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Population and Societies. 2005 Jan; (408):1-4.The United Nations has just published projections of the world population until 2300. The population is expected to increase for fifty years then stabilize… or explode or implode, depending on whether fertility remains durably above or below replacement level. But how much value should we place on projections so far into the future? François Héran explains that this exercise in demography-fiction is useful if it teaches us how to avoid the disaster scenarios of population explosion or implosion. (excerpt)
Population and Development Review. 2006; 32 Suppl:1-51.By the end of the twentieth century, although expansion of population numbers in the developing world still had far to run, the pace had greatly slowed: widespread declines in birth rates had taken place and looked set to continue. To what degree population policies played a significant role in this epochal transformation of demographic regimes remains a matter of conjecture and controversy. It seems likely that future observers will be impressed by the essential similarities in the path to demographic modernity that successive countries have taken in the last few centuries, rather than discerning a demographic exceptionalism in the most recent period--with achievement of the latter credited to deliberate policy design. But that eventual judgment, whatever it may be, needs to be based on an understanding of how demographic change over the last half-century has been perceived and the responses it has elicited--an exercise in political demography. Such an exercise, inevitably tentative given the recency of the events, is essayed in this chapter. (excerpt)
Age misreporting in Malawian censuses and sample surveys: an application of the United Nations' joint age and sex score.
South African Journal of Demography. 1995; 5(1):11-17.The impact of age in demographic analyses, factors associated with age misreporting, the United Nations' procedure of evaluating age statistics and the application of this procedure to Malawian censuses are discussed. Although age reporting still remains inaccurate, there is some evidence to suggest a slight improvement in the quality of age reporting. Age misreporting varies from one region or district to another. These variations are explained in terms of the existing social, historical and cultural differences within the country. (author's)
Demographer John Caldwell and the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital win 2004 United Nations Population Award.
Population 2005. 2004 Jun; 6(2):12.Well-known Australian demographer, John C. Caldwell, and the Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, a pioneer in the treatment of childbirth injuries, have won the 2004 United Nations Population Award. The Award is given annually to individuals and institutions for their outstanding work in the field of population and in the improvement of the health and welfare of individuals. The Award Committee, chaired by Ambassador Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury of Bangladesh, selected the two winners after a review of nominations received from around the world. The Committee is made up of Member States of the United Nations, with UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund, serving as its secretariat. Each winner will receive a certificate, a gold medal and an equal share of a monetary prize. Awards will be presented to winners in July at a ceremony at the United Nations Headquarters, New York. (excerpt)
[Unpublished] 2001. Presented at the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, IUSSP, 24th General Conference, Salvador, Brazil, August 18-24, 2001. 17 p.The purpose of this paper is to sketch the common lines of development of both the scientific elaboration of world population projections and the international political debate that prepared the ground for such projections and encouraged their development. A partial history of the elaboration of world population projections has already been written. International population debates from the XIX° and XX° centuries are also under scrutiny. But the link between these two developments has not been fully established. The link between projections and politics work both ways. In one direction, projections can contribute to a rationalization of government in the area of economic development, urban planning and so on. They provide societies with a partial view of their future. In the other direction, population projections cannot be undertaken without the help and support of governments and major international organizations. They rely on accurate and detailed censuses. They are costly and time consuming. At both end of the spectrum, there is a need for a global consensus not only within the scientific community and political arenas for population projections to be computed, received and considered as legitimate. More than many other instruments of demographic analysis, the history of world population projections demonstrate these linkages. (excerpt)
Proceeding of the World Population Conference, Rome, Italy, 31 August-10 September 1954. Summary report.
