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Generations and Gender Survey (GGS): Towards a better understanding of relationships and processes in the life course.
Demographic Research. 2007 Nov 30; 17(14):389-440.The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) is one of the two pillars of the Generations and Gender Programme designed to improve understanding of demographic and social development and of the factors that influence these developments. This article describes how the theoretical perspectives applied in the survey, the survey design and the questionnaire are related to this objective. The key features of the survey include panel design, multidisciplinarity, comparability, context-sensitivity, inter-generational and gender relationships. The survey applies the life course approach, focussing on the processes of childbearing, partnership dynamics, home leaving, and retiring. The selection of topics for data collection mainly follows the criterion of theoretically grounded relevance to explaining one or more of the mentioned processes. A large portion of the survey deals with economic aspects of life, such as economic activity, income, and economic well-being; a comparably large section is devoted to values and attitudes. Other domains covered by the survey include gender relationships, household composition and housing, residential mobility, social networks and private transfers, education, health, and public transfers. The third chapter of the article describes the motivations for their inclusion. The GGS questionnaire is designed for a face-to-face interview. It includes the core that each participating country needs to implement in full, and four optional submodules on nationality and ethnicity, on previous partners, on intentions of breaking up, and on housing, respectively. The participating countries are encouraged to include also the optional sub-modules to facilitate comparative research on these topics. (author's)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. 57 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/248)Part one of this report provides a global overview of demographic trends for major areas and selected countries. It reviews major population trends relating to population size and growth, urbanization and city growth, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality, including HIV/AIDS, and international migration. In addition, a section on population policies has been included, in which the concerns and responses of Governments to the major population trends are summarized. The outcomes of the United Nations conferences convened during the 1990s set an ambitious development agenda reaffirmed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, being one of the major United Nations conferences of the decade, addressed all population aspects relevant for development and provided in its Programme of Action a comprehensive set of measures to achieve the development objectives identified. Given the crucial importance of population factors for development, the full implementation of the Programme of Action and the key actions for its further implementation will significantly contribute to the achievement of the universally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. Part two discusses the relevance that particular actions contained in those documents have for the attainment of universally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. It also describes the key population trends relevant for development and the human rights basis that underpins key conference objectives and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Human Development Network, 2007 Apr.  p. (HNP Discussion Paper)The objective of this paper is to discuss some obstacles and opportunities presented by population processes in order to prioritize areas for investment and analytical work as background information for the 2007 HNP Sector Strategy. Within HNP, two areas fall within population: (1) reproductive, maternal, and sexual health issues, and the health services that address them; and (2) levels and trends in births, deaths, and migration that determine population growth and age structure. Many of the aspects of delivery of sexual and reproductive health services are addressed in the overall sector strategy. This paper, therefore, focuses on the determinants and consequences of demographic change, and on policies and interventions that pertain to fertility and family planning. Fertility has declined in most of the low- and middle-income countries, with TFRs converging toward replacement level, except in 35 countries, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa, where a broad-based decline in fertility has not occurred. As the priorities of donors and development agencies have shifted toward other issues, and global funds and initiatives have largely bypassed funding of family planning, less attention is being focused on the consequences of high fertility. Reproductive health is conspicuously absent from the MDGs, and assistance to countries to meet the demand for family planning and related services is insufficient. The need for Bank engagement in population issues pertains to economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as inequities in terms of the impact of high fertility on the poor and other vulnerable groups. Evidence indicates that large family size reduces household spending per child, possibly with adverse effects on girls, and the health of mothers and children are affected by parity and birth intervals. Equity considerations remain central to the Bank's work as poor people are less likely to have access to family planning and other reproductive health services. Other vulnerable groups that are less likely to be served by reproductive health services include adolescents and rural populations. Additionally, improved education for girls, equal opportunities for women in society, and a reduction of the proportion of households living below the poverty line are necessary elements of a strategy to achieve sustainable reductions in fertility. The Bank has a comparative advantage to address these issues at the highest levels of country policy setting, and its involvement in many sectors can produce synergies that will allow faster progress than a more narrow focus on family planning services. (author's)
Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2007 Apr; 22(1):3-7.While the science of demography addresses the whole of the human population, substantive demographic research is most often focused on populations with common characteristics. For the last six decades the nation state has been the social unit that has dominated demographic research. The reasons for this focus make perfect sense. Nations define their populations in terms of citizenship and define the ways in which people will be identified in any effort to count the numbers. They have the authority, the interest and the resources to carry out collections of information about members of these defined populations. As members of the United Nations they collaborate with other nations to develop the methodological and technical tools used to analyse national population numbers in ways that are relevant to state policies and actions. In short, the nation is the foundation unit for understanding human population composition and growth. Global population numbers are estimated by compiling the information collected by nations. Interest in populations of units smaller than the nation also relies on national statistical collections and national definitions of component populations, but for most users of data the focus is on the nation, and not the units beyond or below that political entity. