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Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2011.  p. (Directions in Development)The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer, but of significance for policy makers, a population with a large fraction of dependent children has evolved into a population with fewer dependents and a very large proportion of working-age adults. This overview seeks to introduce the reader to three groups of issues related to population aging in LAC. First is a group of issues related to the support of the aging and poverty in the life cycle. Second is the question of the health transition. Third is an understanding of the fiscal pressures that are likely to accompany population aging and to disentangle the role of demography from the role of policy in that process.
Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):151-153.In the coming decades, the global population will urbanize and age at high rates. Today, half of the world's populations lives in cities.1 By 2030, that proportion will rise to 60%, and urbanization will occur most greatly in developing countries. At the same time, the world's population aged 60 and over will double from 11% to 22% by 2050, and that growth will be concentrated in urban areas in less developed countries. All of these trends challenge public health workers, doctors, researchers, and urban planners to ensure healthy livable cities for older people. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2005. 57 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/248)Part one of this report provides a global overview of demographic trends for major areas and selected countries. It reviews major population trends relating to population size and growth, urbanization and city growth, population ageing, fertility and contraception, mortality, including HIV/AIDS, and international migration. In addition, a section on population policies has been included, in which the concerns and responses of Governments to the major population trends are summarized. The outcomes of the United Nations conferences convened during the 1990s set an ambitious development agenda reaffirmed by the United Nations Millennium Declaration in September 2000. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, being one of the major United Nations conferences of the decade, addressed all population aspects relevant for development and provided in its Programme of Action a comprehensive set of measures to achieve the development objectives identified. Given the crucial importance of population factors for development, the full implementation of the Programme of Action and the key actions for its further implementation will significantly contribute to the achievement of the universally agreed development goals, including those in the Millennium Declaration. Part two discusses the relevance that particular actions contained in those documents have for the attainment of universally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals. It also describes the key population trends relevant for development and the human rights basis that underpins key conference objectives and recommendations for action. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations, 2007.  p. (ESA/P/WP.202)The 2006 Revision is the twentieth round of official United Nations population estimates and projections prepared by the Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat. These are used throughout the United Nations system as the basis for activities requiring population information. The 2006 Revision builds on the 2004 Revision and incorporates both the results of the 2000 round of national population censuses and of recent specialized surveys carried around the world. These sources provide both demographic and other information to assess the progress made in achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The comprehensive review of past worldwide demographic trends and future prospects presented in the 2006 Revision provides the population basis for the assessment of those goals. According to the 2006 Revision, the world population will likely increase by 2.5 billion over the next 43years, passing from the current 6.7 billion to 9.2 billion in 2050. This increase is equivalent to the size the world population had in 1950 and it will be absorbed mostly by the less developed regions, whose population is projected to rise from 5.4 billion in 2007 to 7.9 billion in 2050. In contrast, the population of the more developed regions is expected to remain largely unchanged at 1.2 billion and would have declined were it not for the projected net migration from developing to developed countries, which is expected to average 2.3 million persons annually. (excerpt)
Maturitas. 2001 Feb 28; 38(1):5-15.The global population reached two billion people in 1927 and six billion in 1999. If the medium variant projection of the United Nations were to materialize, the Earth's population would reach nine billion in 2054. However, such a brave new world will be inhabited by a brave old humankind; in 2050, 16.4% of the world population and 27.6% of the European population are projected to be 65 years and above, and in 14 countries, including nine European ones, more than 10% of the total population will be 80 years or older. The United Nations also project a world-wide decline in the number of children and in total fertility, and by 2050, there will be more elderly than children in several parts of the world, particularly in Europe. It seems likely that many of our classical institutions, for instance healthcare -- unless reformed -- will cater increasingly for the needs of a population structure that no longer exists. The World Health Organization projects that by the year 2020, global health trends will be dominated by the ageing of the world population, the HIV:AIDS epidemic, tobacco-related mortality and declining child mortality. Furthermore, the leading causes of disease burden will be heart disease, depression and traffic accidents. How can we meet the giant challenges of the 21st century? In the view of the author, the most rational remedy must be a quantum leap in research in general and in medical research in particular. (author's)
What the United Nations should be about our ageing world - opinion - UN Second World Assembly on Ageing - development, health, supportive environments.