New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1955. 207 p.The 1954 World Population Conference was the 1st scientific conference on the problems of population to be held under the auspices of the United Nations. This document describes the organization of the conference and contains a list of the 28 meetings held, the topics of discussion of each meeting, a list of the papers contributed and their authors, and a summary report of each meeting. Annex A provides a list of the officers of the conference and members of cimmittees. Annex B lists the participants and contributors. Topics discussed include mortality trends; demographic statistics--quality, techniques of measurement and analysis; fertility trends; new census undertakings; migration; legislation, administrative programs and services for population control; population projection methods and prospects; preliterate peoples; age distribution; socioeconomic consequences of an aging population; demographic aspects of socioeconomic development; design and control of demographic field studies; agricultural and industrial development; genetics and population; research on fertility and intelligence; social implications of population changes; recruitment and training of demographic researchers and teachers; forecast for world population growth and distribution; and economic and social implications of the present population trends.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 1999 Oct 9; 319:998-1001.In the US, a tight taboo prevents demographers and UN agencies from dealing with the problems of demographic entrapment since it has involved two continents. It is assumed that this was due to reluctance to address the issue of one-child families. However, evidence indicates that the most important factor is the active interest of the US Department of State in keeping the dialogue closed--the policing of the population policy lockstep. The presumed reason for this is that radical reduction in number of births in the South (one-child families) would question resource consumption in the North. It is noted that the major health program of the new millennium has to be a one-child world, linked to moderation in resource consumption in the North. Hence, to police the lockstep is to actively hinder the resolution of all the problems, such as poverty, malnutrition, etc. since entrapment is merely the worst problem in which population plays a major part.
[The Population and Development Commission of the United Nations and the legacy of the Cairo conference] La Commission de la Population et du Developpement des Nations Unies et la suite de la conference du Caire.
[Unpublished] 1996. Presented at the Reunions de l'Association des Demographes du Quebec, Montreal, Canada, May 1996. 8 p.The author suggests certain manners by which Canadian demographers can participate at the international level in the general process of international cooperation. He specifically discusses the UN Population and Development Commission, the UN Population Division, and the Office of Refugees, Population, and Migration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Commerce. Observations are first made on the importance of the Office of Refugees, Population, and Migration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Commerce, followed by discussion of the UN Commission with note made that the issue of population arises on many occasions at the UN. The UN Commission's history, internal changes, the 1996 meeting of the commission, and questions of importance to the commission with regard to international migration are discussed. Demographers can make their potentially useful research findings available to the appropriate parties.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1990. xiii, 420 p. (ST/ESA/SER.R/98)2 groups expressed a need for this 2nd edition volume of stable population age distributions. Easily accessible information on the effect of demographic changes upon age distributions and dependency burdens is needed by planners of developing countries, while demographers are interested in construction demographic parameters under conditions of deficient data. A set of model stable age distributions, a series of intrinsic growth rates from 0-4%, intrinsic birth and death rates, percentages of populations in the 15-59 age groups, and child, elderly, and total dependency rates are therefore presented in this volume for the Latin American, Chilean, South Asian, Far East Asian, and General patterns of mortality. The Latin American pattern exhibits high mortality in the infant, childhood, and young adult years, with lower levels in the older ages. The Chilean pattern is one of extremely high infant mortality relative to general childhood mortality, while the South Asian pattern shows extremely high mortality under age 15 and over age 55. Low mortality is evidenced in the prime ages. The Far Eastern pattern exhibits relatively low mortality at younger ages, with high death rates at older ages. The General pattern is an average of these 4. Rates are defined, then calculated in an improved manner. UN model life table characteristics are also discussed and presented in an easier-to-read format. 420 pages of tables constitute the bulk of the volume.
The Integration of Population Variables into the Socio-Economic Planning Process. An International Seminar jointly sponsored by the UN Population Division, UNFPA and CICRED, and hosted by the Government of Morocco, Rabat, Morocco, 9-12 March 1987. Integration des Variables Demographiques dans le Processus de Planification Economique et Sociale. Seminaire International organise sous le patronage conjoint de la Division de la Population des Nations Unies, du FNUAP et du CICRED, et tenu a Rabat a l'invitation du Gouvernement du Maroc, Rabat, Maroc, 9-12 mars 1987.
Paris, France, CICRED, 1988. 159 p.Conference proceedings from an international seminar sponsored by the UN Population Division, the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), and the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED) are presented in both French and english versions in one volume. Hosted by the government of Morocco, the opening speech is delivered by the Secretary General of the Ministry of Planning of Morocco. The statement from the UNFPA is then presented, followed by a message from the Director of the UN Population Division. The Coordinator of the Project next provides the foreword. Report of the Seminar is made, including annexes of the agenda and list of participating institutions, followed by discussion of possible areas of research and application. Research projects currently implemented or contemplated by participating centers are listed, with closing comments from the Vice-President and Bureau of CICRED. A list of documents prepared by the participants is included.
