Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    074857

    International Symposium: For the Survival of Mankind: Population, Environment and Development.

    Mainichi Shimbun; Japan. National Institute for Research Advancement; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, [1989]. xxxiii, 134 p.

    In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
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  2. 2
    074782

    Global biodiversity strategy. Guidelines for action to save, study, and use Earth's biotic wealth sustainably and equitably.

    World Resources Institute; World Conservation Union [IUCN]; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]; UNESCO

    Washington, D.C., WRI, 1992. vi, 244 p.

    Humanity depends on all other forms of life on Earth and its nonliving components including the atmosphere, ocean, bodies of freshwater, rocks, and soils. If humanity is to persist and to develop so that everyone enjoys the most basic of human rights, it must protect the structure, functions, and diversity of the world's natural systems. The World Resources Institute, the World Conservation Union, and the UN Environment Programme have joined together to prepare this strategy for global biodiversity. The first 2 chapters cover the nature and value of biodiversity and losses of biodiversity and their causes. The 3rd chapter presents the strategy for biodiversity conservation which includes the goal of such conservation and its contents and catalysts and 5 actions needed to establish biodiversity conservation. Establishment of a national policy framework for biodiversity conservation is the topic of the 4th chapter. It discusses 3 objectives with various actions to accomplish each objective. Integration of biodiversity conservation into international economic policy is 1 of the 3 objectives of the 5th chapter--creating an international policy environment that supports national biodiversity conservation. Correct imbalances in the control of land and resources is a clear objective in creating conditions and incentives for local biodiversity conservation--the topic of the 6th chapter. The next 3 chapters are devoted to managing biodiversity throughout the human environment; strengthening protected areas; and conserving species, populations, and genetic diversity. The last chapter provides specific actions to improve human capacity to conserve biodiversity including promotion of basic and applied research and assist institutions to disseminate biodiversity information.
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  3. 3
    061958

    Population and the greenhouse effect.

    Zero Population Growth [ZPG]

    Washington, D.C., ZPG, 1988 Aug. [2] p. (ZPG Fact Sheet)

    Industrialized nations have emitted gases, which are transforming the Earth into a greenhouse, into the atmosphere for many years. Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by burning fossil fuels and wood; chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released by refrigerants and other sources; nitrous oxides, generated by fossil fuels; and methane, produced from decomposition of organic matter, trap infrared rays thereby causing an unprecedented rate of global warming. In the period from 1900-1988, the concentration of CO2 has climbed 20% and the average global temperature has risen >1 degree Fahrenheit. Further, since 1963, the rate of increase of atmospheric CO2 essentially equals population growth. Population growth also directly contributes to the increase in atmospheric methane. Forests naturally remove CO2 from the air, yet humans are destroying about 27 million acres of tropical forests/year. If the present fossil fuel rates persist, CO2 concentration will increase 2 fold by 2050 causing a mean global temperature increase of 9 degrees Fahrenheit. Other computer simulations predict changes in global precipitation, droughts, a rise in sea level by 1-4 feet, and the extinction of many species of plants and animals. Scientists major concern is the suddenness of this climatic change because it leaves little time for humans and plant and animal species to adapt. The World Meterological Organization of the United Nations advises that all nations ratify the recommendations of the 1987 Montreal meeting on ozone. 1 recommendation states that the industrialized nations must reduce the production and consumption of CFCs by 50% by the end of the century. Since the US consumes 28% of the world's annual energy consumption, the US should led the world in energy conservation. Any approach that does not advocate resource consumption and population stabilization will fail, however.
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  4. 4
    133831

    Transmigration in Indonesia: lessons from its environmental and social impacts.

    Fearnside PM

    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT. 1997 Jul-Aug; 21(4):553-70.