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2007.  p. (ESA/P/WP.202)The 2006 Revision is the twentieth round of official United Nations population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. These are used throughout the United Nations system as the basis for activities requiring population information. The 2006 Revision builds on the 2004 Revision and incorporates both the results of the 2000 round of national population censuses and of recent specialized surveys carried around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2006 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will likely increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. This increase is equivalent to the size the world population had in 1950 and it will be absorbed mostly by the less developed regions, whose population is projected to rise from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050. In contrast, the population of the more developed regions is expected to remain largely unchanged at 1.2 billion and would have declined were it not for the projected net migration from developing to developed countries, which is expected to average 2.3 million persons annually. (excerpt)
Asia-Pacific Population Journal. 2006; 21(2-3):9-20.The 2005 World Summit was an important event for those of us working to realize commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo over ten years ago to improve the lives of poor women and men in the developing world. At the United Nations Headquarters in New York, the largest ever gathering of world leaders in history convened in September 2005 resolved to achieve universal access to reproductive health by 2015, promote gender equality and end discrimination against women - the pillars of the ICPD Programme of Action. The World Summit's success does not mean the challenges to achieve the goals contained in the ICPD Programme of Action have ended. Ideological and conservative opposition remains. In some countries where the right policies and effective models are in place, resource and capacity constraints make it difficult to scale-up, monitor and coordinate development programmes. In addition, in places where development programmes have shown demonstrable results, the development community has had limited success in reaching and transforming the lives and futures of the poorest and most disadvantaged. (excerpt)
Normal CD4+ T lymphocyte levels in HIV seronegative individuals in the Manya / Yilo Krobo communities in the eastern region of Ghana.
Viral Immunology. 2006; 19(2):260-266.The goal of this study was to determine the normal levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes in healthy individuals who were HIV seronegative in the Manya and Yilo Krobo Districts of Ghana's Eastern Region. This enabled comparisons with normal CD4 count ranges established by the World Health Organization (WHO). The study population consisted of 249 HIV-seronegative clients from a mobile free Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) service in communities of the two districts during a one-month period. The mean CD4 count of these individuals was 1067 cells/µl with women demonstrating higher baseline CD4 counts than men. This study found a WHO comparable HIV seronegative baseline CD4 count as well as gender-based differences in the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio. Establishment of the adult baseline for the country provides important demographic data and indicates the appropriateness of current global treatment guidelines with regards to CD4 levels in Ghana. (author's)
Female Migrants: Bridging the Gaps throughout the Life Cycle. Selected papers of the UNFPA-IOM Expert Group Meeting, New York, 2-3 May 2006.
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2006. 136 p.Women make up nearly half of all migrants, an estimated 95 million of 191 million people living outside their countries of origin in 2005. Having said this, after many years of observing migration and collecting data there is remarkably little reliable information about women as migrants. This anomaly underlines their continuing invisibility to policymakers and development planners. The High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development by the General Assembly on 14-15 September 2006 offers the best opportunity in a generation to address the rights, needs, capabilities and contribution of women migrants. Equal numbers do not confer equality of treatment. Women have fewer opportunities than men for legal migration; many women become irregular migrants with concomitant lack of support and exposure to risk. Whether they migrate legally or not, alone or as members of a family unit, women are more vulnerable than men to violence and exploitation. Their needs for health care, including reproductive health care, and other services are less likely to be met. They have more limited opportunities than men for social integration and political participation. Migration can be beneficial, both for women and for the countries which send and receive them. Women migrants make a significant economic contribution through their labour, both to their countries of destination and, through remittances, to their countries of origin. In societies where women's power to move autonomously is limited, the act of migration is in itself empowering. It stimulates change in women migrants themselves, and in the societies which send and receive them. In the process women's migration can become a force for removing existing gender imbalances and inequities, and for changing underlying conditions so that new imbalances and inequities do not arise. Women's voluntary migration is a powerful force for positive change in countries both of origin and of destination. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Population Reference Bureau [PRB], 2005.  p. (MENA Policy Briefs)Development experts increasingly see family planning and other reproductive health care as vital for improving well-being and achieving other social and development goals. The use of modern contraceptives, for example, helps couples avoid unintended pregnancies and protects both mothers’ and children’s health. Other reproductive health care helps women have healthy pregnancies and helps protect women and men against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. The linkages between reproductive health and development are particularly important in the Middle East and North Africa (MEAN), where progress toward development goals is uneven. Investing in reproductive health, however, rarely ranks high on the list of national priorities, which usually emphasize creating jobs and raising incomes. This lack of attention is counterproductive. Prioritizing women’s reproductive health at a national level would help accelerate progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)—a global development framework adopted by the United Nations (UN) for improving people’s lives and combating poverty. This policy brief examines how countries in the MEAN region are progressing toward achieving the MDGs and highlights how these countries could benefit from greater attention to reproductive health. The region is moving in the right direction on most MDG indicators, but priority attention is needed to increase gender equality, expand quality health services, and address freshwater scarcity. (excerpt)
Commission gives high priority to monitoring global trends - UN Population Commission meeting, Mar 28-31, 1994 - includes information on preparation of action program to be recommended at the Sep 5-13, 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, Egypt.
