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  1. 1

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  2. 2

    United Nations International Conference on Population, 6-13 August 19849

    Brown GF

    Studies in Family Planning. 1984 Nov-Dec; 15(6/1):296-302.

    The international Conference on Population, held in Mexico City in August 1984, met to review past developments and to make recommendations for future implementation of the World Population Plan of Action. Despite the several ifferences of opinion, the degree of controversy was minor for an intergovernmental meeting of this size. The 147 government delegations at the Conference reached overall agreement on recommendations for future international commitment to expanding population efforts in the future. This review examines the recommendations of the Mexico Conference with regard to health, family planning, women in development, research, and realted issues. The total 88 recommendations wre intended to reaffirm and refine the World Population Plan of Action adopted in Bucharest in 1974, and to strengthen the Plan for the next decade. Substantial improvement in development was noted including fertility and mortality declines, improvements in school enrollement and literacy rates, as well as access to health services. Economic trends, however, were much less encouraging. While the global rate of population growth has declined slightly since 1974, world population has increased by 770 million during the decade, with 90% of that increase in the developing countries. Part of the controversy at the Conference focused on the remarkable change of position by the US delegation, which largely reversed the policies expressed at Bucharest. The US delegation stated that population was a neutral issue in development, that development is the primary requirement in achieving fertility decline. Several recommendations emphasized the need to integrate population and development planning, and called for increased national and international efforts toward the eradication of mass hunger, illiteracy, and unemployment; achievement of adaquate health and nutrition levels; and improvement in women's status. The need for futher development of management, training, information, education and communication was recognized. A clear call to strenghten global efforts in population policies and programs emerged.
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  3. 3

    Situation report on population in Bangladesh.

    Preble EA

    In: UNICEF Bangladesh. Situation analysis report, prepared for UNICEF Bangladesh country programming. [Dacca] Bangladesh, UNICEF, 1977 Apr. 20-4.

    The level and growth rate of population in Bangladesh is seen as 1 of the nation's most critical problems, affecting nearly all sectors of development. Demographic data in Bangladesh is poor due to a lack of a functioning vital registration system or other reliable data collection systems. The most recent estimate of total population as of January 1, 1977, is 82 million. The average density is estimated at 531 persons/km (1974), with 90% of the population concentrated in the rural areas. The crude death rate remains high at 19/1000 population, with an infant mortality rate estimated at 150/1000 live births. The total fertility and annual growth rates are judged extremely high and are related to several factors of underdevelopment particular to Bangladesh. These include mothers' reluctance to postpone or space births because of a high incidence of infant deaths; a low level of literacy and employment of women; inadequate community health care facilities; and a lack of acceptable family planning services in rural areas. The effects and consequences of this demographic situation on all age groups in Bangladesh is apparent in all areas of development: economic growth, food production, and the delivery of health, education and social services. Although the level of contraceptive awareness is high, the extent of acceptance of contraceptive practice in the country is estimated at only 5% of eligible couples. Despite a heavy concentration of government efforts in its Population Control/Family Planning Division (PC/FP), success has been limited due to struggles between the government's Health and Population Division; frequent administrative reorganization; personnel problems; difficulties in transferring local funds; innovative program development rather than concentration on regular program activities; and the resistance of the population to family planning and limitation. A family planning component has been included in most foreign assistance schemes (IDA;USAID;UNFPA). Of concern to UNICEF is the slow implementation of the family planning side and the generally poor level of maternal and child health care which falls under the PC/FP Division, rather than the Health Division.
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  4. 4

    Tonga: report of a Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 38 p. (Report No. 51)

    Tonga's annual population growth rate is 2.01% (1975-1980). There is a high birth rate, but emigration has eased population pressures somewhat. Tonga's development plans include population objectives and the nation has a family planning program; but there is no comprehensive national population policy. The Mission recommends that new posts be created within the planning structure for dealing with population concerns. The posts should be filled by trained nationals. A constraint to planning has been the lack of statistics. More survey data are needed. The Mission recommends that the censuses continue decennially. Registration of emigrants should be adopted, and that steps should be taken to help expand and strengthen the capacity of local institutions for social and economic research. Post-secondary courses should be developed to this end. The Mission also recommends assistance for filling vacant supervisory posts, strengthening the training capability of the Tonga Health Center, and recruiting more pulbic health nurses. Another recommendation is that health data collection and health education be strengthened. Curricula and materials on population concerns should be designed and teachers trained in their use. The Mission recommends expanding the use of radio for communication of population and health information. Women's activities and organizations need coordination. Extensive village-based training is recommended for women, youth, and rural residents.
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  5. 5

    Samoa: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 39 p. (Report No. 52)