    This article identifies the lessons learned from transmigration programs in Indonesia, during 1976-89, and describes briefly the history and types of transmigration in Indonesia, the World Bank project, the demographic and agricultural benefits, and the environmental and social impacts. During transmigration, millions of people from overcrowded islands of Java, Madura, Bali, and Lombok, were resettled in the outer islands of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya. The World Bank, which funded the program, has been criticized for its irresponsibility. An evaluation of the relative benefits of resettlement schemes is dependent upon answering several questions. One question is to what extent development initiatives "going wrong" should be accepted and given support to lesson the damage. Another question is to what extent should financing agencies be responsible for damage that is unlike limited impacts of more discrete projects. About 17% of transmigration projects are corrupt, and choice of sites is controversial. Environmental impact statements are required, but are not publicly available or debated. Impact assessments stipulate inclusion of local people in the process, whereas in practice, locals are included as data. Sometimes, impacts are not ready before industry is installed. World Bank review processes result in significant deletions between draft and final Appraisal Reports. Governments maintain secrecy. The effect of transmigration is the diluting of native cultures, the excuse-making because "it is going to happen anyway," inadequate assessments, environmental degradation, and continuance of schemes under other names.
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  5. 5
    092018

    Expert Group Meeting on Population, Environment and Development.

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):19-34.

    As part of the preparation for the up-coming International Conference on Population and Development, an expert group met at UN headquarters on January 20-24, 1992. The group noted that the momentum of population growth was expected to add 3 billion people to the global population between 1985 and 2025, with more than 90% of the growth occurring in the developing countries which are least able to respond to the attendant resource and environmental demands. The expert group discussed the interaction of population and resources, specifically the impact of population growth on the environment and carrying capacity. The meeting then focused on environmental discontinuities and uncertainties and on environmental degradation, specifically the loss of agricultural land, the destruction of tropical forests, fresh-water resource, the loss of biological diversify, and climate change. Following their deliberations, the expert group drafted 18 recommendations addressed to governments, social institutions, and international organizations. The group urged that governments establish or strengthen the integration of environmental and population concerns into development policy-making and planning and support technologies to achieve sustained economic growth and development while striving to replace the use of fossil fuels with renewable resources. Areas of the environment subject to acute population pressure should be identified and policies devised to reduce that pressure. Ecologically helpful labor-intensive projects should be implemented for their dual benefits. Women should be included in these activities, and their status in society, therefore, should be improved through improved education and participatory opportunities. The uses of water should be optimized to acknowledge its scarcity. The delivery of service to alleviate poverty should proceed in a manner that invites community participation, which, along with education, will be vital to institute these changes. Adequate resources for urban management should be allocated to local authorities. Environmentally displaced people should receive assistance while the cause of their uprooting is simultaneously addressed. Land-use planning and promotion of emergency prevention is increasingly important as populations settle in areas vulnerable to natural disasters. International organizations are urged to support efforts to minimize the health impacts of environmental degradation and increase their assistance in the areas of population, sustainable development, and the environment, especially in training and national planning. Awareness of the interrelatedness of these issues should be promoted in every way possible, especially through education, training, and the support of databases. Policy-oriented research should focus on identifying critically endangered areas. As policies are devised for sustainable development, special attention should be paid to improving the circumstances of indigenous people, and their accumulated experience with sustainable development should be sought and used. Finally, conflicting goals between countries should be identified by governments to allow open analysis, successful negotiation, and satisfactory solutions.
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  6. 6
    081945

    Conservation of West and Central African rainforests. Conservation de la foret dense en Afrique centrale et de l'Ouest.

    Cleaver K; Munasinghe M; Dyson M; Egli N; Peuker A; Wencelius F

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. xi, 353 p. (World Bank Environment Paper No. 1)

    This World Bank publication is a collection of selected papers presented at the Conference on Conservation of West and Central African Rainforests in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in November 1990. These rainforests are very important to the stability of the regional and global environment, yet human activity is destroying them at a rate of 2 million hectares/year. Causes of forest destruction are commercial logging for export, conversion of forests into farmland, cutting of forests for fuelwood, and open-access land tenure systems. Other than an introduction and conclusion, this document is divided into 8 broad topics: country strategies, agricultural nexus, natural forestry management, biodiversity and conservation, forest peoples and products, economic values, fiscal issues, and institutional and private participation issues. Countries addressed in the country strategies section include Zaire, Cameroon, Sao Tome and Principe, and Nigeria. The forest peoples and products section has the most papers: wood products and residual from forestry operations in the Congo; Kutafuta Maisha: searching for life on Zaire's Ituri forest frontier; development in the Central African rainforest: concern for forest peoples; concern for Africa's forest peoples: a touchstone of a sustainable development policy; Tropical Forestry Action Plans and indigenous people: the case of Cameroon; forest people and people in the forest: investing in local community development; and women and the forest: use and conservation of forestry resources other than wood. Topics in the economic values section range from debt-for-nature swaps to environmental labeling. Forestry taxation and forest revenue systems are discussed under fiscal issues. The conclusion discusses saving Africa's rainforests.
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  7. 7
    079467

    The greatest adventure of all time. Population growth.