UN Chronicle. 2002 Jun-Aug; 39(2): p..Rapid population ageing in the developing world presents a special challenge to the United Nations and the international community. Older people in resource-poor countries have the same rights as other sectors of the population, yet violation of their rights due to chronic poverty still has to be addressed. All UN Member States need to make a commitment to address population ageing and its consequences, in the same spirit that they have acted to promote the rights of the child and protection of the environment. As the world ages, poverty and isolation of those who live into older age frequently undermine the benefits of a long life. Population ageing is a critical issue in the twenty-first century. It is imperative that the implications of global population ageing for poverty reduction and for development be acknowledged and acted upon. (excerpt)
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):4.This meeting recognizes the 10th anniversary of the historic International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo, Egypt. The Cairo conference dealt with a wide range of issues – each extremely important in its own right. The organizers of this event, however, felt it was necessary to limit our focus in order that our time and energy can be utilized to their best advantage. For this reason, Forum 2004 will highlight four areas: Migration, HIV/AIDS, Aging, and Reproductive Health. It is our fervent hope that what will emerge from this meeting is a clearer vision of where we have to go and what we must do to ensure that the goals of the Cairo Program of Action will be met. Ten years ago, I wrote a newspaper opinion article in which I emphasized that the specific targets of the Program of Action were realistic and obtainable. But I stressed that it was important to monitor progress along the way that it would be irresponsible to allow the ICPD document to be swept into the dustbins of history. Many nations are indeed implementing or attempting to implement the Program of Action. But progress has not been uniform. Much still needs to be done, particularly in the world’s least developed countries. (excerpt)
Health for the Millions. 2004 Aug-Nov; 58-60.This article reviews the highlights of ICPD, the International Conference on Population and Development held in 1994 at Cairo and the key actions for the further implementation of the Programme of Action of the ICPD adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1999 for addressing population ageing challenges in the twenty first century. It was the time when it was recognized by the world community that a global demographic revolution is underway at the heart of which is the growth in the number and proportion of older people. Developing countries like-the developed ones are also witnessing a transition from high death and birth rates to low mortality and fertility. (excerpt)
Population ageing and development: social, health and gender issues. Report of an Expert Group Meeting, Population Ageing and Development: Social, Health and Gender Issues with a Focus on the Poor in Old Age, 29-31 October 2001, Valletta, Malta. [Envejecimiento de la población y desarrollo: aspectos sociales, de salud y de género. Informe de la reunión del Grupo de Expertos sobre Envejecimiento y Desarrollo: aspectos sociales, de salud y de género centrado en los pobres en la vejez, 29-31 de octubre de 2001, Valletta, Malta]
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002 Apr. x, 93 p. (Population and Development Strategies Series No. 3)Professor Fenech welcomed participants of the Expert Group Meeting on Population Ageing and Development, convened in Malta by the United Nations Population Fund in collaboration with the UN Programme on Ageing, HelpAge International and the AARR He stated that INIA was proud to host the event. "This three-day international expert group meeting is particularly timely and important, for during these three days, we will explore the approaches and programmes that are meaningful and necessary to address the needs of the older poor and frail, especially those living in developing countries. It is hoped that at the end of the meeting there will be a set of recommendations which could be presented at the Second World Assembly on Ageing in Madrid in April next year. I am confident that we are going to have a most productive and fruitful meeting". (excerpt)
Short-term training in the demographic aspects of population ageing and its implications for socio-economic development, policies and plans. Report of the Expert Group Meeting held in Malta, 6-9 December 1993.
