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Paris, France, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], 1988. 90 p. (Demographic Change and Public Policy)This is the first in a planned series of volumes published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) concerning the economic and social consequences of demographic aging in OECD member countries. "This detailed statistical analysis of demographic trends in the 24 OECD countries examines the implications for public expenditure on education, health care, pensions and other social areas, and discusses the policy choices facing governments." Data are from official sources. (EXCERPT)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 38 p. (Report No. 51)Tonga's annual population growth rate is 2.01% (1975-1980). There is a high birth rate, but emigration has eased population pressures somewhat. Tonga's development plans include population objectives and the nation has a family planning program; but there is no comprehensive national population policy. The Mission recommends that new posts be created within the planning structure for dealing with population concerns. The posts should be filled by trained nationals. A constraint to planning has been the lack of statistics. More survey data are needed. The Mission recommends that the censuses continue decennially. Registration of emigrants should be adopted, and that steps should be taken to help expand and strengthen the capacity of local institutions for social and economic research. Post-secondary courses should be developed to this end. The Mission also recommends assistance for filling vacant supervisory posts, strengthening the training capability of the Tonga Health Center, and recruiting more pulbic health nurses. Another recommendation is that health data collection and health education be strengthened. Curricula and materials on population concerns should be designed and teachers trained in their use. The Mission recommends expanding the use of radio for communication of population and health information. Women's activities and organizations need coordination. Extensive village-based training is recommended for women, youth, and rural residents.
New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 41 p. (Report No. 48)The population of the islands of the Comoros Federal Islamic Republic is extremely poor. An explicit demographic policy does not exist, however there is concern about high fertility, and the level of emigration. The government hopes to improve access to primary health care, and develop programs to combat major diseases. It gives special attention to maternal and child health care including child-spacing. The 1980 Census should help overcome the problem of a lack of basic demographic data. A demographic survey should take place after the census. A civil registration system should be created. Malaria and malnutrition are health problems. A study of home deliveries, a significant cause of maternal mortality, should be made. Methods of transporting people to hospitals should be improved. National epidemiological studies and research should be ongoing projects. Since women have not been integrated into the development effort, the Mission recommends that: 1) a study be taken on the roles and functions of the country's women; 2) a small grant to the Comorian Union of Women should be given; and 3) studies in the areas of population and health education should possibly be financed.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 50 p. (Report No. 49)The rate of population increase in the Republic of Maldives was very low until the 1950s, but rose to more than 3% in the 1960s and early 1970s. An annual increase of 3.2% is estimated in the 1980s. The crude birth rate is high. Population increases like this will put enormous strains on most social activities. 4 clear population policies are emerging; 1) improvement in the health of mothers and children; 2) the need to control population growth, including improving acceptable family planning methods; 3) relief from overcrowding; and 4) development of the atolls to attract voluntary migration. The government has 3 additional aims: 1) increasing the quality and quantity of population statistics and its ability to analyze such data; 2) integrate women into development plans; and 3) improve education of children on environmental subjects, such as the interrelationship of the environment and population. The 1977 census was conducted with United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) assistance. It is hoped that at least 1 Family Health Worker plus at least one Fooluma (traditional birth attendant) will work on each inhabited island; and 2 Community Health Workers and a health center will exist on each atoll. The Maternal and Child Health Program, including child spacing, is incorporated in their job descriptions. There is 1 hospital in Male'; 4 regional hospitals are planned. Male' hospital provides family planning service. A very active National Women's Committee exists. The government is encouraging the establishment of Women's Committees for Island Progress. The average woman has had 5.73 children, of whom 3.99 are alive. The number of children preferred is 3.38. International migration to Male' is a problem. Literacy is high, but there is a shortage of trained personnel. The country needs external assistance.