    Cousteau JY

    POPULI. 1992 Nov; 19(5):12-3.

    The exponential nature of population growth is out of tune with available and limited resources which progress linearly as the British economist Thomas Robert Malthus prophesied almost 200 years ago. These warnings were reaffirmed by the Club of Rome and substantiated by Normal Borlaug, father of the Green Revolution, who exhorted that the demographic threat had to be controlled within 30 years. Deforestation has become rampant, cities burgeon past 20 million, nonrenewable resources are depleted, biodiversity is shrinking alarmingly, energy is in short supply, poverty and illiteracy are spreading, and for 2/3 of humankind the quality of life is deteriorating. At the present rate, it will take only 41 years of the world's population to double. The United Nations Population Fund in its 1991 State of World Population report stated that population growth is even faster than forecast in its 1984 report. A recent joint statement by the Royal Society of London and the United States National Academy of Sciences declared that if population growth and patterns of human activity remain unchanged, science and technology may not be able to prevent irreversible degradation of the environment. They propose to organize a scientific conference in early 1993 concerning these issues. Such statements and resolutions are to substantiate the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development Scheduled to be held in Cairo. Almost all social ills, famines, the wide differences between rich and poor communities, desertification, decreases in biodiversity, increase in hereditary traits, and even the warming up of the planet, stem from the population explosion. Uncontrolled population growth and poverty must be attacked from the outside by international agencies assisted by competent and independent nongovernmental organizations.
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  8. 8
    077571

    No relief for Haiti.

    Perkell J

    POPULI. 1992 Oct; 19(4):8-9.

    A United States-based charity, CARE, serves hot cereal meals for some 280,000 persons at a local canteen in Haiti. International aid organizations have assisted hundreds of thousands of families in Haiti in the aftermath of an Army-led overthrow of the elected government on September 30, 1991. Severe drought continued through the 2nd consecutive year, exacerbating the ecological disasters of deforestation, erosion, and desertification of many years' duration. The UN estimates there are some 6.8 million Haitians, 72% of whom live in the mountainous countryside over farming the land and cutting trees to make charcoal. Less than 1/4 of the population has access to potable water. Infant mortality, tuberculosis, and illiteracy rates rank among the world's highest. less than 10% of couples practice any form of contraceptives. The total fertility rate was estimated by the UN at 5.0 children per woman in 1985-90, but it could be 6.5. Population growth is around 2% per year with 35 per 1000 population, the highest in the Caribbean. There has been an exodus of Haitians for the United States, other parts of the Caribbean, and Latin America. THe Organization of American States and the UN imposed a trade embargo to force the hand of the rebel leaders. Consequently, an UNFPA program was suspended that supplied condoms to Haiti, which has the world's highest prevalence rates for AIDS AND HIV. Other contraceptive supply operations, maternal, and child health services, a population education project for youths in and out of school, and preparations for a national census were also stymied. Before this disruption, some 230 Haitian women died of pregnancy-related causes and childbirth for every 100,000 live births. UNFPA continues to work with Haitian nongovernmental organizations in assisting family planning, maternal and child health projects, and a children's hospital.
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  9. 9
    074807

    Drafts: Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, Forest Principles.

    United Nations Conference on Environment and Development [UNCED] (1992: Rio de Janeiro)

    [New York, New York], United Nations, 1992. [500] p.