Valletta, Malta, United Nations, International Institute on Ageing, 1994. 127 p.The International Institute on Aging (INIA), an autonomous body within the UN, was established by the UN Secretary General in 1988 in order to fulfill the training needs on aging within developing countries. INIA developed training courses on Social Gerontology, Geriatrics, Income Security, and Physical Therapy and has trained 485 persons from 76 countries. This INIA expert group meeting report presents background papers and presentations from a workshop held on December 6-9, 1993, and recommendations. Nine papers by separate authors are reported in this article. The topics include 1) demographic aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, 2) demographic trends in aging and economic conditions in Poland, 3) consideration of aging issues among a young population in Mexico, 4) the demographic and socioeconomic implications of aging in China, 5) the demographic implications of aging among Mediterranean countries, 6) the social implications of aging in developing countries, 7) the demography of aging and economic implications, 8) selected aspects of population aging and the implications for socioeconomic development, and 9) essentials of short-term training in the demography of aging. Training courses should be directed to anyone involved in planning, formulating, and implementing national/regional policy and in research design on population aging. Courses should also apply to those who directly influence socioeconomic decision making processes related to aging issues. Applicants for training should have a statistical or demographic background, working knowledge of computers, work in or planned work in the field of aging, and proficiency in the language in which the course is taught. It is recommended that courses offer a variety of educational techniques and off-site visits and that the training group not exceed 20 persons. Participants should represent no more than two geographic regions, and the materials used in the course should be compiled and given to INIA upon course completion.
In: European Population Conference / Conference Europeenne sur la Population. Proceedings / Actes. Volume 2. 23-26 March 1993, Geneva, Switzerland / 23-26 mars 1993, Geneve, Suisse, [compiled by] United Nations. Economic Commission for Europe, Council of Europe, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Strasbourg, France, Council of Europe, 1994. 235-9.Population is expected to increase at a rate of 0.5% annually in Malta. Population aging will continue as a result of increased life expectancy and declining fertility. In 1989, the birth rate was 15.1/1000. Excess population in Malta has found release through migration, and only 22% returned during the period 1946-74. Migration and emigration were balanced between 1974 and 1987. Since then, an increase in emigration has added to population aging. In 1990, the population pyramid indicated an unstable population. 24.3% are aged 30-44 years, 30.7% aged under 20 years, and 14.7% aged over 60 years. People aged 20-60 years comprised the largest population group (54.6%). By 2020, the elderly will comprise 23.3% of total population. Expenditures on services and social security for the elderly have increased since 1987 in accordance with government policy on increased social spending. The second phase of the demographic transition began after 1942 with a decline in infant mortality. The third phase began in the mid-1950s with a stabilization of the crude mortality rate and a decline in the birth rate. Responsible parenthood was encouraged in 1956 and thereafter, because of government concerns about future economic and social conditions and population density. The largest drop in the crude birth rate (33-16.3) occurred between 1950 and 1970. The final transition occurred after 1970 and was characterized by low birth and death rates.
National report on population and development of Malaysia. International Conference on Population and Development, September, 1994, Cairo.
[Kuala Lumpur], Malaysia, National Population and Family Development Board, Technical Working Group for ICPD, 1993. , 64 p.Malaysia considers its population policy an integral part of its overall social and economic policy planning. In order to achieve its goal of becoming an industrialized nation by the year 2020, Malaysia considers it imperative to create a quality population based around a strong family unit and a caring society. This report on population and development in Malaysia begins with a description of the demographic context in terms of past and current trends in population size, growth, and structure; fertility, mortality, and migration as well as the outlook for the future. The implementation of the population policy, planning, and program is described in the context of the following issues: longterm population growth, fertility interventions, women's labor force participation, aging, the family, internal and international migration, urbanization, and the environment. The evolution of the population policy is included as is its relationship with such other population-related policies as health, education, human resource development, regional development, and the eradication of poverty. Information is provided on the current status of the population policy and on the role of population issues in development planning. A profile of the national population program includes a discussion of maternal-child health services; family planning services and family development; information, education, and communication; data collection and analysis, the relationship of women to population and development; mortality; migration; the environment; human resources development, poverty alleviation; aging; and HIV/AIDS. The national action plan for the future is presented through a discussion of the emerging and priority concerns of population and family development and an outline of the policy framework. The summary reiterates Malaysia's efforts to integrate population factors into development planning and its commitment to promoting environmentally-sound and sustainable development. Appendices present data in tabular form on population and development indicators, population policies, incentives, and programs; program results; and the phase and area of implementation of the national population and family development programs.