UN Chronicle. 1994 Jun; 31(2): p..The effect of population growth on the environment, the role and status of women, and the demographic implications of development Policies were among major topics discussed by the Population Commission at its twenty-seventh session (28-31 March, New York). "The most important lesson we have learned is that population growth and other demographic trends can only be affected by investing in people and by promoting equality between women and men", Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and Secretary-General of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, told the 26-member body. In the single text approved during the session, for adoption by the Economic and Social Council, the Commission asked that high priority be given to monitoring world population trends and policies, and to strengthening multilateral technical cooperation to address population concerns. (excerpt)
Age misreporting in Malawian censuses and sample surveys: an application of the United Nations' joint age and sex score.
South African Journal of Demography. 1995; 5(1):11-17.The impact of age in demographic analyses, factors associated with age misreporting, the United Nations' procedure of evaluating age statistics and the application of this procedure to Malawian censuses are discussed. Although age reporting still remains inaccurate, there is some evidence to suggest a slight improvement in the quality of age reporting. Age misreporting varies from one region or district to another. These variations are explained in terms of the existing social, historical and cultural differences within the country. (author's)
Habitat Debate. 2001 Jun; 7(2): p..Population and household projections are of crucial importance to both policy makers and researchers who depend on timely and reliable projections to make informed decisions and to produce quality research studies. Currently, one of the most problematic areas regarding projections is the demographic impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in countries with high prevalence rates i.e. how the epidemic is influencing population and household projections. At the end of the year 2000, 36.1 million people were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS, of which 1.4 million were children. 47 per cent of the infected adults were women. 5.3 million people will be newly infected during this year. The pandemic does not spread homogeneously. The number of infections, the risk of dying, the access to medication and the principal transmission ways vary worldwide, and so does the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on population structure and on household formation. In countries where the epidemic is endemic in the general population, the impact on the age and gender structure of the population is significant, and changes in the social context and behaviour are certain. (excerpt)
International Migration Review. 1973 Summer; 7(2):189-190.A fact emerged from the 35th session of the Council of the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) is the importance of the Refugee Migration, although a slight increase in the National Migration Programme is foreseen for 1973. As of November 30, 1972, 56, 368 Refugees had already been moved by ICEM to countries of resettlement and this number was close to 58,000 by the end of the year. A similar number of Refugee Migration movements is estimated for 1973. The ICEM Refugee Programme for 1972 and 1973 comprises: the Jews emigrating to Israel; they will be at least 36,000 in 1972 (32,000 from the USSR and 4,000 from other countries) and it is estimated that another 36,000 will migrate in 1973; the other Eastern European refugees emigrating to other countries; some 4,600 have departed or are being processed for resettlement in Austria and 3,300 in Italy. Movements in 1973 are estimated at about the same level as in 1972, but could be higher because of an increase in newly arriving refugees during the last quarter of 1972; the Cuban refugees from Spain; also more than 6,000 have migrated in 1972 (mainly to USA), another 25,000 are still awaiting resettlement overseas and some 1,000 new refugees continue to arrive each month in Spain. This influx represents a problem since it is foreseen that only 6,000 will depart to immigration countries in 1973; the refugees emigrating from the Middle East, mainly Armenians, whose number is about 1,000 per year for 1972 and 1973; the non-Europeans from the Far-East concern yearly about 3,000 refugees from countries in South East Asia, many emigrating to the USA. (excerpt)
Population Index. 1948 Apr; 14(2):97-104.Research in migration has been peculiarly susceptible to the changing problems of the areas and the periods in which demographers work. American studies of international movements diminished after the passage of Exclusion Acts, and virtually ceased as immigration dwindled during the depression years. On the other hand, surveys of internal migration proliferated as the facts of mass unemployment and the social approaches of the New Deal focused governmental attention on the relation of people to resources and to economic opportunity. Geographers and historians took over the field the demographers had vacated. The studies of pioneer settlement directed by Isaiah Bowman and those of Marcus Hansen dealing with the Atlantic crossing are outstanding illustrations of this non-demographic research on essentially demographic problems. Even when demographers investigated international movements they served principally as quantitative analysts of historical exchanges. This is not to disparage such studies as that of Truesdell on the Canadian in the United States, or of Coates on the United States immigrant in Canada, but merely to emphasize the point that Americans regarded international migration as an issue of the past. (excerpt)