Liege, Belgium, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, 1985. xiv, 416 p.The 4th edition of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) directory lists members, their addresses, positions, and research interests. The volume's introduction is in both English and French. The volume also contains a list of acronyms or abbreviations of organizations and agencies used in the directory as well as indexes to researchers by country and by field of interest.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):115-24.The United Nations (UN) and the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) have cooperated since the 1940s. In 1927 an International Population Conference in Geveva established a permanent Population Union to cooperate with the population activities of the League of Nations. The 2 institutions' successors, IUSSP and the United Nations (UN), developed close and productive linkages, collaborating to create a Multilingual Demographic Dictionary, published in English, French, Russian, and Spanish and in many other languages. Meanwhile the Union, at the request of UNESCO, prepared a pioneering study attempting to define the cultural factors affecting developing country fertility in the context of the demographic transition, In 1966 the Union and the UN collaborated to develop criteria for internationally comparable studies in fertility and family planning (FP). The resulting monograph served as a reference for many fertility studies, including the World Fertility Survey. Another study on the impact of FP programs on fertility, resulted in the organization of expert meetings and the production of a manual and monographs on FP program evaluation. There was futher cooperation in a study on mortality, internal migration and international migration, resulting in manuals on methods of analysing internal migration and indirect measures of emigration, among other things. The 1954 Wold Population Conference (WPC) and the 1965 UN WPC were organized by the UN collaborating with the Union, and the Union administered the funds used to bring developing country delegates to the Conference. Subsequent WPCs at Bucharest and Mexico City were political in nature, bu the Union contributed to both a report outlining demographic research needs. The Union also assisted the UN in organizing a series of regional population conferences, and its Committee on Demographic Instruction prepared a report for UNESCO on teaching demography, and cooperated with the Secretariat in funding the UN Regional Demographic Training Centers at Bombay and Santiago.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):139-45.The Population Commission guided the development of specific population programs at the regional level in the mid-1950s, introduced progressively in the developing regions: Asia and the Pacific; Latin America and the Caribbean; Africa; and Western Asia. Their approaches were 1) The staffing of the regional commission secretariats with demographers to carry out demographic research relevant to the respective region; and 2) the development of regional training centers to build up technical personnel to assist Governments and institutions in analyzing demographic aspects of development problems in each region. The regional secretariats have helped incorporate population requests into studies and research carried out on regional and country-level development issues, through its own regional studies; the organization of seminars; and emphasis of the population element in policy formulation and development. Each secretariat has concentrated, under regional commission guidance, on crucial regional population problems. While the Economic Commission for Africa emphasizes data collection and analysis, the Asia and the Pacific Region concerns have been largely in population policy formulation. The Latin America and the Caribbean regional program stresses technical assistance in demographic training, research and dissemination of information, whereas the Western Asia program stresses demographic data collection and analysis. The depth and scope of these regional programs has depended on the changing state of demographic development. UN regional training centers: the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) at Bombay, India (1951); the Latin American Demographic Center (CELADE) at Santiago, Chile (1958); the Cairo Demographic Centre (1962); the Regional Institute for Population Studies at Accra, Ghana; and the Institut de Recherche Demographique (IFORD) at Yaounde, Cameroon (1971); have provided population training programs, and trained nearly 2,000 specialists. Training and research has moved in the population and development direction.
POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1986; (19-20):125-8.The Committee for International Co-operation in National Research in Demography (CICRED) was formed in 1972 as a result of an initiative taken by the Director of the Population Division of the United Nations Secretariat, and currently holds consultative status with the Economic and Social Council Among its accomplishments are the organization of seminars on demographic research in relation to population growth targets and on infant mortality in relation to the level of fertility, and demographic research in relation to internal migration. CICRED was also instrumental in gaining the co-operation of national research institutions in a project resulting in the publication of 56 national monographs. In cooperation with the population Division, CICRED prepared and published 2 editions of a population multilingual thesaurus. This collaboration also led to the creation of the Population Information Network (POPIN). In 1977 CICRED launched the Inter-center Co-operative research Program. The various elements of the program are in different stages of completion. In particular, they involve cooperation with the Population Division in the areas of intergration of demographic variables into planning, aging and differential mortality. (author's modified)
Populi. 1985; 12(4):15-21.Demographic knowledge of developing countries was practically nonexistent in the early 1950s. What few demographers there were had scant information to work with, since census and vital statistics data for these countries was either lacking or not scientifically analyzed. In developed countries demography was subsumed under such other disciplines as statistics or economics, and no degree programs for demography existed. Teachers of Third World demography, in the 1950s, had few textbooks and little training since their background was in other fields. In 1956 the UN published instrumental life table models and in following years helped begin training programs in Bombay, Santiago, Cairo, Cameroon, Ghana, Bucharest, and Moscow. The UN envisioned that these centers would be taken over by their host countries, but, to date, the UN still provides most resources to each center. The centers' 4 goals were established at the World Population Conference in 1954: 1) to train census takers, data processors, and primary analysts, 2) to train personnel to implement population policies, 3) to train teachers of demography, and 4) to promote population policy knowledge and link it to public policy and administration. Many of these objectives have been achieved, but some center-trained demographers emphasize population abstractions to the detriment of concrete issues such as family planning; there has not been enough interest by former students in population distribution and health policies. The centers have now had to go beyond their training mandate and become research centers. The centers need to attract economists and sociologists to assist policy makers. 2 kinds of training centers may be necessary: 1) an interdisciplinary demography program that links population training with development variables; and 2) a program designed for 10-15 planners, policy makers, academics, and administrators, which provides them with some demographic training. The 2nd program would have to be flexible, responsive to short and long-term needs, and linked with respected universities.
Asian-Pacific Population Programme News. 1984 Dec; 13(4):7-8.It is the population professionals who belong to the "developing" world who have helped to create and expand the basic information which makes it possible to describe the demographic situation of countries and social groups more adequately. These professionals have developed, promoted, and applied analytical techniques which have enriched understanding of the components of demographic change. It is these professionals who have managed to make major contributions towards explaining the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors. The professionals are insisting on developing applied, theoretical, and methodological population research, the results of which will serve essentially to propose alternatives for action. This group of professionals participates daily in the training of technical staff and professionals and academics, specialists who will continue to promote the development of demography as a discipline. Finally, these professionals, through various publications, keep population topics at the center of the attention of those who are concerned with studying them. Groups of countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America suffer, although to a different extent and in different ways, from the problems created by the rapid growth of certain cities, particularly capital cities. In addition to the problems which may arise from the operation of the specific population dynamics in different countries and between different social groups within those countries, there are those arising from the unequal distribution of agricultural land, foodstuffs, and wealth in general, those arising from the unjust organization of the international economy and from the obsolete international financial structure, and those deriving from the irrational use of resources for military spending and the manufacture and stockpiling of vast nuclear arsenals.
[Contribution of Hungarian demographic science and Hungarian demographers to the work of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population] A magyar demografiai tudomany es a magyar demografusok hozzajarulasa a Nemzetkozi Nepessegtudomanyi Unio munkajahoz
Demografia. 1984; 27(1):51-76.The author describes the development of demography in Hungary from 1928 to the present, with a focus on the contribution of Hungarian demographers to the activities of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP). This paper is part of an IUSSP project that deals with the history of the Union and involves the preparation of papers on such activities in several countries. (summary in ENG, RUS) (ANNOTATION)
Evaluation report to UNFPA on UNFPA-supported United Nations Demographic Training and Research Centre.