National population report prepared in the context of the International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD, 1994, Cairo, Egypt.
Port Louis, Mauritius, National Task Force on Population, 1993 , 64,  p.Mauritius has one of the highest population densities in the world, and it can boast of one of the highest literacy rates among developing countries. Each of the development plans of Mauritius has contained a chapter devoted to population policy. This country report prepared for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development borrows heavily from those plans. The first development plan (1971-75) emphasized employment creation to achieve growth with equity. By 1982-84, the emphasis shifted to productive employment, and, by 1987 nearly full employment was reached. The goal now is to achieve sustainable development and to dovetail the demands of a rapidly industrializing economy with the social needs of a slowly aging population. The country report presents the demographic context in terms of past trends, the current situation, and the outlook for the future. Demographic transition was achieved in a relatively short time and resulted in changes in the age structure of the population from "young" to "active." The population policy (which aims to maintain the replacement level gross reproduction rate and reduce fertility rates), planning, and program framework is described through information on national perceptions of population issues, the evolution and current status of the population policy, the role of population in development planning, and a profile of the national population program (maternal-child health and family planning services; information, education, and communication; research methodology; the status of women; mortality; population distribution; migration; and multi-sectoral activities). The description of the operational aspects of population and family planning (FP) program implementation includes political and national support, the national implementation strategy, evaluation, finances and resources, and the role of the World Population Plan of Action. The discussion of the national plan for the future involves emerging and priority concerns (reducing unwanted pregnancies and abortions, particularly among adolescents and unmarried women, an increase in teenage fertility rates, reducing the fertility rate which rose to 2.3 from 1.9 in 1986, and reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality rates), the policy framework, programmatic activities, and resource mobilization.
Demographic yearbook. Special issue: population ageing and the situation of elderly persons. Annuaire demographique. Edition speciale: vieillissement de la population et situation des personnes agees.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Statistical Division, 1993. viii, 855 p.This is the second of two volumes presenting global demographic data for 1991. "In this volume, the focus is on population ageing and on characteristics of the elderly population. The tables show how the age structure of the population has changed in the process of the demographic transition. Also presented are changes in fertility, mortality and living arrangements over the period of forty years from 1950-1990. Characteristics of the elderly population are shown on urban/rural residence, marital status, literacy, economic characteristics and disability. A special section on the living arrangements of elderly persons as developed from population censuses complements this picture. Throughout the Yearbook data are shown by urban/rural residence." (EXCERPT)
New York, New York, United Nations, 1992. viii, 134 p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/131)The most recent UN analysis of fertility levels and trends over the period 1965-89 in selected countries which have achieved fertility transition from high to low fertility is presented. The study is both descriptive and analytical. All low fertility countries analyzed, with the exceptions of Romania, Ireland, and the former USSR, had total fertility of 2.1 or less in 1988-89 and include the following: Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, Singapore, most European countries, Canada, the US, Australia, and New Zealand. Low fertility countries from other geographical regions were omitted due to the lack of countries with similar sociocultural contexts available for comparison purposes. Low-fertility countries with population under 300,000 were also not considered. Data coverage, quality, and availability; the measurement of fertility; and comparability problems both across countries and through time are discussed in the first chapter. Patterns of fertility decline are then presented with consideration given to period, cohort, overall, and adolescent fertility; population reproduction; age at child-bearing; number of births; birth order, and births by legitimacy status. A scenario of societal process is then hypothesized which may have favored or conditioned changes in reproductive values and modified the proximate determinants of fertility. Specifically, attention is given to demographic conditions, technological progress and economic development, the role and status of women, effects on couples and families, changing reproductive norms, marriage, divorce, contraception, abortion, diversity of conditions, and fertility policies. Analysis reveals a sharp fertility decline from 1965 to the mid-1980s followed by a stabilization of period fertility in some countries and upward fluctuations in several. This decline has affected in all groups, with greatest reductions at age 35 and over, and has been led by the greater practice of contraception and changing societal attitudes on marriage and reproduction. UN medium-variant projections foresee the population of more developed regions increasing by 12% over 1990-2025 versus 75% in less developed regions. Population aging should also be expected. Social and immigration policy are finally discussed in the context of these population trends.