    Samoa's major population problem is a high rate of natural population increase. The crude birth rate from 1971-1976 is estimated at 37.4/1000. The total fertility rate was estimated at 6.7 for the same period. Emigration has compensated for much of the natural population increase. The infant mortality rate is low; life expectancy is 64.3 years for females and 61 for males. A maternal and child health program with integrated child-spacing services is government supported. In 1979, 13% of all women of reproductive age used contraception. Samoa's 4th Five-Year National Devlopment Plan (1980-1984) includes a review of population trends. There is a need to develop a broad-based population policy. The Mission recommends that, to assist in the formulation and implementation of this policy, a high-level government office be appointed to coordinate population efforts, and a post of Population Coordinator created. Considerable data exist, although more information on specific development-related topics would be helpful. The Mission recommends that a survey unit should be set up. Service delivery of the maternal and child health and family planning activities should be improved. Traditional village social institutions should be included. The government plans to integrate population and family life education into the educational system through teacher training and curriculum development. Assistance in the produciton of materials would be helpful. The Mission recommends that women's activities be better coordinated.
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  6. 6

    Viet Nam: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1983. 59 p. (Report No. 53)

    An estimated 53.7 million people lived in Vietnam in 1980. The government wants to lower the rate of population growth as soon as possible. Its short-term goal, to lower the annual rate to 1.7% by 1986, is to be met through the national family planning program. The government wishes to get more married women in the reproductive age group to use contraception--from 20% at present to 50-65% by the year 2000. 2nd major population goal is resettle 10 million people from the northern to the southern part of the country by the end of the century. Efforts should be made to improve the vital registration system. Population research is concentrated in the State Planning Committee, the research arms of various ministries, and in Government research agencies. This research needs to be strengthened. Overseas training and study tours should be provided for strengthening staff capabilities. Assistance should be provided for the government's primary health care approach with emphasis on community participation. Urgently needed are essential drugs and contraceptives--especially condoms. A factory for testing and packing condoms should be built, once the quality of locally produced latex improves. The Mission recommends that a systematic manpower development analysis be undertaken to aid the government in determining training needs of health personnel; their curricula should include more population and family planning content, and motivational and communication techniques. An audiovisual (AV) center was established in Hanoi; however the information, education, and communication (IEC) program needs strenthening. Aid should also be given for low-cost media production in the AV subcenter being started in Ho Chi Minh City. Perservice training of primary and secondary teachers will include population education. Women's activities should be promoted.
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  7. 7

    Kiribati: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 53 p. (Report No. 54)

    There is no comprehensive national population policy in Kiribati. Migration from the outer islands to urban South Tarawa is a problem. Overcrowding on the island will soon be severe. The National Development Plan aims at maintaining a balance between population and natural resources. The Mission proposes aid for population-related projects. The Central Planning Office coordinates the development activities. A National Population and Development Co-Ordinating Committee has been established. The government needs more staff to deal with overcrowding. The country's data base needs to be strengthened and upgraded. The Mission recommends that 1) another census be carried out in 1983; and 2) an inventory of research relating to Kiribati be maintained. The government has made efforts to provide an adequate health services network. The Mission recommends that a consultant be provided who specialized in health education and community participation. The family planning program has been diminishing in effectiveness. The Mission recommends support for: 1) a 3-year In-School Population Education Project; and 2) a project to focus on using communications programs to increase outer-island participation in population-related and development activites. The government has set up a Women's Interest Section to coordinate and develop policies and programs. The Mission recommends support for a 3-year project to aid the National Women's Federation. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities Youth Training Program should be supported. Protestants and Roman Catholics have promoted family life, health education and community-based activities.
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  8. 8

    Thailand: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)

    Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
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  9. 9

    Comoros Federal Islamic Republic: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 41 p. (Report No. 48)

    The population of the islands of the Comoros Federal Islamic Republic is extremely poor. An explicit demographic policy does not exist, however there is concern about high fertility, and the level of emigration. The government hopes to improve access to primary health care, and develop programs to combat major diseases. It gives special attention to maternal and child health care including child-spacing. The 1980 Census should help overcome the problem of a lack of basic demographic data. A demographic survey should take place after the census. A civil registration system should be created. Malaria and malnutrition are health problems. A study of home deliveries, a significant cause of maternal mortality, should be made. Methods of transporting people to hospitals should be improved. National epidemiological studies and research should be ongoing projects. Since women have not been integrated into the development effort, the Mission recommends that: 1) a study be taken on the roles and functions of the country's women; 2) a small grant to the Comorian Union of Women should be given; and 3) studies in the areas of population and health education should possibly be financed.
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  10. 10

    Maldives: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)

    The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.
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