    Drafts of Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration on Forest Principles is a massive and detailed account in 4 parts: 1) the preamble and the social and economic dimensions, 2) conservation and management of resources for development, 3) strengthening the role of major groups, and 4) means of implementation. There are 40 chapters largely devoted to issues concerning management of water resources. The Appendix includes the Adoption of Agreements on Environment and Development note by the Secretary General of the Conference and the Proposal by the Chairman of the Preparatory Committee of May 7, 1992; 27 principles were agreed upon. Also included is the nonlegal binding authoritative statement of principles for a global consensus on the management, conservation, and sustainable development of all types of forests by the Secretary General and the preamble and principles. Part I is concerned with international cooperation in increasing sustainable development in developing countries, the reduction of poverty, the change in consumption patterns, demographic dynamics, the protection and promotion of human health conditions, the promotion of sustainable human settlement development, and the integration of the environment and development in decision making. Part II includes atmosphere protection, integration of planning and management of land resources, deforestation, managing fragile ecosystems, conservation of biological diversity, protection of the oceans, seas, and coastal areas as well as a rational use of resources, protection of freshwater resources, environmental sound management of hazardous wastes and solid wastes and sewage, and safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes. Part III is devoted to the preamble, global action for women, children and youth in sustainable development, recognition and strengthening of the role of indigenous people and communities, strengthening nongovernmental organizations, local authorities initiatives in support of Agenda 21, strengthening workers and trade unions, the scientific and technological community, and strengthening the role of farmers. Part IV identifies financial resources and mechanisms, environmentally sound technology transfer, science, promotion of education and public awareness, international institutional arrangements, international legal instruments and mechanisms, and information for decision making.
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  10. 10
    075143

    World resources 1988-89.

    World Resources Institute; International Institute for Environment and Development; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    New York, New York, Basic Books, 1988. xii, 372 p.

    The US Environment Program has joined the World Resources Institute and the International Institute for Environment and Development to put together the periodic, objective, and current report of conditions and trends of the natural resources of the planet. The 1988-1989 report represents the first biennial report. One section of the report includes reviews on world resources. The last section is full of data tables and charts for those world resources. The world resources addressed range from population and health to global systems and cycles. The focus of the human settlements chapter is urban solid waste disposal and that of the wildlife and habitat chapter is on sustainable development and biological diversity. The policies and institutions chapter discusses agricultural, forestry, and livestock policies. Even though the focus of the population and health chapter is on pesticide use and health (3000-20,000 deaths from pesticide poisoning annually), it has not neglected the AIDS pandemic. Despite increasing per capita food production in every region except Africa, the numbers of hungry people are growing. The leading sources of energy in the world are fuelwood and oil. The middle section of the report centers on rehabilitating and restoring degraded lands, especially degraded mountains, drylands, and irrigated cropland. The report contains a detailed index to direct readers to their particular area of interest.
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  11. 11
    075453

    A global action plan.

    Brown L

    PEOPLE. 1990; 17(1):36-8.

    The major points in Worldwatch's plan involve 1) development of energy strategies which protect the climate, 2) expansion of forests, 3) a substantial increase in efforts to meet food needs, and 4) a halt to population growth. The consequence of "business as usual" is severe economic disruption, social instability, and human suffering. Energy strategies must be prioritized and reordered within 10 years. A safe, effective way to curb use of fossil fuels, which produce CO2 and account for 50% of the global warming, is to improve energy efficiency, to develop renewable energy sources, and to abandon use of nuclear power. Use of existing technology has the most immediate, largest effect. Solar, hydro, wind, and geothermal technologies are much slower to develop and implementation has greater initial costs. An internationally consistent fuel-based tax on carbon content is also recommended. Investment in energy efficiency will be offset by reduced fuel bills for consumers and businesses. Forests, which store 3 times the amount of carbon in the atmosphere, contribute to CO2 buildup when cut down. Expanding forest cover in tropical countries means finding other ways to earn quick foreign exchange, stimulate regional development, and expand settlement areas. 130 million hectares of trees need to be planted just to meet demands for fuelwood and industrial wood products and to stabilize soil and water resources. 15 billion trees need to be planted each year for the next 15 years. Large food production increases are still possible in India, Argentina, and Brazil, but few gains are expected in Japan, China, western Europe, and North America. Subsistence farmers can boost production by multiple cropping, intercropping, biointensive gardening, and composting of organic wastes. If food reserves tighten, redirecting grain from livestock, which amounts to 33% of a harvest, is the only option for feeding the poor. Family planning (FP) will be instrumental in assuring food security. Countries with high growth rates must follow China and Japan in curbing population growth rapidly. This entails government commitment and an active national population education program, widely available FP services, and widespread improvements in economic and social conditions, particularly for women. The several billion dollars/year needed from industrialized countries should be considered a "downpayment on the future."
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  12. 12
    074906

    World resources 1992-93.