New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, Oct. 1977. 159 p.UNFPA (United Nations Fund for Population Activities) gives support to 6 UN Domographic Training and Research Centres (IIPS, CELADE, CDC, RIPS, IFORD, AND CEDOR). An evaluation of these centers addressed these points: 1) description and analysis of the objectives for each center as well as of the strategy for the total program and of the interrelationship between these objectives and the overall strategy; 2) description and problem oriented analysis of the center's programs including legal arrangements, institutional framework, planned and actual activities, resources, and funding; 3) description and analysis of the achievements by each center of its objectives; 4) description and analysis of the present and future role of each center for the achievement of the overall strategy. The International Institute for Population Studies (IIPS) gives adequate training to its personnel, but it needs to require minimum standards of knowledge of mathematics and statistics; a standard English test should be applied before admission. There is also a lack of opportunity for field work. At Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia (CELADE), training should provide more opportunities in studying interrelationships between population and socioeconomic variables, and put less emphasis on technical subjects, such as mathematics and statistics. The Cairo Demographic Centre (CDC) should continue to recruit the majority of its students from the Arab countries. The Centre should be more demanding in this recruitment and admission policies and procedures should be standardized. CDC should develop a specific policy on grades and on the conditions under which a candidate may not receive a diploma or degeee. The Mission recommends that the Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) strengthen its field work program, coordinate its curriculum to avoid overlap of coursework, and that the UN contribute funds for all activities forming part of the agreement. At both Institut de Formation et de Recherche Demographiques (IFORD) and Centre D'Etudes Demographiques ONU-Roumanie (CEDOR), the mission concludes that both centers are too small to be viable, and feels that under ideal conditions it would have been preferable to have both population development and technical demography taught in one and the same institution. Closer collaboration between the 2 centers is recommended. There is a dire need for training and research in French speaking developing countries.
Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa and their Policy Implications.
In: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa [UNECA]. Population dynamics: fertility and mortality in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1981 May. 1-31. (ST/ECA/SER.A/1; UNFPA PROJ. No. RAF/78/P17)The Expert Group Meeting on Fertility and Mortality Levels, Patterns and Trends in Africa, held in Monrovia late in 1976, examined the various aspects of the interrelationships of fertility and mortality to development process and planning in Africa. Focus in this report of the Expert Group Meeting is on the following: background to fertility and mortality in Africa; usefulness and relevance of existing methodology for collecting and processing and for analyzing fertility and mortality data; fertility and mortality levels and patterns in Africa -- regional studies and country studies; fertility trends and differentials in Africa; mortality trends and differentials; biological and socio-cultural aspects of infertility and sterility; the significance of breast feeding for fertility and mortality; nutrition, disease and mortality in young children; evolution of causes of death and the use of related statistics in mortality studies in Africa; and fertility and mortality in national development. It was suggested that a strategy for development with equity must direct itself, among other things, to the issue of how to monitor progress in the elimination of underdevelopment, poverty, malnutrition, poor health, bad housing, poor education and employment through the use of indicators which measured changes in those variables at the national and local levels. In order to achieve development with equity, it was obvious that demographers and policymakers should ensure that there was regular monitoring of socioeconomic differentials in mortality and morbidity rates since such differentials essentially measured inequality in a society. The following were included among the recommendations made: recognizing that fertility and mortality data for a majority of African countries are now 20 years out of date, efforts should be directed toward collecting and analyzing fertility and mortality data by the use of both direct and indirect methods; and international and national organizations should support country efforts to improve the supply of data and analytical work on census and other existing data.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1982. 57 p. (Report No. 50)Zimbabwe has experienced high fertility. The government has established a Population Studies Unit to produce demographic analyses and population studies. The Mission recommends creation of a high-level body to set population policy directions. 2 demographers/statisticians and a population economist should be provided. Also recommended are: 1) demographic training, staff development, and the inclusion of population development topics in the curriculum of the proposed National Training Center and the Public Service Training College; and 2) funding for 2 international consultants. A national census will be taken in 1982 (the previous census was taken in 1969). Assistance to the University of Zimbabwe's Department of Geography is recommended for a census-related project. Short-term training for a population geographer in demography should be provided. A strong research program should be developed at the University. Health services will be expanded and strengthened. The Mission recommends the funding of an expert in maternal and child health/child-spacing programs. More contraceptives are needed. The Family Planning Association plans to produce and develop appropriate population and family life education materials. A Ministry of Community Development and Women's Affairs has been created, and the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Recreation has been revitalized. Efforts should be made to increase the number of women and youth receiving training. Teacher training should include development issues, including population dynamics. The Mission recommends: 1) funding of international consultants in nonformal education; 2) funding for a preproject consultant mission; 3) support for population education programs; and 4) support for a public education campaign in support of the census and civil registration system. Courses offered by the School of Social Work should be restructured.
