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New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994 viii, 82 p. (Programme Review and Strategy Development Report No. 34)This report describes the present demographic and socioeconomic situation in Ethiopia; the national population program, policies, and supporting international agencies; and recommendations for a population and development strategy. The recommendations involve general proposals on population policy, service delivery, IEC (information, education, and communication), social mobilization, human resource development, resource mobilization and program coordination, sectoral strategies, data collection, training and research, maternal and child health, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, adolescent reproductive health, population IEC, women in development, and environmental and population issues. Currently, programs are implemented in fragmented and uncoordinated ways. The recommendation is to create mechanisms for an integrated approach and an institutional mechanism for mobilizing and coordinating external assistance, such as a UN Population Fund (UNFPA) catalytic role in organizing meetings between government, donor agencies, and nongovernmental groups. There is currently a low level of infrastructural and technological development. The government social development initiatives will be directed to economic recovery and reconstruction. Policy makers have been made aware of the importance of integrating population into development. UNFPA has given its support since 1973; its second country program for 1987-1992 met with obstacles such as political instability, lack of a comprehensive and explicit population policy, lack of a policy-making institution for population programs, insufficient data, lack of culturally-sensitive IEC, and lack of defined policy guidelines. The health infrastructure only meets the needs of about 50% of the population. Awareness of the interrelationships among women, population, and development is insufficient.