    World Resources Institute; United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]; United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1992. xiv, 385 p.

    The World Resources Institute, the UN Environment Programme, and the UN Development Programme collaborate to produce the World Resources series to provide organizations and individuals with accessible and accurate information on the trends and conditions of natural resources and protection of the environment. This information is needed to reach sustainable development, eliminate poverty, improve the standard of living, and preserve biological life-sustaining systems. This 5th volume stresses sustainable development as does the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. Part I, entitled Sustainable Development, includes an overview chapter and 3 case studies of possible means to achieve sustainable development in industrialized countries, low income countries, and rapidly industrializing countries. Part II focuses on one region of the world, Central Europe, to discuss how it was able to degrade the environment, the magnitude of the damage, and what possible steps to take to ameliorate the situation. Part III addresses basic conditions and trends, key issues, major problems and efforts to resolve them, and recent developments in population and human development, food and agriculture, forests and rangelands, wildlife and habitat, energy, freshwater, oceans and coasts, atmosphere and climate, and policies and institutions (governmental and nongovernmental organizations). Part IV lists core and supporting data from the World Resources Data Base. This volume contains an index and a World Resources Data Base index.
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  13. 13
    077777

    Major impact: a global population policy can advance human development in the 21st century.

    McNamara RS

    INTEGRATION. 1992 Dec; (34):8-17.

    In Tokyo, Japan, former president of the World Bank, Robert McNamara, addressed the Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute Symposium in April 1992. He reiterated a statement he made during his first presentation as president of the World Bank in September 1968--rapid population growth is the leading obstacle to economic growth and social well-being for people living in developing countries. He called for both developed and developing countries to individually and collectively take immediate action to reduce population growth rates, otherwise coercive action will be needed. Rapid population growth prevents countries from achieving sustainable development and jeopardizes our physical environment. It also exacerbates poverty, does not improve the role and status of women, adversely affects the health of children, and does not allow children a chance at a quality life. Even if developing countries were to quickly adopt replacement level fertility rates, high birth rates in the recent past prevent them from reducing fast population growth for decades. For example, with more than 60% of females in Kenya being at least 19 years old (in Sweden they represent just 23%), the population would continue to grow rapidly for 70 years if immediate reduction to replacement level fertility occurred. Mr. McNamara emphasized than any population program must center on initiating or strengthening extensive family planning programs and increasing the rate of economic and social progress. Successful family planning programs require diverse enough family planning services and methods to meet the needs of various unique populations, stressing of family planning derived health benefits to women and children, participation of both the public and private sectors, and political commitment. McNamara calculated that a global family planning program for the year 2000 would cost about US$8 billion. He added that Japan should increase its share of funds to population growth reduction efforts.
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  14. 14
    075500

    Population crisis and desertification in the Sudano-Sahelian region.

    Milas S

    ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION. 1984 Summer; 11(2):167-9.

    People living in the area just south of the Sahara Desert in Africa face their 3rd major drought since 1900. This drought brings about famine. Drought and famine are only manifestations of more profound problems: soil erosion and degradation. They diminish land productivity which aggravates the population's poverty. Yet soil erosion and degradation occur due to an expanding population. Continued pressures on the land and soil degradation results in desertification. The UN Environment Programme's Assessment of the Status and Trend of Desertification shows that between 1978-84 desertification spread. Expanding deserts now endanger 35% of the world's land and 20% of the population. In the thorn bush savanna zone, most people are subsistence farmers or herdsmen and rely on the soils, forests, and rangelands. Even though the mean population density in the Sahel is low, it is overpopulated since people concentrate in areas where water is available. These areas tend to be cities where near or total deforestation has already occurred. Between 1959-84, the population in the Sahel doubled so farmers have extended cultivation into marginal areas which are vulnerable to desertification. The livestock populations have also grown tremendously resulting in overgrazing and deforestation. People must cook their food which involves cutting down trees for fuelwood. Mismanagement of the land is the key cause for desertification, but the growing poor populations have no choice but to eke out an existence on increasingly marginal lands. Long fallow periods would allow the land to regain its fertility, but with the ever-increasing population this is almost impossible. Humans caused desertification. We can improve land use and farming methods to stop it.
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  15. 15
    075486

    [Burkina Faso] Burkina Faso.