Popin Bulletin. 1983 Apr; (4):1-8.Population centers and their information units or libraries were established as early as the 1920s, but population evolved as a field of study in its own right mainly during the 1950s and 60s. This paper attempts not so much to describe all that has taken place in the population information field to date, as to describe the activities of the Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers-International (APLIC). It is 1 of 2 international associations of population/family planning information specialists; the other is POPIN, in whose establishment APLIC played a key role. Membership can be either individual or institutional. At present there are 129 members from all parts of the globe. APLIC's goal is to make population, demographic, and family planning information available in the most effective way to researchers, policy-makers, clinicians, administrators, and program practitioners throughout the world. Its efforts are focused on 5 major areas: 1) the development of effective documentation and information systems and services; 2) professional contact among population librarians, documentalists, and information and communication specialists; 3) the global exchange of population information through programs and activities; 4) a cooperative network of population documentation centers and libraries; 5) continuing education to encourage professional development. Every year since 1968, APLIC has held a conference at which a diverse number of international and national information topics have been dealt with, and at which there have been working committees and information panels. Other activities include the publication of a newsletter, inter-library loans, reference services, and other matters relating to respective parent organizations.
Demography. 1982 Nov; 19(4):429-38.The Presidential Address at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (PAA) outlines the effects of the current political climate on the field of demography. First, government cutbacks have forced many experienced demographers to leave government service; moreover, austerity measures have produced a decline in the quality of data collected, a loss of geographic coverage, diminished access to data, and curtailed dissemination of results. Of major concern to demographers is the recent decision to reduce the size of the Current Population Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. Second, support for basic data collection and analysis from international agencies, including the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the World Bank, has been reduced. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been reluctant to follow through with technical assistance for data processing of the 1980-81 censuses it helped to launch. The future status of population policy centers located in planning ministries in numerous countries is also in doubt. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is an acute need for more accurate information, have been hardest hit by cutbacks in research. A 3rd area of concern involves the intellectual foundations of population policy. Revisionist writings, asserting that the effect of population growth on development is at best indeterminate, are on the upswing. Research in the field of population is further threatened by the dramatic growth of antiscience religious groups. As these groups grow in political influence, funds for population research will be increasingly vulnerable. PAA is considering affiliation with the Consortium of Social Science Associations, a coalition which has been involved in efforts to forestall cuts in federal research funding. It is concluded that continuous efforts are required to maintain conditions under which the field of demography can flourish.
New York, N.Y, United Nations. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development, 1983. v, 42 p. (no. ST/ESA/SER.E/28)This report examines the origins of the UN program in population training and the main methods adopted over the past 20 years to implement it. Its 6 chapters cover the following: origins of the UN population training program (the urgency for population training, initial objectives of the UN training program, the state of the art in the 1950s, the role of the UN, and initial dimensions of the UN training programs); establishment of the UN demographic training centers (International Institute for Population Studies, IIPS, in Bombay, India; Latin American Demographic Centre, CELADE, in Santiago, Chile; Cairo Demographic Centre, CDC, Cairo, Egypt; Institut de formation et de recherche demographiques, IFORD, Yaounde, United Republic of Cameroon; Regional Institute for Population Studies, RIPS, Accra, Ghana; UN-Romania Demographic Centre, CEDOR, Bucharest, Romania; and the Joint UN/USSR Interregional Demographic Training and Research Program in Population and Development Planning, Moscow, USSR); individual characteristics and program differentials of the UN demographic training centers (language of instruction, admission requirements, length of training programs, curricula, specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and specialized training programs in interrelationships between population and development, and output of the training centres); the UN international fellowship program in population (placement of successful fellowship candidates, distribution of fellows by region of origin, subjects of study of successful candidates, comparison with the training offered through the UN demographic training centres); country projects for creating population training facilities; and the future of the UN population training program. Apart from the programs in Bucharest and Moscow, the basic terms of reference of all the regional and interregional demographic training centers are to provide courses of training in demography, to carry out demographic research, and to provide technical assistance in the field of demography and the population disciplines generally in response to government requests. Beyond these basic objectives, each centre has its own individual characteristics. In the years since their foundation, the UN sponsored regional and interregional training centers and programs have contributed significantly to an increase in the number of trained demograhers worldwide. From the academic year 1972-73 to 1979-80, a total of 1323 students were registered at these centres. The international fellowship program is notable in that the methods for the selection, placement, and evaluation of fellowship holders are designed to ensure that the skills acquired become available to the fellows' country of origin.