Population Index. 1954 Oct; 20(4):241-248.As most demographers know, a World Population Conference was held in Rome from August 31 to September 10 this year under the sponsorship of the United Nations, its interested specialized agencies and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population. In terms of scope of subject matter, amount of documentation and breadth of geographic distribution in attendance it proved to be much the largest population conference ever held. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2004 Sep; 30(3):507-517.World Population in 2300 (United Nations 2003b), reporting on the proceedings of a December 2003 expert group meeting on long-range population projections and presenting the results of a new set of United Nations population projections, bears out Hajnal's argument. Among his three propositions, the validity of the second is the most obvious. There has been a veritable outpouring of demographic projections during the last 50 years, prepared by various international organizations and national agencies, as well as by independent analysts. Among these, the United Nations Population Division's now biennially revised projections are by far the most detailed, best known, and most widely used. This well-deserved prominence reflects the Division's unparalleled access to national data, its in-house analytic experience and resources, and its willingness to draw on outside expertise whenever that might usefully complement its own. The most recent of the biennial projections, the 2002 Revision (United Nations 2003a), is the immediate predecessor of World Population in 2300, and indeed the former provides the year 2000 to 2050 component for the new set of long-term projections covering the next 300 years. This new set is not just one among the many. It is distinguished from the routine by an exceptionally brave ambition: to draw a picture of plausible demographic futures up to the year 2300 and to do so in extraordinary detail: country-by-country according to the political map of the early twenty-first century. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2004.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/233)This volume presents the analytical report for World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, the official United Nations population estimates and projections. The analytical report is the third volume of a three-volume set; the earlier two published volumes provide the comprehensive tables and the sex and age distribution of the population of all countries of the world. A CD-Rom containing the results of the 2002 Revision population estimates and projections is also available for purchase. A description of these data sets contained in each and an order form appear at the end of this volume. The 2002 Revision is the eighteenth round of global demographic estimates and projections undertaken by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. Between 1951 and 2000, following an early attempt in the 1940s, 17 revisions of population estimates and projections were published: in 1951, 1954, 1957, 1963, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1998 and 2000. This analytical report employs a different format than previous reports. In particular, the first five chapters, provide succinct and easy accessible summaries of the main demographic tendencies covered. More detailed analytical tables are given in the annex. Chapter VI, on the demographic impact of HIV/AIDS, provides more details than the other chapters because of the importance of its subject. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2001.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/207)The Population Division of the United Nations has a long tradition of studying population ageing, including estimating and projecting older populations, and examining the determinants and consequences of population ageing. From the groundbreaking report on population ageing in 1956, which focused mainly on population ageing in the more developed countries, to the first United Nations wallchart on population ageing issues published in 1999, the Population Division has consistently sought to bring population ageing to the attention of the international community. The present report is intended to provide a solid demographic foundation for the debates and follow-up activities of the Second World Assembly on Ageing. The report considers the process of population ageing for the world as a whole, for more and less developed regions, major areas and regions, and individual countries. Demographic profiles covering the period 1950 to 2050 are provided for each country, highlighting the relevant indicators of population ageing. (excerpt)
China Population Today. 2004 Jun; 21(3):11-13.The demographic structure of populations, particularly age and sex, has profound consequences for harmonious and sustainable social and economic development. Furthermore, analyzing sex ratios of populations is important in analyzing the development of the status of women and girls. Following is a brief report released by WFPA China on the facts and figures about the sex ratios in the world and especially in China. According to the five censuses, the sex ratio in the general population has been high throughout the last 50 years. As shown in Chart 2, sex ratio at birth in China has increased over the past two decades, from 109 in 1982 to 117 in 2000. (excerpt)