    Nacro K; Kabore M

    [Gland, Switzerland], International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN], 1989 Oct. [5], 42, [50] p. (Etude de Cas en Population et Ressources Naturelles)

    The agroforestry project (AFP) of Yatenga province in Burkina Faso incorporates the conservation of natural resources, demographic problems, and community participation. The AFP, financed by OXFAM (Oxford Committee for Famine Relief), is concerned with the fight against desertification for the restoration of soil. The villages of Longa and Ranawa were surveyed among numerous villages where AFP was carried out in Yatenga province. In 1985 the population of the country number 7.9 million people with an annual growth rate of 2.6%; in 1989 it reached 8.8 million. Mortality is 144/1000, the average is 6.5 children/woman, average life expectancy is 46 years, and only 8% live in urban areas. In 1985 there were 1283 inhabitants in Ranawa with 172 households; Longa had 730 inhabitants; and in both mossi ethnicity and Islam religion predominated. The inception of AFP lay in the drought of 1968-73 that resulted in destruction of forests, pasturage was overgrazed, and erosion followed. The 1979-82 phase involved research on techniques of conservation of water and soil with community participation. The 1982-86 phase was committed to the popularization of these techniques. The 1987-89 phase included application of measures and agricultural utilization. A total of 2790 peasants were trained in 406 villages during 1979-88. 190 hectares (ha) were improved in Ranawa and 100 ha in Longa out of a total of 5227 ha restored. A questionnaire was administered to 34 people to evaluate AFP performance and included OXFAM managers, AFP managers, 7 government and nongovernment managing staff, 22 members of focal groups, and agents of regional agropastural promotion centers. The achievements of AFP were encouraging, but insufficient human and financial resources, lack of initiative by the beneficiaries, and the need for methodological improvement were limiting factors.
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  16. 16
    075066

    Conclusion: findings and policy implications.

    Gillis M; Repetto R

    In: Public policies and the misuse of forest resources, edited by Robert Repetto, Malcolm Gillis. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1988. 385-410. (World Resources Institute Book)

    The World Resources Institute has compiled 12 case studies on public policies from developed and developing countries and the misuse of forest resources into 1 book. All of the studies confirm that 3 key products of population growth and rural poverty in developing countries are responsible for deforestation. These products include shifting cultivation, agricultural conversion, and fuelwood gathering. Large development projects also foster forest destruction. Government policies contribute to and exacerbate these pressures which result in inefficient use of natural forest resources. Such policies directly and indirectly undermine conservation, regional development schemes, and other socioeconomic goals. Forestry policies include timber harvest concessions, levels and structures of royalties and fees, utilization of nonwood forests products, and reforestation. Tax incentives, credit subsidies, and resettlement programs comprise examples of nonforestry policies. Trade barriers established by industrialized countries have somewhat encouraged unsuitable investments and patterns of exploitation in forest industries in developing countries. Negotiations between exporting and importing countries within the confines of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) should strive to reduce tariff escalation and nontariff barriers to processed wood imports from tropical countries and to justify incentives to forest industries in developing countries. These 12 case studies have come to the same conclusion as the UN Food and Agriculture Organization did in 1987: action to conserve forests is needed without delay.
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  17. 17
    075116

    The "other indigenous" peoples of the Sarawak.

    Chai M

    Development. 1992; (2):56-61.

