations for improvement, including the type of US Agency for International Development (USAID) population assistance that should be provided. Despite the fact that Madagascar's population of approximately 9 million is growing at a rate of 2.8% annually, meaning the population will double in less than 25 years, there is no official population policy. Yet, it is significant that the reduction of maternal and infant mortality and morbidity has been identified as an explicit goal in the health sector, and the country's actions long have reflected an attitude of acceptance and support of family planning. The private family planning association is recognized as a nongovernmental organization, which provides clinical and contraceptive services throughout Madagascar. The public health system offers no family planning services. Although the French law of 1920 forbidding the sale and use of contraceptives has not been rescinded, it is not enforced. The private family planning association now provides contraceptive services in 40 Ministry of Health facilities at the request of public health physicians, and the government has approved the participation of 35 medical and paramedical personnel in training courses as well as the installation of laparoscopic equipment in 8 medical facilities. Several other organizations provide child spacing services. Despite the efforts being made, the availability of contraceptive services remains limited, and contraceptive prevalence was estimated at 1% of women aged 15-49 in 1982. Several obstacles impede accessibility to contraceptive services and expansion of family planning programs, including a culture which favors large families, the strong influence of the Catholic Church, and a limited number of medical centers providing family planning services. Further, communication between the Office of Population and the Ministry of Health has not been the most favorable for the development of effective programs either area, but the recent naming of a physician to the position of Director of Population may facilitate closer collaboration. The recommendations made outline a general strategy for the initiation of population activities in the shortterm.
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  3. 3
    033882

    The Joint WHO/UNICEF Nutrition Support Programme.

    Gurney M

    World Health. 1985 Nov; 13-15.

    In November 1980, Dr. Halfdan Mahler, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and James Grant, head of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), drafted a joint program to improve the nutritional status of children and women through developmental measures based on primary health care. The government of Italy agreed to fund in full the estimated cost of US$85.3 million. When a tripartite agreement was signed in Rome in April 1982, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutrition Support Program (JNSP) came into being. It was agreed that resources would be concentrated in a number of countries to develop both demonstrable and replicable ways to improve nutrition. Thus far, projects are underway or are just starting in 17 countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. In most of these countries, infant and toddler mortality rates are considerably higher than the 3rd world averages. Program objectives include reducing infant and young child diseases and deaths and at the same time improving child health, growth, and development as well as maternal nutrition. These objectives require attention to be directed to the other causes of malnutrition as well as diet and food. JNSP includes nutrition and many other activities, such as control of diarrhea. The aim of all activities is better nutritional status leading to better health and growth and lower mortality. Feeding habits and family patterns differ from 1 country to another as do the JNSP country projects. Most JNSP projects adopt a multisectoral approach, incorporating varied activities that directly improve nutritional status. Activities involve agriculture and education as well as health but are only included if they can be expected to lead directly to improved nutrition. A multisectoral program calls for multisectoral management and involves coordination at all levels -- district, provincial, and national. This has been one of the most difficult things to get moving in many JNSP projects, yet it is one of the most important. Community participation is vital to all projects. Its success can only be judged as the projects unfold, but early experiences from several countries are encouraging.
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  4. 4
    267005

    Situation report on population in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 20-4.

    The level and growth rate of population in Bangladesh is seen as 1 of the nation's most critical problems, affecting nearly all sectors of development. Demographic data in Bangladesh is poor due to a lack of a functioning vital registration system or other reliable data collection systems. The most recent estimate of total population as of January 1, 1977, is 82 million. The average density is estimated at 531 persons/km (1974), with 90% of the population concentrated in the rural areas. The crude death rate remains high at 19/1000 population, with an infant mortality rate estimated at 150/1000 live births. The total fertility and annual growth rates are judged extremely high and are related to several factors of underdevelopment particular to Bangladesh. These include mothers' reluctance to postpone or space births because of a high incidence of infant deaths; a low level of literacy and employment of women; inadequate community health care facilities; and a lack of acceptable family planning services in rural areas. The effects and consequences of this demographic situation on all age groups in Bangladesh is apparent in all areas of development: economic growth, food production, and the delivery of health, education and social services. Although the level of contraceptive awareness is high, the extent of acceptance of contraceptive practice in the country is estimated at only 5% of eligible couples. Despite a heavy concentration of government efforts in its Population Control/Family Planning Division (PC/FP), success has been limited due to struggles between the government's Health and Population Division; frequent administrative reorganization; personnel problems; difficulties in transferring local funds; innovative program development rather than concentration on regular program activities; and the resistance of the population to family planning and limitation. A family planning component has been included in most foreign assistance schemes (IDA;USAID;UNFPA). Of concern to UNICEF is the slow implementation of the family planning side and the generally poor level of maternal and child health care which falls under the PC/FP Division, rather than the Health Division.
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