Washington, D.C., Pan American Health Organization, 1985. 172 p. (PAHO Scientific Publication 492.)At present, aging is the most salient change affecting global population structure, mainly due to a marked decline in fertility rates. The Pan American Health Organization Secretariat organized a Briefing on Health Care for the Elderly in October 1984. Its purpose was to enable planners and decision-makers from health and planning ministries to exchange information on their health care programs for the elderly. This volume publishes some of the most relevant papers delivered at that meeting. The papers are organized into the following sections: 1) the present situation, 2) services for the elderly, 3) psychosocial and economic implications of aging, 4) training issues, 5) research and planning issues, and 6) governmental and nongovernmental policies and programs.
Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
Lancet. 2002 Apr 13; 359(9314):1321.At the Second UN World Assembly on Aging, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, warned that the number of old people will increase from 600 million to almost 2 billion by 2050. The implications of this demographic shift will be that, for the first time, there will be more people older than 60 years than people younger than 15 years and 80% of older people will be in developing countries. The 4-day assembly aimed to respond to the opportunities and challenges of a larger older population. Its plan aims to help lawmakers balance national health policy priorities for the growing, aging population. In particular, the main goal of the plan is to ensure that people are able to grow older with security and dignity and continue to participate in society as citizens with full rights. The assembly recommends that older people get full access to healthcare services, including rehabilitation programs and sexual health care.
New York Times on the Web. 2002 Apr 18;  p..This brief letter to the editor notes that in addressing the needs of a growing population of older people, the UN should not overlook the most basic and fundamental need of an aging population that will increasingly require the use of a wheelchair or other mobility aid: accessible communities. The author writes that new programs and services are meaningful only if the people they are intended to help can gain access to the buildings and facilities in which they are offered. She says that although the US and other economically advantaged countries have made recent strides in accessibility, many of the countries that will be the focus of the UN's efforts have not.
[Population and development: the principal stakes five years after the Cairo Conference] Population et developpement: les principaux enjeux cinq ans apres la Conference du Caire.
Paris, France, Centre Francais sur la Population et Developpement [CEPED], Laboratoire Population-Environnement, 2001 Jun. , 220 p. (Documents et Manuels du CEPED No. 12)The UN General Assembly has evaluated the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development’s program of action adopted in Cairo. This document pulls together some of the papers drafted during that evaluation conducted during June 30-July 2, 1999. It is comprised of the following 16 chapters: population, environment, and development; rural settlement, agricultural change, and property administration; urban growth and city management; international migration; fertility decline, human development, and population policies; young child mortality; reproductive health and AIDS; the spread of AIDS and its impact upon population growth; education policies in developing countries; recent employment trends and perspectives; the current context and policies to reduce poverty and inequity; gender, population, and development; the French perspective upon the environment; the stakes and politics of demographic aging in France; international migration dynamics in France; and poverty and exclusion in modern society. A different author wrote each chapter.
[Final report on the regional population conference] Jelentes a regionalis nepesedesi ertekezletrol.
DEMOGRAFIA. 1998; 41(4):335-53.The Regional Population Conference was convened pursuant to a resolution of the General Assembly of the UN, and the government of Hungary extended an invitation to UN bodies and hosted the conference December 7-9, 1998, in Budapest. Among the participants were members of the ECE, various UN organs, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and a number of demographers. After the acceptance of the agenda and election of leadership, priority themes were discussed. These included fertility, the family, and gender (the support of families with children, the status of women and gender equality); reproductive rights and sexual as well as reproductive health; mortality and health care (maintaining the progress towards longer life and better health and reversing adverse trends in the newly independent states); the demographic aging of the population (maintaining active lives through volunteer work, the pressure on social security and retirement systems, the care of people over 80 years old); and international migration (dealing with migration, the coordination of policies, refugees, and the promotion of integration). International cooperation is very important in the area of population growth and economic development as well as in the area of collection and analysis of demographic data. At the concluding meeting of the Regional Population Conference, the agreements and commitments contained in the recommendations of the 1993 European Population Conference and the Action Program of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development were reaffirmed.
POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT REVIEW. 2000 Jun; 26(2):413-7.This article is a reprint of the executive summary of the UN Population Division report entitled "Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Ageing Population?" The UN report computed the size of replacement migration and investigated the possible effects of replacement migration on the population size and age structure for eight countries and two regions that have a common fertility pattern of below the replacement level for the period 1995-2050. Major findings revealed that, the populations of most developed countries are projected to become smaller and older as a result of below-replacement fertility and increased longevity. In the absence of migration, these declines in population size will be even greater than projected. Therefore, the challenges being brought about by the decline and aging population will require objective, thorough, and comprehensive reassessments of many established economic, social and political policies and programs, in particular the replacement migration.
POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1998 May-Jun; (264):9.The UNFPA representative for Thailand was one of the most important speakers on population-related issues at the 54th session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The representative discussed some key areas in the field of social development which will need attention in the ESCAP region during the early decades of the 21st century, citing reproductive health needs, including family planning; the sexual health needs of adolescents; population aging and the needs of the elderly; and the eradication of poverty in the region as priority concerns. The CITYNET representative considered the effects of population growth upon poverty in some developing countries of the region. The absolute numbers of poor are increasing as population size grows, while urban poverty becomes more prominent as urbanization occurs. The provision of UNFPA assistance to the Asia and Pacific region is discussed.
WORLD HEALTH. 1998 Mar-Apr; 51(2):26-7.This article discusses the WHO mission of health for all, and the prospects for future aging of populations in developed countries. Life expectancies have increased in the richest countries of the world; now over 75 years in many countries. Increases are due to improved sanitation, control of environmental hazards, better nutrition, public health initiatives, and clinical interventions. The example of Japan illustrates the rapid shift over time to a large elderly population, and the highest life expectancies in the world for both men and women. Almost 15% of Japan's population will be 75 years or over by 2025. 66% of this elderly population will be female. Japan achieved this population profile by rapid fertility decline. Since 1995, the population aged 15-64 years began to decline. By 2050, total population will decline to about 110 million. Japan has below replacement fertility. Deaths exceed births. Other countries with replacement level fertility or below include Italy, Spain, Germany, Hong Kong, Slovenia, Greece, Austria, Japan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, Portugal, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Estonia, Netherlands, Macau, Cuba, Belgium, Ukraine, Latvia, Republic of Korea, Croatia, Luxembourg, Belarus, Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Barbados, Canada, Denmark, Lithuania, United Kingdom, Singapore, Finland, Slovakia, Norway, Poland, Australia, China, Yugoslavia, Thailand, Bahamas, Sweden, Ireland, Martinique, United States, Malta, Republic of Macedonia, Georgia, and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
BMJ (CLINICAL RESEARCH ED.). 1997 Oct 25; 315(7115):1038.71-year-old Julia Tavares de Alvarez, the Dominican Republic's ambassador to the United Nations, is enthusiastic, intelligent, persistent, and vocal. Long interested in geriatrics and the general concerns of the elderly, Alvarez has become a champion of the rights of older people and an avid campaigner against age discrimination. According to the charter of the United Nations (UN), there is no age at which UN employees must retire from service. However, except for the senior political posts, the UN's mandatory retirement age has been pegged at either 60 or 62 years. Furthermore, Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General, recently expressed his desire to lower the average age of the UN work force from its current level of 49 years. Ambassador Alvarez challenges both Annan's position and the mandatory retirement age. She would like to see a reaffirmation of the Declaration of Human Rights which condemns age discrimination and recognizes the interdependence of people of all ages. Personally promoting such interdependence, Ambassador Alvarez and her husband established the Center on Aging in the Dominican Republic, donating their home to the cause. The center hired retired teachers living in poverty and trained them to teach basic skills such as hand washing and teeth brushing to preschool children. Children in the program were given breakfast and offered some basic medical care, such as oral rehydration therapy for diarrhea. Participation in the center's program has grown from 12 teachers and 200 children to the current level of 1000 children. In addition to the preschool program, a $10,000 grant to the center funds a revolving loan fund which lends small amounts to help older people start small businesses.