    Several indigenous minorities living in Sarawak, Malaysia have been protesting against state-backed development agencies, logging and mining companies, and their own state-appointed community leaders since the beginning of the 1980s by signature campaigns and sabotaging machinery in development projects. A 7-month long blockade by Kayan, Kenyah, and Penan tribes against logging activities on their land in 187 resulted in the arrests of 42 members. In August 190 an indigenous group of 24 (mostly females) were detained, and in June 1991 human blockades across logging tracks involved >500 indigenous people, most of them women. According to the population census the aboriginal people are the Orang Asli who constitute only .7% of the population, while other indigenous groups make up 5.3% of Sarawak's total population of 1.3 million. Social relations organized around Islam and Christianity contribute to the unfortunate situation of the indigenous. These communities are engaged in litigations with state development agencies and logging/mining companies over native land tenure rights and compensation for destruction of their forests and the arrests of their members. REcently human rights and environmental organizations have managed to put their case on the agenda of the European Parliament, of the Commonwealth Heads of States Conference, and of the US House of Representatives. Demonstrations on behalf of Sarawak's indigenous minorities by environmentalists and tribal working groups at the Group of Seven Economic Summit in London and at the Malaysian embassies resulted in international media coverage. The European Community with the backing of the International Tropical Timber Organization proposed a ban of Malaysian tropical hardwood imports by 1995 and an $8.5 million aid package to Sarawak for resettlement of natives. Meanwhile logging, mining, and state-sponsored projects continue to displace the indigenous people.
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  18. 18
    075494

    The disappearing forests.

    Clarke R

    Nairobi, Kenya, United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP], [1988]. [8] p. (UNEP Environment Brief No. 3)

    2,970 million hectares of tropical forests comprise 20% of the land surface, almost all of which lie in developing countries. 11.3 million hectares of tropical forest vanish each year, however. 26.5% of the world's tropical forests are in Brazil. Other countries with many tropical forests are Zaire (9.2%); and Peru, Angola, Bolivia, and India; each with 3%. Expansion of agricultural land is the leading cause of deforestation. More specifically it is shortened fallow periods which cause deforestation. In developing countries, forests are especially valuable because they fulfill many subsistence needs of rural dwellers (e.g., fuelwood, nuts, fruit, medicines, and ropes), conserve water and soil, provide people with industrial products and thus foreign exchange, and hold genetic resources. The world needs to work together to wisely manage tropical forests on a sustainable basis. Governments must reassess existing policies that favor agricultural development and rapid forest exploitation. Small-scale projects in which local people especially women plan the work with qualified foresters and execute it tend to be successful. 3 UN agencies prepared a global plan of action for the wise management of tropical forests, but they could not persuade 21 nations with tropical forests such as Brazil, Burma, Colombia, and Zaire to adopt it. A new global plan developed by 2 of those agencies, UN Development Programme and the World Bank, and the World Resources Institute appears to have more potential for success. Development agencies, international lending organizations, governments, and the private sector will invest US$8,000 million in topical forests over 5 years. Most of the 21 nations have agreed to take part in the plan. The areas of investment include fuelwood and agroforestry, land use on upland watersheds, management for industrial uses, and conservation.
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  19. 19
    071713
    Peer Reviewed

    Population, development, and tropical deforestation: a cross-national study.

    Rudel TK

    RURAL SOCIOLOGY. 1989 Fall; 54(3):327-38.

    A cross-sectional analysis using data from 36 countries with tropical forests found in the 1982 Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Programme deforestation study was conducted to examined the role population growth and capital availability play in deforestation. The unweighted analysis using data from all 36 countries found population growth to significantly account for the variations in tropical deforestation (p<.05); its significance was even greater when data from Guinea-Bissau was removed from the analysis (p<.01). Rural population growth contributed directly to deforestation by increasing the population which clears the land and indirectly by increasing the demand for wood products (p<.001). Gross national product (GNP) did not play a substantial role in deforestation in the unweighted analyses, but it did in the weighted analyses (p<.01). Since the weighted analyses exaggerated the significance of countries with large rain forests, this result suggested an interaction between forest size and the effects of capital availability on deforestation. Moreover, the correlation between GNP per capita and the area deforested for the 8 countries with the largest tropical forests stood at .575 compared with .011 for the 28 countries with small forests. Wood and agricultural exports did not account much for the variation in the extent of deforestation. the demand for tropical hardwoods did not contribute much to the rapid deforestation in African and Latin American countries, buy did in the Southeast Asian countries. Export agriculture did not account for deforestation in African and Amazon basin countries, but did play a role in deforestation in Central America. It is concluded that the efficacy of policies to preserve rain forests will depend on the size of the forest.
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  20. 20
    071607

    Progress report on UNRISD activities 1990/1991.