AIDS. 2004; 18 Suppl 2:S67-S73.Objective: To assess the accuracy of demographic estimates that include the effects of HIV/AIDS on adult mortality. Design: To compare estimates of demographic indicators based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates and projections with newly available estimates based on cohort studies, hospital records, national surveys and other sources of data. Methods: New information has become available recently from a number of sites in Africa on the ratio of mortality among the HIV-positive and HIV-negative population, the proportion of all adult deaths attributable to AIDS, and the number of orphans. These data are compared with the same indicators calculated from UNAIDS/WHO estimates to assess the accuracy of those estimates. Results: Differences between demographic indicators based on UNAIDS/WHO estimates and study-based estimates are generally within the uncertainty range of the UNAIDS/WHO figures. Conclusion: Demographic estimates based on surveillance data and demographic models are close enough to study-based estimates to be useful for advocacy and medium-term planning. However, significant differences do exist that should be taken into account for short-term planning. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1973 Jul 9.  p. (SHC/WS/297)The paper entitled "The Impact of Education on Fertility Patterns: An Analytical Survey of Research Findings" reviews findings on the relationship between education and fertility in developed and developing countries. It presents age-education-specific fertility data for selected countries and discusses problems in data collection and analysis. The use of models an statistical techniques in the analysis of the relationship between education and fertility is considered in the final section. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 1972 Dec 4.  p. (SHC/WS/276)This present study attempts to review the state of knowledge today on the relationship between educational attainment and fertility, and to list some of the major institutions conducting research in the area of human fertility, which takes into account the effect of education on fertility. Finally, a bibliography of recent literature (in English) dealing with education and fertility, is given here. (excerpt)
Application of the factor analysis of correspondence to a fertility survey in Algeria. [Application de l'analyse factorielle de correspondance à une étude de fertilité en Algérie]
[Unpublished] 1972. Presented at the Seminar on the Role of Social Sciences in Demographic Activities, UNESCO, Paris, France, June 19-23, 1972. 39 p. (SHC.72/Conf.13/6)The so-called factor method of correspondence shows that it is possible to analyse globally and simultaneously all the large number of variables that come into consideration in a survey where the sample is relatively small, as is most often the case in investigations into, for example, fertility factors or the motives for migration. This method brings to light the highly logical structure and inner coherence of the replies formulated by the respondent without however going beyond a simple description of the facts and a classification of the variables. It also shows the wealth of material available through the so-called C.A.P. fertility surveys, which furnish us with information not only on fertility but also on daily life in the Third World. Educational status and the development of mass communication media unquestionably stand out as the principal variables in Algeria, where considerable efforts have in fact been made in this domain over the past few years. However, the results of these efforts have yet to influence the fertility rate, still one of the highest in the Third World. It is indeed only to be expected that there should be a time-lag between the occurrence of changes in economic and social conditions and the moment when the fertility rate begins in turn to be affected. (excerpt)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 137-150.This volume chronicles the remarkable success -- indeed, the reproductive revolution -- that has taken place over the last thirty years, in which the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has played such a major role. Our purpose in this chapter is to contrast the situation at the century's end with the one that existed at the time of UNFPA's creation thirty years ago, and to project from the current situation to the new challenges that lie ahead. In many respects, the successful completion of the fertility transition that is now so far advanced will bring an entirely new set of challenges, and these will require a fundamental rethinking about the future mandate, structure, staffing and programme of UNFPA in the twenty-first century. Our purpose here is to identify those challenges and speculate about their implications. (author's)
In: An agenda for people: the UNFPA through three decades, edited by Nafis Sadik. New York, New York, New York University Press, 2002. 2-23.In demographic terms, the last thirty years have been quite distinct from the period that preceded it, or, indeed, from any other period in history. The global fertility level had been almost stable for at least twenty years prior to 1965-1969, with a total fertility rate just under 5 children per woman, and this stability did not hide countervailing forces in different parts of the world. The developed countries, whether they had participated or not in the post-World War II “baby boom,” showed no strong trends in fertility, with a total fertility rate remaining around 2.7. The same lack of change characterized the developing countries, but there the total fertility rate was well over 6, as it may well have been for millennia. (excerpt)