    United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNRISD, 1991. [6], 61 p.

    Progress in implementing the research program and related activities of the UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) between July 1990 through June 1991 is described. An autonomous institution within the UN, UNRISD seeks to promote research on pressing problems and contemporary social issues associated with development. UNRISD Director Dharam Ghai explains that the Institute takes a holistic, interdisciplinary, and political economy approach in its research programs. Some of the highlights of 1990-91 are described, as well as UNRISD's progress in 8 general areas of research. The first category of research is that of 1) environment, sustainable development and social change, and area that includes the following subtopics: resource management, deforestation, women and their environment, and the socioeconomic dimensions of environment and sustainable development. The remaining general categories include: 2) crisis, adjustment, and social change; 3) participation and changes in property relations in communist and postcommunist societies; 4) ethnic conflict and development; and 5) political violence and social movements; 6) refugees, returnees, and local society: interaction and development; 7) socioeconomic and political impact of production, trade, and use of illicit narcotic drugs; and 8) patterns of consumption: qualitative indicators of development. A list of all publications during the year is included as well as a list of all board and staff members.
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  21. 21
    066424

    Population growth can prevent the development that would slow population growth.

    Keyfitz N

    In: Preserving the global environment: the challenge of shared leadership, edited by Jessica T. Mathews. New York, New York/London, England, W. W. Norton, 1991. 39-77.

    The thesis that human population growth will eventually destroy the equilibrium of the world ecosystem, because environmental strain is a nonlinear effect of the linear growth, is embellished with discussions of technology and resulting pollution, population dynamics, birth and death rates, effects of expanded education, causes of urbanization, time constraints and destabilizing effects of partial development and the debt crisis. It is suggested that the terms renewable and nonrenewable resources are paradoxical, since the nonrenewable resoureces such as minerals will always exist, while renewable ecosystems and species are limited. The competitive economy actually accelerates destruction of biological resoureces because it overvalues rare species when they have crossed the equilibrium threshold and are in decline. Technological outputs are proportional to population numbers: therefore adverse effects of population should be considered in billions, not percent increase even though it is declining. Even the United Nations does not have predictions of the effects of added billions, taking into account improved survival and decreased infant mortality. Rapid urbanization of developing countries and their debt crisis have resulted from political necessity from the point of view of governments in power, rather than mere demographics. Recommendations are suggested for U.S. policy based on these points such as enlightened political leadership, foreign aid, and scientific investment with the health of the world ecosystem in mind rather than spectacle and local political ideology.
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  22. 22
    059418

    Development and the environment: a global balance.

    Conable BB

    [Unpublished] 1989. Presented at the Conference on Global Environment and Human Response toward Sustainable Development, Tokyo, Japan, September 11, 1989. 11 p.

    With the installation of Barner B. Conable as President of the World Bank, the Bank began to incorporate the environmental effects of development projects into its loan decisions. It has also augmented loans for environmental, population, and forestry projects. In 1988, >100 projects with important environmental elements (35% of all Bank and IDA projects) were approved, the majority of which were in agriculture. The Bank has expected the percentage of such projects to increase annually. Further, to assist the countries and the Bank in considering environmental concerns in the beginning stage of designing development projects, the Bank has developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines. The Bank has taken on a formidable task, however, since its primary purpose is to reduce poverty which often conflicts with protecting the environment. Its leadership believes that the 2 goals are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and, if they are to be achieved, the problems must be clearly defined and all the countries of the world must work towards solutions to benefit the global community. Additionally, the Bank has begun to encourage developing countries to switch to cleaner fuels, processes, and systems to curtail global warming. It also monitors research on carbon dioxide, methane, and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, all of which contribute to the greenhouse effect, and on climatic change. The Bank has recognized, however, that improvement in the environment cannot occur fast enough, at the rate the earth's population is increasing. Therefore it continues to fund family planning and health projects.
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